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FADS 

AND QUACKERY 
IN HEALING 


AN ANALYSIS OF THE FOIBLES 
OF THE HEALING CULTS, WITH ESSAYS 
ON VARIOUS OTHER PECULIAR NOTIONS 
IN THE HEALTH FIELD 


BY 

MORRIS FISHBEIN, M.D. 

Editor of The Journal of the American Medical Association 
and of Hygeia, the Health Magazine 


NEW YORK 

COVICI, FRIEDE, PUBLISHERS 
1932 



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COPYRIGHT, I932, BY MORRIS FISHBEIN 


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PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 
BY J. J. LITTLE & IVES COMPANY, NEW YORK 
DESIGNED BY ROBERT S. JOSEPHY 



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Dedicated to 






DR. LUDVIG HEKTOEN 


DIRECTOR OF THE McCORMICK INSTITUTE 
FOR INFECTIOUS DISEASES, 

WHO, AS PRECEPTOR, ENCOURAGED ME 
TO THINK CAREFULLY AND TO WRITE 
— AS APPEARS LATER, 

and to 


DR. GEORGE H. SIMMONS 

EDITOR AND GENERAL MANAGER EMERITUS 
AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION, 

WHOSE UNRELENTING AND COURAGEOUS WARFARE 
AGAINST MEDICAL QUACKERY 
HAS BEEN AN INSPIRATION 
TO HIS SUCCESSORS. 



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PREFACE 


T his book has been developed largely from 
the material included in the books called 
“The Medical Follies” and “The New Med- 
ical Follies.” Many of the essays appear here 
for the first time. The chapters have been 
arranged so as to trace the logical evolution 
of quackery from the earliest times to such 
master minds as exploit public weaknesses 
today through the mail and on the radio. 

MORRIS FISHBEIN 


Chicago, June i, 1932. 



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TABLE OF CONTENTS 


PREFACE V 

I. THE EVOLUTION OF MEDICAL QUACKERY 1 

II. ELISHA PERKINS AND HIS WONDERFUL TRACTORS 9 

III. THE RISE AND FALL OF HOMEOPATHY 1 9 

IV. THE END OF ECLECTICISM 30 

V. FROM THE BEGINNING OF MIND HEALING TO 

CHRISTIAN SCIENCE - 44 

VI. OFFSHOOTS OF FAITH HEALING 65 

VII. OSTEOPATHY 76 

VIII. CHIROPRACTIC 98 

IX. NATUROPATHY AND ITS PROFESSORS 1 1 7 

X. THE QUACKERY OF ALBERT ABRAMS 1 40 

XI. “PHYSICAL CULTURE,” BERNARR MACFADDEN 

AND GLUTTONS FOR EXERCISE 1 56 

XII. THE BIG MUSCLE BOYS 166 

XIII. THE ANTI VIVISECTION 1ST AND ANIMAL EXPERI- 

MENTATION 1 80 

XIV. FADS IN HEALTH LEGISLATION 1 9 1 

XV. THE CULT OF BEAUTY 210 



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XVI. REJUVENATION 228 

XVII. THE PROBLEM OF BIRTH CONTROL 242 

XVIII. SOME FOOD FADS 252 

XIX. WHAT AMERICA DRINKS 279 

XX. LIGHT, HEAT AND ELECTRICITY 29O 

XXL MEDICINE AND THE PRESS 309 

XXII. MEDICAL ADVERTISING AND PROPAGANDA 327 

XXIII. PSYCHOANALYSIS 344 

XXIV. CHOOSING A PHYSICIAN 365 

index 373 



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FADS AND QUACKERY 
IN HEALING 



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I 


THE EVOLUTION 
OF MEDICAL QUACKERY 


"It is true that the scientific reasons for preferring one piece of 
evidence to another are sometimes very strong , but they are never 
strong enough to outweigh our passions , our prejudices , our in- 
terests . . .” — Anatole France in the preface to tr Penguin Island.” 


I n times of great stress, of pain or of sorrow, the human 
being recants all that he may have learned of science and 
of truth and resorts to incantation and to prayer. He is ready 
to grasp at any cure or suggestion that may be offered to him 
for the alleviation of his travail, never stopping to inquire as 
to the motives of those who would heal him or as to the basis 
on which their claims may rest. He is, in other words, but a 
poor weak mortal, whose judgment is modified by any strong 
circumstance that may chance to sway him. 

Most primitive peoples explain disease as the seizure of 
the body by demonic or evil influences. Obviously the cure 
of disease, if the theory be accepted, rests on the conjuring 
of the demon from the body. Thus arose the belief in the 
healing powers of the priest craft and in the value of the 
incantation or the prayer that the priest might utter. Thus, 
too, came the determination of the remarkable virtues that 
seem to be inherent in the laying on of hands, for the priests 
and the medicine men and the healers of all types soon found 
that the incantation or suggestion, accompanied by physical 
contact, was far more efficacious than the simple prayer in 
securing results. 

As Maddox indicated in his study of The Medicine Man, 

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the notion of a divine call to the work of representing heaven 
on earth is not peculiar to any one age, race, religion, or 
civilization. The healers of the savage tribes were convinced 
that their powers came to them from a divine source. It is 
not surprising to learn, as is shown later, that leaders of our 
modern medical cults likewise believe themselves to be di- 
vinely inspired. 

The human being craves miracles. Not satisfied with the 
actual achievements of medical science, which are in them- 
selves miraculous, he searches in the realm of the unknown 
for manifestations that he cannot understand. An eminent 
American philosopher, P. T. Barnum, remarked that there 
is born in this country one sucker every minute. This state- 
ment was improved by Joseph Jastrow of the University of 
Wisconsin, who said that there is a crook born every hour 
to take care of sixty suckers. This ratio has existed since the 
beginning of time, and is not likely to change in the future 
even with the birth of a great many eugenic babies. 

There are three fields in which all human beings are 
credulous — money, matrimony, and medicine. Periods of 
financial inflation bring thousands of lambs to be fleeced in 
Wall Street; after the depression, a new group develops 
ready for the next inflation. For matrimony, there is Reno. 
Health once lost is regained only with great difficulty and 
no medical scientist really believes in raising from the dead. 

The medicine man of the savage tribe was frequently 
marked by some mental or physical peculiarity, such as 
hunchback, gigantic size, a powerful voice, or some similar 
divergence from normality. Leaders of modern cults are also 
the possessors of magnetic personalities that mark them 
early in their careers as not quite usual in their habits of 
thought. The healer is likely to have a great deal of that 
quality that is called “it” in Hollywood. 

The charlatans are not all in medicine. Regardless of the 
field in which they operate, they are marked by certain 
definite characteristics. They are likely to be persons of 
striking appearance. They are likely to have after their 
names long lists of abbreviations, constituting an alphabetical 

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THE EVOLUTION OF MEDICAL QUACKERY 

appendage indicating the possession of degrees of knowledge 
never conferred upon them by any university. Indeed, in 
many instances these alphabetical combinations indicate 
membership in organizations founded by the charlatan with 
the sole motive of personal election to a high office, in order 
that the name, the title, and the false impression may be 
available. The charlatan may begin self-deluded as to the 
powers which he possesses, but sooner or later he finds that 
he does not have these powers. He then proceeds consciously 
deluding those who follow him. Soon he has accumulated a 
considerable group of persons who are convinced of his 
sincerity, and he is in a blind alley from which he cannot 
depart. His followers hold him to his leadership. History 
records but few charlatans who voluntarily gave up their 
evil ways and embarked on successful, honest careers. 

The people who follow the charlatan are not all ignorant. 
They include frequently some of the leaders of their com- 
munities. The cultist’s follower is marked by excessive devo- 
tion to some person, idea, or thing which is pursued as an 
intellectual fad. Among the leading followers of cultists of 
various types have been such persons as Henry Ward 
Beecher, Julia Ward Howe, and John Brown, who were 
addicted to phrenology; Emerson who dabbled with the- 
osophy; William James who practiced Fletcherization, and 
Upton Sinclair who has been devoted to most of the strange 
notions in health that have crossed the horizon in the last 
twenty years. Indeed, one finds among the givers of testi- 
monials authors, actors, senators, congressmen, governors, 
journalists, and perhaps particularly the intelligentsia, 
characterized as ‘‘educated beyond their intellect. ,, 

The oldest available medical records are found in the 
Edwin Smith papyrus some twelve centuries before the 
Christian era. From that time until the time of the ancient 
Greeks there was little available in the way of scientific 
medicine. Then came the time of Hippocrates, Galen, and 
Celsus, who were concerned with the observation of natural 
phenomena and with the recording of the natural history 
of disease. At that very time there were two schools of medi- 

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cine in Greece, first the school of Hippocrates on the island 
of Cos, from which emanated the historical texts and the 
famous case reports; and second the temple of Aesculapius, 
medical god of healing, at Epidaurus. The cases reported in 
the Hippocratic texts refer frequently to patients who de- 
veloped diseases from which they died. So accurately are the 
symptoms described that it is possible for a modern physician 
to make a diagnosis in the light of modern knowledge. The 
cases described on the pillars of the temple at Epidaurus 
are, however, magical and mysterious. There is, for instance, 
the record of the lady who came to the temple and asked 
that she might conceive. It was granted to her, but though 
a year passed no progeny came upon the scene. She returned 
to the temple and again repeated her request, this time 
asking, however, to have a child. This being granted to her, 
she at once gave birth to a boy six years old who walked 
around and congratulated his mother on her exceptional 
performance. Here, obviously, is magic, the record of an 
incident that never could have occurred. 

In this connection it may be well to say that the Biblical 
records of healing and of raising from the dead are, no 
doubt, accurate accounts of incidents by eyewitnesses who 
failed, however, to interpret what they saw. There are 
numerous records in modern medicine of patients who lapse 
into trance states and who, being recalled out of such states 
by the power of suggestion, arise and go about their daily 
affairs. To the modern informed physician such risings from 
apparent death are not miracles, because they are perfectly 
understood. To the uninformed observer of more than 
nineteen hundred years ago, such an incident might well 
appear to have been “a raising from the dead.” 

Following the time of the ancient Greeks came the period 
known as the dark ages of medical science when men were 
much more concerned with their souls than with their 
bodies, not realizing that a healthful soul exists usually in a 
healthful body. The Middle Ages saw the development of 
anatomy and physiology and of a science of medicine based 
on observation. 

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Whenever a new discovery is made in any field of science 
there is always an inspired charlatan ready to capitalize the 
discovery for his personal gain. When the Leyden jar was 
discovered in Holland, the beginning of our knowledge of 
electricity brought a prompt adaptation of this knowledge 
to the cure of disease. 


JOHN GRAHAM 

Among the first of the charlatans to adapt electric healing 
was the famous John Graham of England. His temple of 
health, established in London in 1745, was devoted largely 
to the promotion of the sale of his elixir of life. It is said 
that there stood outside his temple a statue of Hygeia, the 
mythical goddess of health, and inside the temple a statue of 
Venus. One might see Hygeia for nothing, but the payment 
of a shilling was necessary if one wished to see Venus. Inside 
the temple was sold the elixir of life, and there also was the 
famous celestial bed. The celestial bed was used primarily 
for the cure of sterility. Those desiring posterity to carry on 
their work could sleep one night in the bed on payment of 
250 pounds. The bed was connected with electric coils. It 
was placed in a room in which, rumor has it, soft music was 
played, incense was sprayed about, and colored lights added 
to the interest of the scene. No doubt, a pleasant time was 
had by all. Graham spoke of himself as John Graham, 
servant of the Lord, O.W.L. The phrase “servant of the 
Lord” indicates his belief in divine inspiration. The term 
“O.W.L.” had nothing to do with a similar abbreviation 
used during the war, indicating that a soldier was tempora- 
rily absent on business in Paris. It referred instead to the 
words “Oh! Wonderful Love!” The phrase is reminiscent, 
obviously, of the catchword of modern mental healing called 
Christian Science; namely, “God is love.” 

Within every religious healing cult of which record can 
be found, there are concepts concerning three of the funda- 
mental interests of mankind; namely, sex, hunger, and spirit- 
ualjbeliefr. Every church has its special concern with these 
three interests. The Jewish belief of an earlier day had 

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definite rules regulating sexual relationships, many of them 
founded on superstition; definite restrictions on diet, and 
spiritual power on which one might lean in times of doubt 
and stress. The strange healing cults which sprang up in 
the United States following the Revolutionary War provided 
similar principles and regulations. 

In his interesting analysis of the life of Elmer Gantry, 
Sinclair Lewis repeatedly indicates the intimate relationship 
between sexual interest and spiritual belief. Indeed, the 
phrase which Elmer so frequently repeats is that famous 
citation from the speech of Robert Ingersoll having to do 
with the power of love. The record of Aimee Semple Mc- 
Pherson Hutton is a modern exemplification of sex appeal 
in the pulpit. 

MRS. MAPP 

Perhaps the appearance in London in 1736 of Mrs. Mapp, 
the first recorded bonesetter, is another example of leader- 
ship from the feminine point of view in extraordinary heal- 
ing. The record of Mrs. Mapp appears in an interesting 
text by C. J. S. Thompson called Quacks of Old London . 
The eminent lady bonesetter had a great following among 
the nobility, and she did well with her peculiar medical 
practice until one of her confiding patients was jerked into 
“kingdom come.” 

PARACELSUS 

In the fifteenth century there appeared in Switzerland a 
strange figure, a man so important that Robert Browning 
wrote an epic poem concerning him, and Schnitzler a play. 
The great medical historian, Karl Sudhoff, is issuing a new 
edition of his works, and many men have compiled his 
biography. His father was a physician, his mother a nurse. 
He called himself Paracelsus to indicate his belief that he 
was the peer, if not greater than Celsus, the great Roman 
physician. Knowing the value of a high sounding title, he 
gradually added to his given name, which was itself no mean 
mouthful, namely, Theophrastus von Hohenheim, and he 
became finally Aureolus Philippus Theophrastus Bombastus 

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von Hohenheim ab Paracelsus. From the term “Bombastus” 
comes, no doubt, our modern word “bombast,” which re- 
ferred to the manner of speech of the charlatan. 

This Paracelsus knew much about the uses of metals in 
the human body. He wrote many works of a mystical 
character. He traveled widely. He drew attention to the fact 
that in a certain monastery in Carinthia the monks would 
distract the concentration of the ailing from their ailments 
by causing them to gaze on some brilliant object. He may 
perhaps be. credited with having written some of the first 
scientific observations on the power of suggestion. 



FRANZ ANTON MESMER 

The year 1778 brings to light the famous Franz Anton 
Mesmer, the founder of Mesmerism or animal magnetism. 
He appeared in Paris as the famous Viennese physician. Of 
striking appearance and full of talent, he rapidly accumulated 
a circle of friends by the magnetism of his wit, his ability 
to play the piano, and his skill on the harmonica. Mesmer 
developed in Paris a temple of animal magnetism. In the 
center stood a large oaken tub full of bottles of water resting 
on layers of powdered glass and iron filings. From each 
bottle of water led a little iron rod. The patients sat in 
concentric circles bound together by a cord which looped 
around them and passed back to the tub. Here, obviously, 
is a resemblance to the galvanic cell. The setting was such 
as invariably enhanced the power of suggestion — stained 
glass, dimmed lights of mysterious hue, incense sprayed 
about, dark draperies, and hushed voices. Mesmer and his 
associates passed about the circle pointing rods to the places 
where disease was supposed to rest, or applying their own 
magnetic hands directly to the bodies of patients with obsti- 
nate diseases. Cripples cast away their crutches, the sick 
announced themselves cured of their diseases, and the 
women, aroused to ecstasy, fell into convulsions in such 
numbers that it was necessary to place next to the large hall 
smaller places known as salles des crises or “halls of fits,” 

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into which they might be taken until they had recovered their 
equilibrium and could be brought back to the circle. 

Soon Mesmer and his associates found that certain patients 
undergoing the manipulations did best when in a state 
known today as a dream state or hypnotic state, in which 
condition they were more suggestible. Later he tried to ex- 
plain how this result was accomplished. It remained for 
Charcot and Moll and other students of hypnotism to bring 
about a more definite understanding of this phenomenon. 

Disciples of Mesmer came from far and wide to study 
under his direction and, having learned the art from their 
master, departed to spread the knowledge of Mesmerism or 
animal magnetism throughout the world. Temples of mag- 
netic healing were established in many cities in France. 
Some disciples came to the United States and set up in this 
country their temples of healing; others traveled about 
giving demonstrations in animal magnetism, predicting the 
future, finding lost objects, and in other ways discrediting 
the beginning of an actual scientific knowledge that its dis- 
coverers themselves were unable to comprehend. Out of this 
atmosphere came the first great American charlatan, Elisha 
Perkins. 


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II 


ELISHA PERKINS 

AND HIS WONDERFUL TRACTORS 


"Because it is incompetent, the multitude will not feel its incom- 
petence, and will not seek or defer to the counsels of those who pos- 
sess the requisite capacity ” — Bryce, " The American Commonwealth ” 


T he story of quackery is a never-ending tale: theorist after 
theorist propounds new gospels of healing and passes 
at last into that beyond which remains the great unsolved 
problem. False prophet after false prophet arises, surrounds 
himself with fanatical followers, builds himself a sort of 
distinction while he lolls in the lap of luxury, and then 
departs this mundane realm, leaving it a sadder if not a 
wiser world. Indeed, as one reads the roll of the fakers, he 
becomes well nigh convinced of the doctrine of the transmi- 
gration of souls. The same old stories are told in the same 
old way, with only the addition of new wrinkles based on 
modern discoveries; the same old green goods is wrapped up 
and delivered to the yokelry, city and country bred, who 
deposit their shekels in the cash drawer; the same old come- 
on men sit at the feet of the master dispenser of hokum to 
learn the technique, that they too may go forth in the high- 
ways and byways and become minor prophets in their own 
right. Among the first of these was one Dr. Elisha Perkins, 
student of Yale, well respected country practitioner of Nor- 
wich, Connecticut, inventor of the famous metallic tractors. 

In 1796 electricity was much more a mystery than it is 
today. Of course a young fellow named Benjamin Franklin 

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had done some kite-flying experiments, but no one yet 
dreamed of electric trolley cars or of incandescent lights or 
of the radio. Electricity was an unseen but powerful force, 
understood by no one, uncontrollable, undoubtedly having 
effects on metals and on human tissues. It is of such stuffs 
that nostrums and quackery are made. 

On January 16, 1741, there was born in Norwich, Con- 
necticut, a young man who, at the height of his powers, was 
six feet tall, of remarkable symmetry, kindly, sympathetic, 
and magnetic; who could ride sixty miles a day “without the 
use of ardent spirits,” and who could get along with three to 
four hours’ rest at night. Of such stuff are great quacks, great 
evangelists, great physicians, and great men made. Un- 
fortunately no one has yet been able to determine whether 
Elisha Perkins was merely a somewhat deluded physician 
or actually a great impostor. Of his son’s motives, there can, 
however, be little doubt. 

Elisha Perkins, after completing his study of medicine, 
developed a satisfactory and competent practice. He became 
a well recognized physician in every sense of those words. 
Indeed, he was chairman of the Windham County Medical 
Society, and one of their delegates to the meeting of the 
Connecticut Medical Society in 1795. These points are 
emphasized, for a strange similarity will be noted by the 
persistent reader in an account of the life of one Albert 
Abrams, who is dealt with later in this volume. It was as a 
delegate to the meeting of the state society that Elisha 
Perkins reported his discovery. The historians of the day 
report that it was received “by some with doubt and caution 
and by others even with contempt.’’ 

Briefly, Dr. Elisha Perkins had figured out that metallic 
substances influence nerves and muscles. He noted a sudden 
contraction of a muscle, if the point of a metallic instrument 
came into contact with it during an operation. He observed 
that pain stops when a metallic instrument is used to separate 
the gum from a tooth previous to extracting the tooth. From 
this he derived the view that metals might have an influence 
if applied to the body externally. After experimenting with 

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various metals he developed the famous tractors. These con- 
sisted of two rods of brass and iron, about three inches long, 
rounded at one end and pointed at the other. One side was 
half round and the other was flat; and on the flat side was 
stamped “Perkins’ Patent Tractors.” The little metallic de- 
vices were made by Perkins in a small furnace concealed in 
the wall of his house by sliding panels. One was supposed to 
be composed of copper, zinc and a little gold, and the other 
of iron with some silver and platinum. As has been said, 
they were probably just brass and iron. In any event one 
authority asserts that they cost a shilling a pair to manu- 
facture and they sold for five guineas. 

With these tractors, if one believed the claim of Dr. 
Perkins, disease could be drawn from the body. In some 
cases it was customary to draw the instrument from the 
pained part to the extremities. In obstinate cases Dr. Perkins 
suggested the necessity of friction upon the part till there 
was redness with inflammation. It was important that the 
tractors be drawn downward, for drawing them upward 
might intensify the disease. For headache one could draw 
them from the skin of the forehead to the back of the head 
and down the neck, but Perkins was careful to add that “the 
headache that arises from drinking to excess, it does not al- 
ways cure.” 

As has been said, the state medical society was inclined to 
be somewhat skeptical of the claims of Elisha Perkins; in- 
deed, it was of the belief that the use of the tractors was 
essentially a revival of animal magnetism, the form of 
hypnotic suggestion introduced by Mesmer, and known as 
Mesmerism. But Perkins was not daunted; he took his dis- 
covery to Philadelphia. There, as is told by Dr. Walter R. 
Steiner, in an excellent study of the life of Perkins, the 
Connecticut physician met with a most enthusiastic recep- 
tion. All the hospitals, poorhouses, and infirmaries received 
him with open arms. “Diseases of the most obstinate nature, 
which had baffled medical art, were removed by the metallic 
tractors, and many persons of an advanced age, who had been 

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crippled for years with chronic rheumatism, were, in several 
instances, perfectly cured.” 

The healing of the crippled, particularly those who cannot 
walk because of rheumatism, is regularly accomplished and 
cited to the point of monotony by all of the variegated forms 
of faith healing. It was exactly such a case that received the 
attention of Emile Cou£, autosuggestionist, on his visit to 
the United States. A woman with chronic rheumatism, who 
had made no effort to walk in many years, arose at the urging 
of Coue and paraded across the stage of the theater, to the 
terrific applause of the credulous, who had yielded one 
dollar each to witness the miracle. A brief week later the 
ancient cripple’s weakened heart tissue succumbed to her 
unusual efforts and she departed her rheumatism and her 
terrestrial existence simultaneously. 

Continuing with Dr. Steiner’s narrative, we learn that 
Congress was in session when Dr. Perkins arrived in Phila- 
delphia and that he took that distinguished body of thinkers 
by storm. It is reported that a gentleman of Virginia sold his 
plantation and took his pay for it in tractors. George Wash- 
ington purchased a set for the use of his family and the Chief 
Justice of the United States, the Hon. Oliver Ellsworth, 
gave Perkins a letter of introduction to John Marshall, his 
successor. Ellsworth does not appear to have been altogether 
convinced; nevertheless he wrote: “In some cases the effects 
wrought are not easily ascribable to imagination, great and 
delusive as is its power.” 

THE TESTIMONIAL 

We know today the amount of reliance that is to be placed 
on the testimonials of the great in matters of this kind. It 
is reported that Alice Roosevelt Longworth sells her por- 
trait to a cold cream company for five thousand dollars. The 
Honorable “Billy Mason,” congressman, testified to the vir- 
tues of Nuxated Iron, as did also the renowned Jack Demp- 
sey. When Sanatogen, a glorified cottage cheese, was making 
its bow to the American public, artists, statesmen, tragedians 
and litterateurs vied with one another in singing its praises. 

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ELISHA PERKINS AND HIS WONDERFUL TRACTORS 

Alas! today this combination of casein and glycerophosphates 
no longer holds forth as the magic formula that will save the 
nation’s great from neurasthenia! If only the public knew 
that testimonials for almost anything can be bought in bun- 
dles of five thousand from New York firms that profit by 
their purchase from derelict promoters of nostrums and by 
their sales to the exploiters of new devices, our possessors 
of fame and notoriety might hesitate to sell their letters of 
praise. 

The testimonial continues to be the basis for the promo- 
tion of patent medicines and every form of medical quack- 
ery. Somehow there is something convincing in the informa- 
tion that one’s neighbor or that a resident of even the same 
state has been cured of what ails him or her by whatever it 
is that someone may be selling. Consider, for instance, 
Fleischmann’s yeast. It is just yeast with the qualities that 
yeast possesses; namely, a slightly laxative effect and the 
value inherent in vitamin B. More recently the yeast has 
been irradiated so that it provides also a quantity of vitamin 
D. Nevertheless, this simple mixture has been promoted 
largely by the testimonial route for most of the ailments 
that afflict mankind. First the testimonials used were of the 
type that involved the ordinary citizenry. For instance, “Miss 
Rivergrove, Nevada,’’ who won the beauty contest in that 
section, testified that she formerly had been unable to push 
a baby-buggy three blocks, but that she was now able to 
swim the Arizona River with one hand tied behind her be- 
cause she has been taking two cakes of Fleischmann’s yeast 
three times a day. 

Alva Johnson, writer for the New York Herald Tribune, 
told in the Outlook how the advertising agency that devel- 
oped the Fleischmann yeast testimonials used a blacksmith’s 
helper as the basis for one testimonial. Obviously a black- 
smith’s helper will attract little attention in an advertise- 
ment. Dressed like a polo player, he stood behind the horse 
in his usual position, while the advertisement read: “Promi- 
nent Sportsman Testifies to the Uses of Fleischmann’s 
Yeast.” 

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More recently this type of testimonial has been discarded 
by the Fleischmann Company, and in its place one sees a 
bearded scientist from abroad, gazing through a microscope 
and announcing the virtues of yeast as a remover of pimples 
and as a promoter of health. Several of the scientists whose 
names and photographs have appeared in these announce- 
ments have written to The Journal of the American Medical 
Association complaining that they had never intended such 
use of their names and portraits, but that these had been 
wheedled from them by alert American advertising men 
who had promised donations to the physician’s favorite char- 
ity as a reward for a scientific statement on the subject of 
yeast. 

Time and again The Journal of the American Medical 
Association has shown on one page the testimonial of some 
citizen whose kidneys or lungs have been benefited, in his 
belief, by some nostrum or patent medicine, and has shown 
on the opposite page the death certificate of the same indi- 
vidual who apparently had died of his complaint three days 
before the testimonial was published. Nevertheless, the tes- 
timonial continues to be a great power in convincing many 
people. 

Late in 1931 the Federal Trade Commission ruled that 
testimonials paid for must have this fact clearly indicated 
and announced the figures paid by one proprietary face 
cream manufacturer to several leading citizens. Now Lucky 
Strike Cigarets are advertised with the photographs of fa- 
mous motion picture actors and actresses and with the an- 
nouncement that the testimonial is not paid for. Neverthe- 
less, the photographs are timed to appear in association with 
the release of new pictures in which the motion picture stars 
are featured. That type of publicity can easily be measured 
in terms of cash. 


PERKINS MEETS OPPOSITION 

Elisha Perkins patented his tractors on February 19, 1796, 
and in May the Connecticut Medical Society expressed its 
opinion of Elisha in English as picturesque as it is forceful: 

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ELISHA PERKINS AND HIS WONDERFUL TRACTORS 

VOTED , It having been represented to the Society, that 
one of their members had gleaned up from the miserable re - 
mains of animal magnetism, a practice of stroking with 
metallic Instruments, the pained parts of human bodies, giv- 
ing out that such strokings will radically cure the most obsti- 
nate pain to which our frame is incident, causing false 
reports to be propagated of the effects of such strokings , 
especially where they have been performed on some public 
occasions, and on men of distinction; also that an excursion 
has been made abroad and a patent obtained from under the 
authority of the United States, to aid such delusive quackery; 
that under such auspices as membership of this Society and 
the patent above mentioned, the delusion is progressing to 
the Southward, which may occasion disgrace to the Society 
and mischief abroad; wherefore this Society announce to the 
public, that they consider all such practices as barefaced 
imposition, disgraceful to the faculty, and delusive to the 
ignorant; and they further direct their Secretary to cite any 
member of this Society, practicing as above, before them, at 
their next meeting, to answer for his conduct, and render 
reasons why he should not be expelled from the Society, for 
such disgraceful practices. 

At a later meeting Elisha Perkins was expelled. 

The excursion abroad, to which the state medical society 
referred, was a project of the son of Elisha Perkins, the gen- 
tleman concerning whose motives we have already expressed 
some doubt. Benjamin Douglas Perkins, Yale, 1794, left for 
England in 1795 and established a trade in tractors, occupy- 
ing the house formerly occupied by the great scientist, John 
Hunter. In 1798 Benjamin published a volume dealing with 
the scientific aspects of his father’s discovery. The book was 
called “The Influence of Metallic Tractors on the Human 
Body in Removing Various Painful Inflammatory Diseases, 
Such as Rheumatism, Pleurisy, Some Gouty Affections, etc., 
Lately Discovered by Dr. Perkins of North America and 
Demonstrated in a Series of Experiments and Observations 
by Professor Meigs, Woodward, Rogers, etc., by Which the 
Importance of the Discovery is Fully Ascertained, and a 
New Field of Inquiry Opened in the Modern Sciences of 

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Galvanism, or Animal Electricity, by Benjamin Douglas Per- 
kins, A.M., Son of the Discoverer.” 

In this remarkable book it is pointed out that the tractors 
operated on the galvanic principle. Their virtues are at- 
tested by ten members of the Connecticut Medical Society 
and by three physicians from other states. Nine clergymen 
also tell how the tractors brought them relief, and, as Dr. 
Steiner points out, one of the clergyman found “them also 
useful in picking walnuts.” There were also testimonials 
from university professors, from governors of almshouses, 
and from members of the legislature. 

THE BIGGER THEY ARE THE HARDER THEY FALL 

Learned persons with one-track minds can always be 
found who will endorse the most ridiculous hocus-pocus in 
matters of health. As is well known, the most enthusiastic 
of the followers of Albert Abrams of our own day has been 
one Upton Sinclair, who has at various times endorsed half 
a dozen health fads and forms of cultism. Unmindful of the 
history of quackery, many physicians have expressed surprise 
that men who have made superlative successes in business, 
in the arts, and in the learned professions, become the vic- 
tims of New Thought, Christian Science, Abramsism, and 
what-not. Credulity, unfortunately, is not limited to any sin- 
gle class. There is pride of learning and accomplishment 
that is more dangerous than the most abject ignorance. 

Before we proceed to the last stages of Perkinsism, how- 
ever, let us recount the passing of the great Elisha. Yellow 
fever broke out in New York City in 1799. The period was 
that dark age in medicine before the commission headed by 
Walter Reed in Havana had shown that the disease is trans- 
mitted by the mosquito and before William Crawford Gorgas 
had shown that yellow fever could be stamped from the 
face of the earth by applying this knowledge. It required 
the discoveries of Pasteur and the magnificent investigations 
of the first quarter of the twentieth century to abolish this 
pestilence. In Perkins’ time yellow fever was the most dread 
scourge of seaports and cities. So, when the disease broke out 

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ELISHA PERKINS AND HIS WONDERFUL TRACTORS 

in New York, Elisha thought the time right for a demon- 
stration of a medicinal formula which his fertile brain had 
evolved. His remedy was essentially a combination of vinegar 
and salt, which was administered in tablespoon doses, diluted 
with three parts of hot water. For three weeks Dr. Perkins 
prescribed this medicine assiduously and, as might be sur- 
mised, with but little success. Then he himself succumbed 
to the disease and gave up the ghost on September 6, 1799. 

About this time Benjamin Douglas Perkins burst forth 
with another edition of his book. There appeared also a 
volume which recounted certain Danish experiments with 
the tractors, translated from the Danish into German and 
thence into English. Not only had the Danish investigators 
tested the tractors on human beings but also on horses. To 
their report Benjamin Perkins added the records of one hun- 
dred and fifty additional English cases. 

We shall see later, in discussing other cults, that the be- 
ginning of their decline is usually contemporaneous with 
attempts to apply them to the lower animals. A horse is, 
after all, a piece of property and not to be compared with a 
child or a wife or any other foolish human being. Even our 
government is much more ready to appropriate money for 
the control of disease among pigs and cows and horses than 
among human beings. Moreover, a horse never gives a tes- 
timonial; hence, perhaps, the term “horse sense.” 

It has been customary for medical leaders, viewing the 
rise of Christian Science, osteopathy, and chiropractic in our 
country, to sigh, almost regretfully, that the English never 
fall for such things. Of course, the English did fall heavily 
for homeopathy; an English committee solemnly found that 
the principle underlying Abramsism might be sound, and 
the leaders of British medical organizations are beginning 
to worry about bone-setters, osteopaths, and spinal adjusters. 
And England fell harder than any other country for “trac- 
toration” as expounded by Benjamin Douglas Perkins. Tes- 
timonials were secured from all sorts of reverends, including 
the chaplain to the Prince of Wales; Lord Henniker conde- 
scended to patronize the discovery and bought three pairs 

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of tractors. Finally, a dispensary for the poor was opened, 
sponsored by a committee which included eleven vice presi- 
dents, and solemnly dedicated at a dinner during which odes 
and poems were inflicted on those present. 

Eventually one medical practitioner, John Haygarth of 
Bath, assisted by Dr. Falconer, made a pair of tractors out 
of wood and fixed them up to resemble the authentic speci- 
mens. With these they succeeded in producing what ap- 
peared also to be remarkable cures. They sent false speci- 
mens to other physicians, who forthwith reported astounding 
results. Then in 1803 Perkins, who had become a Quaker, 
left England with a profit of some fifty thousand dollars 
from the tractor business and established himself in New 
York as a publisher and bookseller. Honored and esteemed, 
Benjamin Douglas Perkins died on October 13, 1810, at the 
age of thirty-seven, the life expectancy of that day; by 1811 
people were already speaking of “tractoration” as one of the 
follies of the past. 

There in brief is the story of one of the first of the great 
American quacks. Dr. Walter Steiner, whose collection of 
Perkinsiana is probably the most complete available, is con- 
vinced that Elisha himself believed in the efficiency of the 
tractors but is inclined to think that Benjamin Douglas Per- 
kins was somewhat of a rascal. As we shall see later, one is 
frequently at a loss to know just how far any apostle of 
cultism believes in himself and in his delusion and just how 
far he is willing to take the profits and a chance on the sin- 
cerity. 


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THE RISE AND FALL 
OF HOMEOPATHY 


Diseases are cured , not by eloquence , but by remedies well and duly 
applied , of which , if any sage and discreet man , though he have no 
tongue , know well the proper usage, he shall become a greater physi- 
cian than if, without practice, he ornament well his language. 

—Cornelius Celsus ( 1 $ B.C.-50 A.D.). 


I f scientific medicine today is withstanding nonchalantly 
the assaults of a myriad of systems, cults, and quackeries, 
it is merely repeating the history of other periods. The 
eighteenth century, for example, was predominantly a time 
of revolutionary systems and theories in medicine. There 
was the dynamico-organic system of Stahl, who believed that 
the soul was the supreme principle of disease. There was 
the mechanico-dynamic system of Hoffmann teaching that 
life expresses itself in motion, and that all manifestations 
within the body are controlled by nervous spirit. The school 
of Montpellier taught that various organs possess individual 
life. Mesmer, prince of impostors, claimed that magnetic 
fluid poured from the hand, and the Brunonian system as- 
serted that it was only necessary for a cure to determine the 
grade of disease in accordance with the strength or weak- 
ness of the active irritation, and to adjust the right propor- 
tion of strengthening or weakening medicines to the case. 
Further, there remained from previous centuries phlogistic 
and antiphlogistic theories, the view that all disease was 
caused by the impaction of debris and obstruction of the in- 
testines, and half a dozen other assorted hypotheses. 

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At the end of the century scientific medicine had little of 
its own to offer. Pasteur had not discovered the bacteria, Lis- 
ter had not given us asepsis, chemistry was only beginning 
to be a science, and the other fundamental medical sciences 
— anatomy, pathology, biology, and physiology — had just be- 
gun to sort out their facts from a welter of hypotheses. Drugs 
were known in abundance, but there was nothing compar- 
able to the scientific pharmacology of today. All sorts of 
mixtures and combinations were used without reference to 
the effects that the ingredients of a mixture might have upon 
one another. When a positive action was obtained it was 
credited to the mixture and not to the individual ingredi- 
ent responsible. Such was the scene just before 1800. Upon 
this stage there stepped a remarkable figure, Samuel Chris- 
tian Friedrich Hahnemann, born at Meissen in Germany in 

* 755 - 


EARLY YEARS OF HAHNEMANN 

After studying at Leipzig and Vienna, Hahnemann gradu- . 
ated in medicine at Erlangen in 1779, but he became dis- 
satisfied with the practice of his profession and retired for 
reflection and study. In 1790 there came into his hands a 
materia medica written by William Cullen of Lanarkshire. 
Cullen was professor of medicine at Glasgow and Edinburgh 
and founder himself of a system of medicine which empha- 
sized the importance of the nerves, and assumed that the 
brain was indissolubly united with the soul. Cullen, how- 
ever, was a practical man; his therapeutics were simple and 
he deplored the excessive bloodletting which was a feature 
of the medicine of the time. It had already been attacked 
by Le Sage in Gil Bias, by Moliere, and by many others. 
Hahnemann read in the book by Cullen that Peruvian bark, 
the source of quinine, would cure malaria. This was true; 
quinine does cure malaria. But what did Hahnemann do 
with the observation? Unfortunately, he did not know that 
malaria is caused by a plasmodium which gets into the blood 
through the agency of the mosquito; the plasmodium was 
not discovered by Laveran until November 6, 1880. So 

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Hahnemann evolved the theory that perhaps quinine cured 
malaria because it would produce symptoms like those of 
malaria if given to a healthy man. He tried it on himself 
and it did. With this idea fixed in his mind, he returned to 
the practice of medicine in 1796, and his remarkable hypoth- 
esis became the basis of the system called homeopathy, ex- 
pressed in the phrase similia similibus curantur, “like cures 
like.” 

This idea was not really original; it was essentially a re- 
vival of the old Paracelsian doctrine of signatures — like 
cures like — except that Paracelsus directed his attack toward 
the cause of the disease rather than at the symptoms. There 
are, in fact, some who assert that Milton, in his preface to 
Samson Agonistes, was alluding to the same thing as prac- 
ticed in his time: 

(Tragedy is) therefore said by Aristotle to be of power, 
by raising pity and fear, or terror, to purge the mind of 
those and such like passions; that is, to temper and reduce 
them to just measure with a kind of delight, stirred up by 
reading or seeing those passions well imitated. Nor is Nature 
wanting in her own effort to make good his assertion: for so 
in physic, things of melancholic hue and quality are used 
against melancholy, sour against sour, salt to remove salt 
humors. 

The idea, therefore, was not new. 

the homeopathic Organon 

After his return to practice, it became Hahnemann’s chief 
interest in life to propagate his theory. He began at once to 
write extensively, and it is significant that he did not con- 
fine his propaganda to the medical profession but addressed 
the public as well. Furthermore, it is a fact that he received 
all students, all applicants for knowledge of his methods, 
whether or not they had been previously trained in medi- 
cine. Then in 1810, he presented to the world the homeo- 
pathic bible, Organon der Rationellen Heilkunde. 

The Hahnemannian system of disease and its healing, as 

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presented in this book, involved three main tenets: first, 
that diseases or symptoms of disease are curable by particu- 
lar drugs which produce similar pathologic effects upon the 
healthy body; second, that the dynamic effect or force of 
drugs is increased by giving them in very small doses, even 
diluted to a decillionth of their original strength, and lastly, 
that chronic diseases are a manifestation of a suppressed itch 
or “psora.” 

Hahnemann seems to have known practically nothing of, 
or to have been unwilling to recognize, the existence of 
those definite changes in the human body that are associated 
with disease, and that are now included under the science 
of pathology. To him disease was chiefly a matter of the 
spirit. “Diseases,” he said, “will not cease to be dynamic 
aberrations of our spiritlike life, manifested by sensations 
and actions.” This spiritual theory, in which Hahnemann 
believed so implicitly, dominated subsequent homeopathic 
literature. The “dynamis” not only lay at the bottom of 
disease; it was also responsible for the power exerted by 
drugs in working cures. 

Hahnemann’s theory of “psora” or itch was essentially so 
preposterous that it began to be deserted even by confirmed 
homeopathists almost immediately. The “psora” was a miasm 
or evil spirit which pervaded the body and ultimately man- 
ifested itself on the surface in the form of an eruption, or as 
a nodular growth, or as some other form of skin disturbance. 
It was Hahnemann’s idea that the outward manifestation 
was a salubrious mechanism for the relief of the inner con- 
dition. 

The Organon said: 

The only really salutary treatment is that of the homeo- 
pathic method, according to which the totality of symptoms 
of a natural disease is combated by a medicine in commen- 
surate doses, capable of creating in the healthy body symp- 
toms most similar to those of the natural disease. 

Then, 

By administering a medicinal potency chosen exactly in 
accordance with the similitude of symptoms, a somewhat 

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stronger , similar , artificial morbid affection is implanted 
upon the vital power deranged by natural disease ; this arti- 
ficial affection is substituted , as it were, for the weaker simi- 
lar natural disease against which the instinctive vital force, 
now only excited to stronger effort by the drug affection, 
needs only to direct its increased energy; but owing to its 
brief duration it will soon be overcome by the vital force, 
now only excited to stronger effort by the drug affection, 
needs only to direct its increased energy; but owing to its 
brief duration it will soon be overcome by the vital force , 
which, liberated first from the natural disease, and then from 
the substituted natural disease, and then from the substi- 
tuted artificial (drug) affection, now again finds itself en- 
abled to continue the life of the organism in health. 

In simpler terms, the conception was that the drugs in- 
duced a condition which was substituted for the actual dis- 
ease, and that the body could easily get rid of the substitute. 
That, in brief, was the pharmacologic doctrine of homeop- 
athy. 

PROVING A DRUG 

It will be remembered that Hahnemann arrived at his 
method of treatment by observing the symptoms caused by 
a dose of Peruvian bark. In 1771 Albrecht von Haller had 
first suggested the method of testing the virtues of drugs by 
trying them on healthy human beings. The method was 
revived by Hahnemann, and called “proving a drug.” Not 
only did medical men test drugs upon themselves under this 
proving system, but all sorts of other proving tests were 
made by all kinds of more or less qualified individuals. The 
results, as might be expected, were remarkable. One decil- 
lionth of a grain of table salt was found by an imaginative 
prover to produce on himself 1,349 symptoms. And while 
the dosages of the early homeopaths often reached the 
heights of futility, the preparations they used were some- 
times of a highly poetic and romantic nature. In a catalogue 
of homeopathic remedies appeared such strange substances 
as lachryma filia, the tears of a young girl in great grief and 
suffering, used for great grief and suffering in young girls. 

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Then there was flavus irides, the yellow ray of the spectrum, 
there were extracts of three kind of pediculi, or lice, and 
anticipating the modern gland craze, there were extracts of 
all of the body glands then known. The strength of the 
drugs used may be estimated from the fact that a child in 
Gloucester County, Virginia, took $8 worth of homeopathic 
medicine at a single sitting, the entire supply of the family 
for a year, and, not knowing that anything ought to happen, 
didn’t have a symptom! 

THE SUCCESS OF HOMEOPATHY 

The physicians who were attempting to follow the waver- 
ing path of scientific medicine through the mass of medieval 
superstitions which beset it at that time suddenly found 
themselves placed on the defensive. Compared to the gen- 
eral medical practice of the age, the system of Hahnemann, 
though quite fallacious, had two things in its favor: it re- 
placed mixtures of powerful drugs in large doses by small 
doses of simple ones. Thus a widely used prescription was 
Rush’s Thunderbolt, developed by Benjamin Rush, signer 
( of the Declaration of Independence. It gave ten grains of 
jalap and ten of calomel at a single dose. A patient who had 
just tried it thereafter craved weak medicine. Moreover, 
homeopathy carried with it, as any new and revolutionary 
system always does, a powerful appeal to the lay imagina- 
tion. Professors Meyer-Steinheg of Jena and Sudhoff of Leip- 
zig, two of the world’s greatest medical historians, assert that 
the influence of Hahnemann was, on the whole, certainly 
for good. He emphasized the individualization of the patient 
in the handling of disease, he stopped the progress oFHalf 
a dozen or more peculiar systems of treatment based on a 
false pathology, and he demonstrated the value of testing the 
actual virtues of drugs by trial. It is probably true that any 
criticisms which might be brought against him in the light 
of later and better knowledge apply equally well against a 
large part of the other medicine of his time. Moreover, we 
must not hold against him the vagaries and exaggerations 
into which some of his disciples drifted. 

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What was the immediate success of homeopathy? In 1821, 
in Leipzig, the first homeopathic journal was published, the 
Archives of the Homeopathic Method of Curing Disease. In 
Austria, where homeopathy appeared in 1819, it was for- 
bidden by an imperial decree, but it nevertheless made prog- 
ress and the decree was revoked in 1837. ^ reached Italy 
and Denmark in 1821. Quinn, a physician, introduced the 
method into Great Britain in 1827, t> ut shortly thereafter 
medical opposition became strong and practitioners of hom- 
eopathy were denied the right to practice. This prohibi- 
tion, after a long contest, was revoked, and by the eighties 
homeopathy was prospering. A homeopathic hospital was 
opened in 1887 in Liverpool on an endowment by Henry 
Tate, a sugar refiner. The first homeopathic dispensary had 
been opened in 1841, the second in 1867. In 1885 it was re- 
ported that the English dispensaries treated 78,881 patients, 
or 1,516 a week. At the dedication of the hospital in 1887 
a conference of homeopathic practitioners was held, and the 
hope was expressed that a homeopathic surgeon would soon 
arrive to take care of work referred by homeopathic prac- 
titioners. 


HOMEOPATHY IN THE UNITED STATES 

But nowhere did homeopathy flourish as it did in the 
United States. It was apparently brought to this country in 
1825. The first homeopathic medical college was organized 
in Philadelphia in 1848, the next in New York in 1858. 
About 1880 the homeopathic practitioners were at the height 
of their influence. Many tales might be told of the battles 
within the medical fraternity to determine whether the 
homeopathic or the regular party should control. Indeed, 
there are whisperings of a session of the American Medical 
Association at which a phalanx of homeopathic practitioners 
assaulted the platform and dragged the speakers bodily from 
their perch. Homeopathic schools appeared in abundance. 
In 1880 there were in the United States, 72 regular medi- 
cal colleges, 12 homeopathic colleges, and 6 eclectic colleges. 
In 1890 there were 93 regular, 14 homeopathic, and 8 eclec- 

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tic. In 1900 there were 121 regular, 22 homeopathic, and 10 
eclectic. And in 1900 the homeopathic practitioners, assem- 
bled in Washington, D. C., dedicated a monument in gran- 
ite and bronze to: | 

Samuel Christian Frederich Hahnemann, 

Dpctor in Medicine. 

Hofrath 

Leader in the Great Medical Reformation 
Of the 

Nineteenth Century 
And 

Founder of the 
Homeopathic School. 

THE DECLINE OF HOMEOPATHY 

But from that year the influence of homeopathy began to 
decline steadily, its schools to close their doors or to merge 
with regular medical schools, and its practitioners to prac- 
tice in increasing measure what they called “allopathic” 
medicine. What happened to bring about this remarkable 
and sudden change? Undoubtedly two influences, both 
brought to bear on medical education, induced the ultimate 
collapse. 

The first educational number of The Journal of the 
American Medical Association was published on September 
21, 1901. It listed the medical colleges in the United States, 
the type of education and preliminary entrance require- 
ments enforced in each school, and its provisions for didactic 
and clinical teaching. It showed that there were 124 regular 
medical schools, 10 eclectic schools, and 21 homeopathic 
schools, and it pointed out their qualities and their de- 
ficiencies. The poor schools began to wilt and fade — and 
many of the homeopathic schools were poor ones. By 1905 
their graduates were fewer in number than in any year 
since 1880. In 1907, there were but seventeen homeopathic 
schools left; in 1908, but sixteen; in 1909, fourteen; in 1912, 
ten; in 1915, eight; in 1921, five; and in 1925, there re- 

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mained but two, and one of these carried a low classification. 
Altogether during 1923, there were just forty-nine homeo- 
pathic graduates. 

At the end of 1931, homeopathic medicine continued to 
be taught only in the New York Homeopathic Medical 
College and Flower Hospital of New York, and in the 
Hahnemann Medical College and Hospital in Philadelphia. 
In the former institution 348 students were registered, and 
there were 77 men and 3 women graduates. In the Philadel- 
phia institution there were 502 students and 93 graduates 
for the year. However, in these institutions the medicine 
that is taught is not homeopathic medicine in the old sense 
of the word, but modern medicine with some reflection of 
the history of homeopathy. 

In the meantime, gatherings of homeopaths view with in- 
terest attempts made abroad to read into the knowledge of 
the present the homeopathic theories of the past. The de- 
mand among young men for opportunity to study medicine 
is far greater than the number of places available in Ameri- 
can medical schools. Hence institutions that give reliable 
four-year courses are bound to be crowded with students re- 
gardless of any strange notions that they may teach, provided 
they, at the same time, have complete qualifications in med- 
ical science. When the homeopathic graduate takes his place 
in the community he practices regular medicine. 

THE DEATH OF HOMEOPATHY 

Publicity is a powerful tool. Students who observed the 
gradual decline of homeopathy began to seek regular schools; 
in fact, many a young man who had been doctored in his 
early youth by a homeopathic physician was advised by that 
very physician not to enter a homeopathic college. The fact 
is, indeed, that homeopathy died from within. The very 
disciples of Hahnemann, and most of the more enlightened 
practitioners of homeopathy since Hahnemann’s time, when 
they came into practice, found their system unavailing in the 
face of serious illness. They then availed themselves of the 
right of every practitioner of medicine to use any treatment 

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that may be for the good of his patient. They informed 
themselves of scientific medicine and prescribed drugs in 
doses that would work. The American Institute of Homeop- 
athy, the official organization, finally adopted the definition: 
“A homeopathic physician is one who adds to his knowledge 
of medicine a special knowledge of homeopathic thera- 
peutics and observes the Law of Similia. All that pertains 
to the great field of medical learning is his, by tradition, by 
inheritance, by right. ,, This was essentially a desire to allow 
homeopathic practitioners to prescribe “old school” drugs in 
old school doses. It was a confession of inadequacy and 
failure. 

While homeopathy, as a school, though not the individual 
homeopathist, had stood still and clung to its law of similars 
and to Hahnemann’s unprovable theory, scientific medicine 
had been sweeping onward with steady, sure progress. Before 
such a fact as the inevitable response of the heart to an ade- 
quate dose of digitalis, any theory of dynamics and vibra- 
tions which called for splitting that dose into decillionth 
parts was bound to evaporate. Before the rapid effects of the 
satisfactory administration of mercury and “606,” measur- 
able by a Wassermann test, theories of “psora” and similars 
could not exist. The effects of efficient dosages are, as Celsus 
asserted, positive, sure, visible, convincing. They need no 
argument, they speak for themselves. Thus, by 1900, all that 
remained of the original homeopath was the law of similars 
and the method of using them. Otherwise homeopaths were 
prescribing diphtheria antitoxin and forgetting belladonna; 
they were practicing surgery; they were using full doses of 
drugs when they wanted to get action. It came down to 
this: that a homeopath was just like any other physician, 
except that he gave what were essentially nothing but place- 
bos in minor conditions. When the regular medical schools 
began to raise their standards, the homeopathic schools had 
to do the same or confess their inferiority. And when they 
did the same, they lost their students, who had been 
attracted chiefly by their lower standards, and had to close 
their doors anyway. 

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Thus passed the homeopathic system. Thus, in fact, pass 
all systems in the practice of medicine. Scientific medicine 
absorbs from them that which is good, if there is any good, 
and then they die. Perhaps osteopathy has taught us some- 
thing by its stress on massage; perhaps even Eddyism has 
made itself valuable by showing the value of suggestion in 
conditions affecting the mind. Others, such as chiropractic 
and Abramsism, teach only the ease with which delusions 
may be foisted on the public. The history of homeopathy 
is distinct and peculiar. It records the propounding and 
acceptance of a theory which, in itself wrong, nevertheless 
influenced the steps of a beginning science into paths that 
were right. 


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"There is no escaping the fact that we are citizens of an age at once 
the most skeptical and the most gullible in human history ” 

— Glenn Frank, "Thunder and Dawn ” 


I n books on medical history the term eclecticism has two 
meanings. The first goes back to the Greeks. Following 
the collection of the Hippocratic texts before the Christian 
era, certain Greek physicians and scientists formed a group 
of eclectics who proposed to dispense with preconceived 
notions and to develop a school of scientific medicine. But 
they passed, and from the period of Galen (200 a . d .) until 
that of Paracelsus (1493-1541 a . d .) medicine rested in 
oblivion while men gave more thought to their souls than 
to their bodies, to argument than to observation, to theory 
than to scientific fact. 

Then came the second eclecticism. The biting sarcasm of 
Paracelsus disturbed the calm belief in Galenic medicine, 
and the discoveries of Vesalius in anatomy, of Harvey as to 
the circulation of blood, of Jenner concerning vaccination, 
and particularly of Leeuwenhoek, maker of microscopes, re- 
stored accurate observation to its proper leading position in 
the science of medicine. But the new methods brought new 
enthusiasts, and a host of new systems threatened to impede 
all actual progress. Mesmerism, Brunonianism, phrenology, 
homeopathy, Rademacherism, Baunscheidtism, hydropathy, 
odic force, and animal magnetism contended for favor, and 
scientific inquiry was neglected. The appeal of the bizarre 
is strong even to enlightened men; to a public educated to 

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a belief in the black art, magic, alchemy, and the miracles 
of the saints, the unusual necessarily had an absolute fasci- 
nation. Medicine in this way became inordinately complex 
and chaotic. 

Into this maze came Christoph Wilhelm Hufeland, whose 
whole career was a protest against the confusion. To him 
systems of medicine were anathema. He wanted the facts. 
With the founding of his Journal of Practical Medicine in 
1795 there began a battle for the scientific study of disease 
that is still going on. Of him it may be said that he was truly 
eclectic. And after Hufeland came Canstatt, Wunderlich, 
Skoda, Rokitansky, and all those other robust German scien- 
tists who laid the foundations of modern medicine. 

ECLECTICISM IN AMERICA 

But what of American eclecticism? What relation did it 
have to Hufeland and his work? And what has become of it? 
Medical historians at home apparently take but little pride 
in it, and foreign historians seem to be unaware of its 
existence. Even the erudite Fielding H. Garrison, whose 
History of Medicine is the last word in English on the sub- 
ject, astutely ignores this eclecticism. In what is perhaps 
his only reference to it he waxes, for so calm a man, a 
little acrid. “In America, under existing legislation,’* he 
affirms, “every species of medical sect — osteopathy, chiro- 
praxis, Christian Science, eclecticism, botanic medicine, etc. 
— has been permitted to flourish.” 

In the land of the free eclecticism is thus something dif- 
ferent. It is a system of medicine which treats disease by the 
application of single remedies to known disturbances, with- 
out reference to any scientific classification, but giving spe- 
cial attention to the development of plant remedies. It is the 
apotheosis of the old grandmother and witch-doctor systems 
of treatment. It arose out of the attempts of a widow to con- 
serve her husband’s income and out of the medical practice 
of an old woman herb doctor. It profited and prospered, no 
doubt, by that same reaction against the drastic materia 

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medica of the period around the year 1800 that gave us 
homeopathy. 

Those were days of heavy drugging. Dr. Benjamin Rush, 
signer of the Declaration, was still prescribing his “Thunder- 
bolt.” Homeopathy owed its initial success to the fact that it 
prescribed small doses of remedies in vast quantities of 
water, and so did not interfere with the natural tendency of 
the body to recover. On this tendency — the vis medicatrix 
naturae — all of the cults of history have floated their frail 
vessels. Eclecticism did so like the rest. It discarded most of 
the mineral remedies of the time and emphasized the use of 
the milder drugs derived from plants. It urged the use of 
single remedies and, at most, of simple combinations. Since 
most of the remedies it promoted have since been shown to 
be quite inert or utterly inadequate in the large majority of 
cases, the vogue of the cult must have rested on the same 
desire to escape overdrugging that promoted homeopathy. 
And it had a voguel At the height of that vogue it graduated 
several hundred physicians every year from ten medical col- 
leges. But gradually, as scientific medicine progressed, its 
ranks dwindled, and it fell into the hands of exploiters and 
promoters. Today it totters feebly in one recognized school 
and in several diploma mills, it finds itself involved in 
noisome licensure scandals, and it is likely to succumb 
shortly to what physicians in their consultations call an 
exitus lethalis. 


JACOB TIDD MAKES MEDICINES 

Dr. George Andrew Viesselius, born in Holland (or Ger- 
many) , emigrated to this country in 1749, settled in New 
Jersey, married an American girl, and established a com- 
fortable practice. When he died in 1767 there remained on 
his estate, in addition to his widow, a bound or hired boy 
named Jacob Tidd. Jacob used to help the doctor out by 
making up washes, salves, plasters, and similar external appli- 
cations according to formulas that Viesselius had brought 
from abroad. The community boasted few practitioners and 
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widows, decided to keep the practice going with the assist- 
ance of Jacob Tidd. Jacob came into possession, through 
this association, of the professional papers of Doctor Vies- 
selius. In 1796-1800 he was in Western Pennsylvania for a 
time. It is not recorded whether he served as an army doctor 
or as a private soldier during the Whisky Insurrection, 
although he did serve, but it is noted that he secured herb 
remedies from the Indians directly and also from a relative 
who had been a captive among them. 

WOOSTER BEACH ONE OF THE FOUNDERS 

Returning from the war, Tidd set up as a doctor at 
Ringoes, New Jersey, and soon acquired a lucrative practice. 
For forty years he practiced at Amwell, in Hunterdon 
County, New Jersey, apparently limiting himself largely to 
the external remedies that were a heritage from the old 
Dutch doctor. Many persons came to him to learn his meth- 
ods and among them was one Wooster Beach. Beach was 
bom in Trumbull, Connecticut, in 1794. He educated him- 
self and his biographers relate that he pursued eagerly all 
the adverse criticisms on the medicine of the time that came 
his way. One day he heard about Jacob Tidd, and went to 
him in search of instruction. “Suspicious lest his means of 
livelihood would be wrested from him,” says the biographer, 
“he (Tidd) flatly refused to receive Beach, as he had many 
others who had applied for the same privilege.” Here is one 
of the marks of the charlatan in medicine. The true medical 
scientist has no secrets that he guards from other physicians; 
his knowledge is broadcast through the medical periodicals 
so that physicians everywhere may use it in alleviating the 
ills of mankind. 

Let us see the type of energy that inspired Beach. In a 
letter he said: “I was obliged to return home disappointed. 
But the same anxiety continued, and I felt, respecting my 
one desire, something as the Apostle Paul is represented to 
have felt respecting religion, when he said, ‘A dispensation 
of the gospel is committed unto me, and woe be unto me if 
I preach not the gospel/ ” Of such stuff are the founders of 

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cults made; one always finds them prating in terms of theo- 
logical derivation, and usually affirming their ability to 
commune personally with the Deity. Again and again Beach 
attempted to study with Jacob Tidd. Finally, he came at a 
time when Tidd was without an assistant. Beach took the 
place and remained until Tidd died at seventy-four years of 
age; then he succeeded to the practice. Beach was the formu- 
lator of Eclecticism — first under the name of the Reformed 
Practice of Medicine. 

Eventually he went to New York, to treat several cases to 
which he was called in consultation. He settled there and is 
said to have become belatedly a student at a medical college, 
graduating in due form and becoming a member of the New 
York County Medical Society. In 1825 he started teaching 
and writing, attacking the use of bloodletting and strong 
remedies and urging his students to treat disease with na- 
ture’s remedies — herbs and roots. In 1827 he opened an 
infirmary in Eldridge Street, New York, and in 1837 he 
started the New York Medical Academy, which eventually 
became the Reformed Medical College of New York, the 
parent school of the eclectic system. 

THE RISE OF THOMSONISM 

In the meantime, the system of practice known as Thom- 
sonism, later incorporated into Eclecticism, had been devel- 
oping independently. Samuel Thomson was born in New 
Hampshire in 1769. When he was four years old he dis- 
covered that lobelia, or Indian tobacco ( Lobelia inflata ) , an 
indigenous herb, if chewed, induced vomiting. He amused 
himself by getting his boy friends to chew it. An old woman 
herbalist in the vicinity told him more about roots and 
grasses. He tried to study medicine under a root doctor 
nearby, but was refused owing to his deficient education. 
Then he married, went to farming, and began a family. One 
of his children fell ill of scarlet fever and when the attending 
physician gave up the case Thomson tried steam inhalations 
and lobelia with success. Then he became a traveling herb 
doctor and had his remedies patented in Washington. It will 

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be seen later that the rise of osteopathy hinged on the death 
of one of the daughters of Andrew Still. 

Eventually Thomson tried to settle down in Massachusetts, 
but he was bitterly attacked by the local medical profession 
as a quack. Once he was acquitted of murdering some one 
with too much lobelia; after the trial he found that he had 
earned sufficient popularity to encourage him to open an 
office in Boston. The Thomson system of treating disease 
with herbs, mostly lobelia, was taken up to some extent by 
others and flourished for twenty years. Thomson died in 
1843, “heroically partaking of his own remedies until the 
very end.” His New Guide to Health , written in 1822, passed 
through many editions, and at last became Thomson's Ma- 
teria Medica or Botanic Family Physician . Although opposed 
by Wooster Beach, who was little inclined to welcome com- 
petition, Thomsonism soon became incorporated into the 
eclectic system. 

THE SCHOOLS FOR ECLECTIC MEDICINE 

On May 3, 1830, the Reformed Medical Society of New 
York, founded to support the ideas and the school of Beach, 
adopted a resolution to found an additional school of eclectic 
medicine in some town on the Ohio River. It was hoped that 
in the newly opened country better opportunity would exist 
for the new school to lead an untrammeled existence. The 
school was established at Worthington, Ohio, in 1833, as the 
Worthington Medical College, but it did not thrive. It sus- 
pended its sessions in 1839. In 1843, it removed to Cin- 
cinnati, which is still the fountainhead of eclecticism in this 
country. In 1845, it became the Eclectic Medical Institute. 
By 1848, it was again in difficulties, and a convention was 
called in Cincinnati to organize a national society of eclectic 
practitioners. Wooster Beach’s name headed the list of or- 
ganizers, and in 1855 the grand old man of eclecticism 
became the president of his society. 

In the meantime disciples of eclecticism had been spread- 
ing the gospel hither and thither in our fair land. Colleges 
rose and fell like the flowers that bloom in the spring. The 

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New York Reformed Medical College, born in 1826, was 
extinct about 1839. The College of Medicine, Botanic, or- 
ganized in New York City in 1836, died in 1846. The Eclec- 
tic Medical Institute of New York, created in 1847 as the 
Medical School of Fredonia, moved to Rochester in 1848, 
merged with the Randolph Eclectic Medical Institute, and 
moved to Syracuse in 1849, becoming the Central Medical 
College of New York. In 1850, it moved back to Rochester 
and in 1852 it had its exitus lethalis. The Eclectic Medical 
College of New York City, organized in 1866, graduated its 
first class in 1867 and then sent forth one every year until 
1913, when it succumbed. In the early days running a med- 
ical college was usually a profitable procedure, and was thus 
considered an important accessory to medical practice. 

So the colleges of eclectic medicine came and went. The 
facts for New York were duplicated on a smaller scale in 
other states, but a multiplication of examples is needless. In 
i860 there were four eclectic medical colleges, and they 
graduated some two hundred dispensers of plant remedies. 
In 1870, there were five schools; in 1880, eight, and in 1890, 
and in 1900, nine. Shortly after this time the Council on 
Medical Education of the American Medical Association 
began its investigative and publicity activities. At once the 
number of eclectic schools and the number of their gradu- 
ates began to decline. By 1915, there were but four eclectic 
schools, and since 1920 there has remained but one, the 
school in Cincinnati supported by the National Eclectic 
Medical Association. True, the Kansas City College of Medi- 
cine and Surgery has claimed to be eclectic, but the National 
Eclectic Association disowns it, and it finds itself of late 
involved in a diploma mill scandal. In 1925, the Cincinnati 
school had but thirty-eight graduates. Its complete enroll- 
ment was one hundred and forty-eight. Its average attend- 
ance during the last five years has been about one hundred. 

BOTANICALS IN THE PHARMACOPEIA 

During the craze for the development of botanical drugs 
our pharmacopeia became almost a replica of the herbals of 

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seventeenth and eighteenth century Europe. The woods and 
the fields were combed for all varieties of roots and vines 
and grasses, and they were transformed into infusions, decoc- 
tions, syrups, tinctures, extracts, and tablets. The mind of 
the poor medical student was bewildered by his attempts to 
learn the botanical names, the nature, and the alleged uses 
of these hundreds of drugs. Into this confusion the Council 
on Pharmacy and Chemistry swept like a tempest, supported 
by blasts from the university laboratories which were care- 
fully investigating, on animals and on man, the real virtues 
of the remedies in use. Farseeing practitioners like William 
Osier were condemning the superfluity of preparations, and 
urging the use only of such as were actually capable of pro- 
ducing definite effects in definite dosages. That the plant 
remedies survived at all was due not so much to the efforts 
of the eclectic colleges as to the manufacturers of eclectic 
remedies and, above all, to the promoters of patent medi- 
cines, which were composed largely of complex mixtures of 
such substances — veritable vegetable soups. 

A report of the Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry on 
one of these eclectic remedies is typical of what has been 
done to hundreds of them. Echinacea angustefolia was first 
introduced as the main ingredient of a remedy known as 
Meyer’s Blood Purifier. This preparation, according to the 
label, was powerful as an alterative and antiseptic in all 
“tumorous and syphilitic indications, old chronic wounds 
such as fever sores, old ulcers, carbuncles, piles, eczema, wet 
or dry, also erysipelas and gangrene.” It was also “a specific 
for fever,” “adverted typhoid in two or three days,” and 
cured malaria, malignant, remittent, and mountain fever, 
diphtheria, bites “from the bee to the rattlesnake,” and mad 
dog bites. Obviously a medical gem! The drug was promptly 
adopted by the medicos of the eclectic school, and shortly 
afterward different proprietary concerns introduced it to the 
public under the name of echtisia, ecthol, and echitone. Ech- 
tisia contained, in addition to the echinacea, some wild 
indigo, arbor vitae, and poke root; and echitone contained 
also pansy and blue flag. The company promoting the 

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former asserted that wild indigo was a “destroyer of devital- 
izing elements in the blood” and a “vitalizer of the blood 
as well,” that arbor vitae was “a perfect antiseptic and a 
generator of vital force in disorganized tissues,” and that a 
long list of diseases, including diphtheria, syphilitic sciatica, 
and gonorrheal rheumatism, were “all more or less amenable 
to full doses” of poke root. 

All of this was, of course, the veriest bosh. For the con- 
ditions mentioned scientific medicine has provided methods 
of treatment and remedies that attack the cause. For scarlet 
fever it has an antitoxin and it disregards the rhus toxico- 
dendron of the Eclectic pharmacopoeia; for angina pectoris 
it seeks sedation and attempts by intricate surgical methods 
to cut off the sensations of pain, discarding the “specific 
medicine lobelia” of the eclectics as an unreliable and poi- 
sonous drug. The recommendation of bryonia for pain over 
the eye regardless of the cause, of spigelia for headache over 
the top of the head increasing in the morning and decreasing 
in the afternoon, of cactus and white hellebore and gel- 
semium for oppressive pain on the top of the head caused 
by uterine displacement — all of these recommendations, 
taken from the guidebooks of eclectic medicine, scientific 
medicine greets today with laughter. 

“Slowly, but surely, botanical drugs, upon which many 
packaged medicines rely for their therapeutic benefits and 
for the therapeutic claims made for them, are being dropped 
from the United States Pharmacopoeia,” says an editorial in 
the October, 1925, number of Standard Remedies, the official 
organ of the package medicine industry. “Seventeen such 
drugs were dropped from the 1920 revision of the Pharma- 
copoeia just issued. In 1910 twenty-two were dropped. In 
1900, eleven were dropped. The few remaining may be 
dropped in the next or some future revision.” And in an 
article in the same issue Mr. H. C. Fuller says: “Publications 
of the eclectic school still support many of the therapeutic 
claims that have been advanced for a large number of botani- 
cal drugs that appear in the above list. However, even here 

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we find a tendency to conservatism and, at times, a repudia- 
tion of earlier opinions.” 

Mr. Fuller, a friend of the package medicine industry, 
views this situation with alarm. “It is coming to pass,” he 
says, “that the deletion of botanical drugs from official stand- 
ards and the omission of references to their therapeutic value 
in modern textbooks, as well as definite statements discredit- 
ing the former ideas of their efficacy, will eventually bring 
about the situation that preparations containing these drugs 
will have no standing or authoritative support, and will be 
thrown back almost solely on testimonials, which experi- 
ence has demonstrated are often of doubtful value. The 
preparations chiefly affected at present are the so-called 
Blood Remedies or Alteratives, Rheumatism Remedies, Kid- 
ney Remedies, Female Remedies and Nerve Remedies.” 
Here is a statement from an expert as to the present low 
state of botanical remedies! Mr. Fuller suggests to the manu- 
facturers that the proper procedure would be the employ- 
ment of research with a view to reestablishing in good scien- 
tific usage the remedies which constitute the basis of their 
nostrums. But do not think Mr. Fuller is naive; the available 
information indicates that he is prepared to promote such 
researches at a reasonable figure. 

Thus all the signs and portents indicate that the great 
deluge of modern scientific chemotherapy is about to wash 
away the plant and vegetable debris. With that washing will 
go the last vestiges of Thomsonism and the eclectic practice 
of Wooster Beach. 

THE DECLINE OF THE ECLECTIC COLLEGES 

As I have said, the number of medical schools in the 
United States began to increase rapidly after the Civil War. 
The creation of many of these schools was due to the self- 
interest of the men constituting their faculties. Money was 
to be made by teaching students, and prestige was to be 
acquired by a self-conferred title of professor. The standards 
of medical education in this country thus became an offense 
in the sight of the leaders of American medicine. With the 

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advent of each new medical cult and of each new group of 
medical colleges devoted to it, the State legislatures were 
besought to create separate boards of examiners for the 
licensing of graduates. 

Obviously, the medical practice laws in all the states were 
intended to safeguard the public against incompetent and 
untrained physicians. Where states have but a single board 
administering the act, it accomplishes that purpose. Unfortu- 
nately, when new boards are created for various new types 
of practitioners, the medical practice acts are promptly nulli- 
fied. If there is such a thing as scientific medicine, and if 
there are diseases such as smallpox, tuberculosis, typhoid 
fever, and measles which produce definite changes in the 
human body, every one who wants to treat human disease 
ought to be able to recognize the changes they bring about, 
to diagnose them when present, and to know how to pre- 
scribe preventive measures to keep them from spreading 
throughout the community. Certainly every one who wants 
to practice the healing art by any method of treatment 
should be willing to come before an examining body and 
give evidence of his knowledge of these fundamental things. 
Nevertheless, the legislators in the various states have created 
ninety-six separate and independent boards to control med- 
ical licensure in America. In some states there are actually 
five or six different boards created by as many independent 
medical practice acts, and vesting as many different standards 
of educational qualification. 

Out of this confused mass of laws came a great licensure 
scandal in 1923, and in that scandal eclectic medical boards 
played the most prominent part. In 1918, five years before, 
The Journal of the American Medical Association had pro- 
tested against the manner in which graduates of low-grade 
medical colleges in Missouri were being licensed by the 
eclectic boards in Arkansas and Connecticut. For the next 
five years, it published annually a protest, and indeed insinu- 
ated definitely that neither the Arkansas State Board of 
Eclectic Examiners nor the Kansas City, Missouri, College 
of Medicine and Surgery could exist unless they were in 

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cahoots. Connecticut, too, was warned again and again that 
it was harboring a menace in its eclectic board. But in 1920, 
the Kansas City College and the Arkansas Eclectic Board 
entente were still doing business, the former graduating 
thirty-three men and the latter licensing all but one of them, 
and in 1921 the Missouri legislature removed the word “rep- 
utable, 0 as it related to medical colleges, from its medical 
practice act and substituted the words, “legally chartered.” 

In 1922 there developed a new entente: the Connecticut 
board licensed seventy-one physicians, sixty-one of whom 
graduated from low-grade medical colleges and three from 
institutions in California which apparently had never been 
recognized as professional schools of any type. Of the seventy- 
one medicos licensed in Connecticut, only twenty-five had 
actually graduated from eclectic medical colleges, but forty- 
six more, who logically should have applied to the so-called 
regular medical board, since they had graduated from what 
were presumably regular medical colleges, although of ex- 
tremely low standing, apparently had arranged with the 
Eclectic board in Connecticut to provide them with licenses. 
The situation, uncovered first by the St. Louis Star , showed 
clearly that graduates of the St. Louis College of Physicians 
and Surgeons were being shipped to Connecticut so that the 
Connecticut Eclectic Board might give them legal entrance 
into the practice of medicine. The reciprocity laws between 
the various states then permitted them to ooze gradually out 
of Connecticut and into other communities. 

Following the investigation of 1923, the licenses of 
one hundred and sixty-seven physicians who had been cer- 
tified by the Connecticut Eclectic Board were revoked, but 
seventy-three of these physicians were allowed to continue 
to practice until their cases are heard by the superior courts. 
Any one conversant with legal procedure may figure out how 
long it will be until the Supreme Court acts on these 
cases and confirms the revocations of licenses. But eclecticism 
meanwhile is gasping out its last breaths. It was ill for a long 
time; now a lethal draught of scandal has finished it. 

Thus the growth of cults within the science of medicine 

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provided opportunity for evading the requirement of certain 
fundamental knowledge in those who proposed to deal with 
the ailments of humanity. In that evasion the separate state 
boards dealing with eclecticism seem to have played a most 
prominent part. The only hope for the protection of the 
public against such dubious cultists lies in having but one 
board of medical examiners in each state, and in establish- 
ing one minimum standard of qualifications to which every 
one must measure who is to have the legal right to practice 
healing. The exemptions of cults because they limit their 
methods of treatment to manipulation, to mental suggestion, 
to plant remedies, to highly diluted remedies, or to any 
other quackery is merely throwing open the doors to un- 
qualified, incompetent, mendacious, and unprincipled pre- 
tenders. 

As this volume goes to press there appears an announce- 
ment of the reopening of the Eclectic Medical College in 
Cincinnati which is matriculating a freshman class in 1931 
and a sophomore class for 1932. In the introduction to this 
announcement appears a new definition for the eclectic phy- 
sician; namely, “One who has been adequately trained in 
the recognized fundamentals of modern scientific medicine, 
and has added thereto the special knowledge of eclectic 
materia medica and therapeutics/’ It appears then that eclec- 
ticism is to proceed as has homeopathy, practicing medicine, 
continuing to add thereto such eclectic therapeutics as seem 
desirable to the professors of that subject in the eclectic col- 
lege. It must be borne in mind that the present decade sees 
vast numbers of young men applying for entrance into med- 
ical school who are not able to gain admission, and it is 
therefore possible to conduct a medical college with a certain 
amount of surety of attendance by students, and with tuition 
fees almost sufficient to carry the expense. Thus, the tuition 
fees in the eclectic school are to be $300.00 per year per 
student, with extra fees for various laboratory courses and 
records. The indications are that some forty young men will 
be available for each of the classes. 

This does not mean, of course, a rejuvenation of eclectic 

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medicine. It merely means that there is still sufficient interest 
in botany among this limited group of medical practitioners 
to make a recurrence of this medical cult possible. The his- 
tory of medical science would seem to indicate, however, an 
early relapse and a not far distant end. The patient is not 
moribund, but very weak. 


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V 


FROM THE BEGINNING OF MIND HEALING 
TO CHRISTIAN SCIENCE 


"In those periods when man sees everywhere miracle and nowhere 
law , — when he attributes all things which he cannot understand to 
a will like his own, — he naturally ascribes his diseases either to the 
wrath of a good being or to the malice of an evil being" — Andrew D. 
White, "The Warfare of Science With Theology In Christendom ” 


T he great vogue of Franz Anton Mesmer brought to him 
disciples from many places. Soon smaller temples of 
magnetic healing sprang up. Many of his disciples, as has 
been related in the first chapter, traveled about demonstrat- 
ing the Mesmeric technic. Obviously such results as they 
secured had to do with mental rather than physical defects, 
and were secured by the power of suggestion. Out of Mes- 
mer’s doctrine came all the faith healers of the nineteenth 
century. From him derived Elisha Perkins, from him also 
derived Phineas Parkhurst Quimby and Mary Morse Baker 
Glover Patterson Eddy, Alexander Dowie, Emile Cou£, and 
perhaps even Sigmund Freud. Indeed, it is but a small step 
from healing by the mind alone to the enhancing of the 
power of suggestion by the laying on of hands, and finally 
from such manipulations to the practice of chiropractic and 
osteopathy. 

The beginning of the nineteenth century found Ameri- 
cans fearful of hell fire. The doctrine of Jonathan Edwards 
had brought about a type of mentality which evolved 
promptly into hysteria. Moreover, young girls brought up on 
Fox's Book of Martyrs and an indoor life quite promptly 

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developed a condition called chlorosis, which has practically 
disappeared in these modern times with the coming of sun- 
light, outdoor exercise, and fresh air for girls, as well as boys. 
Shakerism, New Thought, and Mesmerism were already in- 
teresting doctrines to many American citizens. 

THE RISE OF MARY BAKER EDDY 

Mary Morse Baker was born near Concord, New Hamp- 
shire, on July 16, 1821. She was frail, delicate, oversensitive, 
frequently given to spasms and attacks of tantrums. Some- 
what pleasing in her personality, she was nevertheless hardly 
attractive as a child for her beauty. The little girl was smart, 
always showing off, putting on airs, using long words when 
short ones would suffice, and displaying in other ways some- 
thing of precocity. Like all hysterics, once she found that her 
attacks aroused sympathy, they would be frequently re- 
peated. When she was in convulsions physicians would be 
called, who, no doubt, were quite aware of the proper diag- 
nosis. Indeed one doctor said that Mary’s whole trouble was 
“hysteria mixed with bad temper.” It is reported that her 
father finally became so used to her attacks that he would 
simply walk away and give her plenty of time to recover and 
go about her daily affairs. Frequently she ran away from 
home, but, like all similar flighty young ladies, she invari- 
ably came back. No one had trouble with Mary when she 
could have her way, but when crossed she could put on a 
performance that would stop the family. 

Fortunately perhaps for her relatives (and she had many 
of them) , she was introduced by her brother, Mark Baker, 
to a friend named Washington Glover, who was in the con- 
tracting business in Charleston, South Carolina. In 1843, 
when she was 22 years old she married the young man, called 
“Wash” for short. She must have had a most uncomfortable 
time, brief as it was. Nevertheless, this first marriage may 
have been the answer to her problems, because such corres- 
pondence as is available indicates no difficulties with health 
or indeed of any kind whatever. Life with Mary Morse Baker 
Glover could not have been exceedingly restful. Regardless 

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of these theoretical cogitations, six months after their mar- 
riage Wash Glover developed yellow fever, which was a 
prevalent disease in those days. He died promptly and was at 
peace. 

Left destitute, the young widow was sent by brother 
Masons of Glover to New York; from there she went back 
to Concord, where in September she gave birth to a son 
called George Washington Glover. Promptly she farmed out 
the boy to friends, and developed again the spasms, the fits, 
the convulsions, and the old hysterical performances that 
had made her such a nuisance and indeed such a problem 
in her early days. About this time she developed the idea 
that she was again a child and had to be rocked to sleep. She 
was living with her sister, a widow named Tilton. A cradle 
was built for her and hung from the ceiling. Here she would 
lie and here for hours at a time her nephew or some boy 
from the village would swing Mrs. Glover. The standard fee 
varied from a penny to a dime. Gradually she developed 
greater and greater lassitude and weakness. No longer would 
she even attempt to walk about. She would simply lie in bed 
and be waited on. 

When she was 32 years old there came to her community 
a traveling dentist, homeopath, and sewing machine agent, 
named Dr. Daniel Patterson, a handsome man with long, 
bushy whiskers, who wore a tall hat and a frock coat and 
who might have been the Adolph Menjou of his time. On 
June 21, 1853, he married the invalid, and from that time 
on they lived a restless existence; living indeed in six cities 
in five years, while he practiced some of his professions. 
Always they remained until the jealousy of his wife or the 
indignation of the husband of some handsome patient caused 
Dr. Patterson to move on. During all this period Mary 
Morse Baker Glover Patterson occasionally ventured essays 
or poems which the village gazettes printed in lieu of mod- 
ern advertising. 

Eventually the Civil War came on, and, perhaps in search 
of peace, Doctor Patterson went to war. He was captured and 
confined in Libby Prison. Now his wife, 40 years old, left 

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alone again, lived about with relatives and with friends, a 
most unhappy existence, since friends are likely to be crit- 
ical and relatives may be worse. Under such circumstances 
her physical complaints gave her increasing difficulty. She lay 
in bed arguing, battling, contesting with everyone. She tried 
eclecticism, spiritualism, mesmerism, hydrotherapy, indeed 
any type of cure that any type of healer would offer. 

PHINEAS PARKHURST QUIMBY 

Among the disciples of Mesmer was one Charles Poyen, 
who traveled about in the New England states giving lec- 
tures and demonstrations. These attracted wide attention. 
Eventually Poyen came to the town of Belfast in Maine, 
where, in 1848, one of his demonstrations was witnessed by 
Phineas Parkhurst Quimby, son of a blacksmith, and himself 
something of a jeweler and clock maker. Quimby was fasci- 
nated by the mesmeric demonstration. Poyen found in the 
clock maker an unusual personality. He gave him instruc- 
tions in the mesmeric method. 

By this time the magnetic healers had found that it was 
possible to fix the attention of the subject to such an extent 
that the subject would pass into what is called today a hyp- 
noidal or trance state, in which the person is unusually 
suggestible. Soon it was found that some persons were much 
more easily hypnotized or magnetized than others. Quimby 
found a boy 17 years old, named Lucius Burkman, who was 
of this sensitive character. So Quimby traveled around with 
Lucius Burkman, giving demonstrations in magnetic heal- 
ing, also predicting the future and finding lost objects. 

The physician attempts to diagnose disease by obtaining 
the history of the patient, which he correlates with the 
stories of patients of previous days who have had similar 
experiences. He then makes a physical examination, deter- 
mining through palpation, percussion and auscultation sig- 
nificant changes in the normal reactions of the body. Finally, 
he may take from the patient specimens of blood and of vari- 
ous excretions and secretions which are submitted to deter- 
mine whether or not they are normal. 

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The magnetic healer merely brought the sick person close 
to the subject who was in the hypnoidal state. The subject 
would then announce the nature of the illness and prescribe 
a remedy. Obviously the performance was impressive and 
not a few patients promptly declared themselves benefited 
merely from contact with the medium without even waiting 
for the remedy that the medium might prescribe. One day 
Burkman prescribed a remedy that Quimby did not have. 
Quimby therefore substituted another remedy, whereupon 
the patient promptly recovered. It then occurred to Quimby 
that the remedy was of little importance, but that some vital 
force must instead be responsible. 

THE RUBBING TREATMENT 

At this time he developed what may be called the “rub- 
bing” treatment, a method which again brings to mind the 
idea of electrical phenomena of positive and negative poles. 
In this technic, the patient unclad was placed upon a table 
before the healer. With one hand the healer rubbed the 
center of the patient’s abdomen and if the disease happened 
to be in the upper half of the body, he rubbed, with the 
other hand, the top of the patient’s head. If, however, the 
disease affected the lower half of the body, the hands were 
reversed, the right hand manipulating the region in the 
neighborhood of the umbilicus, and the left hand rubbing 
the feet. The patient understood from this procedure that 
the disease was passing from his body. 

Readers will recall the conception of the Leyden jar, the 
galvanic cell in Mesmer’s temple, Graham’s electrical celes- 
tial bed, Benjamin Franklin’s kite which drew down elec- 
tricity from the skies, and Elisha Perkins’ positive and 
negative tractors. 

MRS. PATTERSON CONSULTS QUIMBY 

Soon Quimby found that it was not even necessary to lay 
hands on the patient, but that the same results could be 
achieved by the mind alone. He thus may be credited with 
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Phineas Parkhurst Quimby was known throughout the New 
England states. His consulting room was packed with pa- 
tients. He was compelled to respond to many requests for 
advice and information. By 1861 his repute had reached the 
little town in New Hampshire where Mary Morse Baker 
Glover Patterson was living previous to the departure of 
‘‘the Doctor” for the Union Army. Indeed, Doctor Patterson 
wrote on October 14 to Doctor Quimby, asking him to visit 
Concord so that he might give his attention to Mrs. Patter- 
son. In 1862, Mrs. Patterson herself wrote to Quimby beg- 
ging him to give her attention. Eventually, toward the end 
of October, 1862, she accumulated sufficient funds to enable 
her to go to Portland, Maine, where she was seen by 
Quimby. She staggered into his office, apparently still able 
to walk; but then she dropped into a chair, and apparently 
went into one of her routines, as the theatrical jargon would 
put it. Quimby cured her in two treatments, so that a few 
weeks later she climbed 182 steps to the dome of the city 
hall as evidence of her recovery. The Christian Scientists 
refer to the performance as a miracle. It is not, however, in 
any sense of the word remarkable. It represents merely the 
treatment by suggestion of a patient with hysterical fits and 
paralysis, and the curing of a mental condition by the use of 
the mind alone. Such performances are a daily occurrence in 
medical practice. The doctors of an earlier day were wont to 
relieve hysterical complaints and simulated illnesses by what 
is known as the “ice water” method. After the young lady 
had remained in bed several days and announced her in- 
ability to be of assistance in household duties on frequent 
occasions, the old family doctor would be called to the bed- 
side. His diagnosis would be made promptly. Then he would 
go out to the pump, break the ice, and pull up a bucket full 
of water. Warily approaching the bed with his armamen- 
tarium hidden behind him, he would suddenly empty the 
bucket of ice water on the recumbent damsel. She would 
leap from her couch and would soon be found busily wash- 
ing the dishes, apparently cured by a single treatment. 

Not long since a Chicago physician, speaking in a small 

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village in Canada, was asked to see a girl who had lain in 
bed for many months apparently paralyzed. He examined 
her and found that all of the joints were freely movable. 
When a limb has been paralyzed for some time the joint 
becomes fixed exactly as does a joint that has been held in a 
plaster cast. Moreover, he found that the tissues of one leg 
were as good as those of the other, whereas paralysis brought 
about by meningitis, or by poliomyelitis or infantile paralysis 
produces a wasting of the tissues so that one leg is smaller 
than the other. Having determined that the girl was not 
subject to any organic disease, he suggested to her the basis 
of his information, and by the power of psychotherapy alone 
caused her to arise and walk about. This, however, was not 
a miracle; it was merely the diagnosis by scientific methods 
of the presence of hysterical paralysis and a cure by the 
power of suggestion. 

THE POWER OF SUGGESTION 

Everyone is familiar with the manner in which certain 
disturbances may be controlled through fixation of the atten- 
tion. If one wishes to avoid sneezing, he presses his upper 
lip. Hiccups are treated by sipping seven sips of water, by 
eating some dry bread, or by fixing the eye on some distant 
object, or even by counting to one hundred. If, however, the 
hiccups happen to be due to an infectious disorder which 
inflames and stimulates the route of the phrenic nerve, send- 
ing constant stimuli to the diaphragm, the hiccups continue. 
Such hiccups are controllable only by physical measures. 
There is a story told of two British soldiers who were in the 
trenches with great masses of shot and shell flying here and 
there. Amidst the thundering of the guns, one of the boys 
turned to the other and said, “Scare me, Al, I got the 
hiccups/’ He knew the value of the power of suggestion. 

MRS. PATTERSON STUDIES QUIMBY’S TECHNIC 

So now Mary Morse Baker Glover Patterson had a new 
interest in life. She was 40 years of age, brilliant, vivacious, 
and beginning to be handsome. Quimby was 65 years of age. 

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She sat in adoration at his feet. She wrote love sonnets which 
have been collected and which have come to public atten- 
tion, interesting not for their poetical merit but because she 
wrote them. She published a tribute to Quimby in the Port- 
land Courier , again interesting for its historical relations 
rather than for its epic qualities. She determined indeed to 
study Quimby ’s method. In the meantime, Phineas Park- 
hurst Quimby had himself become aware of the significance 
of his technic and had determined to put it on permanent 
record. Uneducated, he called in to assist him the two daugh- 
ters of a judge who lived in that vicinity, and also his son. 
To them he dictated his message. Frequently they would 
remonstrate with the old man, pointing out to him his 
numerous repetitions. He insisted, however, that everything 
be written in his own language, and he said that anything 
worth saying once is worth repeating again and again. The 
first edition of the book called Science and Health with 
Key to the Scriptures is thus a plagiarism of the Quimby 
manuscript, for Mrs. Patterson had borrowed Quimby’s 
texts, and these she used as the basis for her own volume. 
The evidence is present even in the repetitions against 
which the daughters of the judge remonstrated. The lady 
who founded Christian Science was not herself extremely 
well educated; her work is full of grammatical errors with 
amusing failures to comprehend the meaning of words. She 
confused Washington Irving with Charles Dickens, which is 
not such a serious error, for even Henry Ford confused 
Arnold Bennett and Benedict Arnold. However, she seems 
also to have confused adultery and adulteration, a somewhat 
more serious error. 

MRS. PATTERSON ARRANGES SOME SEPARATIONS 

Eventually Doctor Patterson returned from the War. He 
had apparently been able to cope with the invalid Mrs. 
Patterson, but the healthy lady was a little too much for him. 
He finally arranged to pay her an allowance of $200 a year, 
and a separation was arranged. Then came the divorce! And 
with it, a separation of Mary Morse Baker Glover Patterson 

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from her sister Abigail, who had taken care of her during the 
days of her trials and tribulations. Mrs. Patterson, now 50 
years old, lived about with friends and even with acquaint- 
ances, copying the Quimby manuscripts and preparing for 
the world her future revelations. Wherever she went she 
preached the doctrine of mind healing. She lived briefly in 
the home of a factory worker named Hiram Crafts. She sold 
him so certainly on the idea that he gave up his job and 
put in the newspaper an announcement of his ability in 
mind healing. Unfortunately at this time Mrs. Crafts, who 
had been doing the housework while the mind healing 
seances were being conducted, decided that a third party in 
the home was conducive to disharmony, and Mrs. Patterson 
departed for other quarters. She went to the home of a 
woman named Webster, presumably to stay for a night, but 
she remained many weeks and months. It was from this 
home that she was bodily ejected. 

Meanwhile such time as she had was spent in working and 
reworking and modifying her manuscripts. Finally, in 1868, 
in a publication devoted to spiritualism appeared her first 
bid as an educator in the field of mind healing. A copy of the 
announcement follows: 

ANY PERSON desiring to learn how to teach the sick, 
can receive from the undersigned instruction, that will 
enable them to commence healing on a principle of sci- 
ence with a success far beyond any of the present modes . 
No medicine, electricity, physiology or hygiene required 
for unparalleled success in the most difficult cases. No 
pay is required unless the skill is obtained . 

Address Mrs. MARY B. GLOVER. 
Amesbury, Mass. Box 61. 

RICHARD KENNEDY JOINS MRS. PATTERSON 

And then came another of the men with whom her life 
is so intimately bound, a living proof of her fascination and 
the personality by which she secured her disciples. In 1870 
this remarkable woman, 50 years old, secured as a follower a 
boy named Richard Kennedy, 2 1 years old. She had met him 

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two years before in a home where cogitations on mind 
science were a frequent topic of conversation. Then at 21, 
she took him as a pupil, associated him with her in her 
efforts, and signed with him a contract whereby he promised, 
in return for instructions, to provide for her living expenses 
and to give her half of his income from his practice. To- 
gether they went to Lynn, Massachusetts, there to establish 
the first school of mind healing, the school from which 
thousands of mind healers have come forth to practice their 
one-track system of healing on the American people. 

LYDIA PINKHAM IN LYNN, MASSACHUSETTS 

It is interesting to recall at this time the fact that Lynn, 
Massachusetts, was also the home of that other great woman 
of New England, saver of American womankind, Mrs. Lydia 
Pinkham. She it was who first introduced into American 
advertising the two marvelous slogans — “Coming events cast 
their shadows before,” and “Reach for a vegetable instead of 
a sweet.” 

In Lynn, Massachusetts, in 1870, in the home of a good- 
looking school mistress, Susie Magoun, Richard Kennedy 
and his elderly preceptor set themselves up as practitioners 
of mind science. On a tree in front of the house was nailed 
a board reading “Dr. Kennedy.” In this land of the free any- 
body can call himself doctor with impunity. We have doctors 
of baking, horseshoeing, and the tonsorial arts. Indeed, the 
total number of doctors is exceeded only by the number 
of available professors. 

Almost from the first the combination of Kennedy and 
Glover (for by this time the lady had reverted to her first 
husband’s name) began to attract patients. Unfortunately, 
however. Doctor Kennedy cotild not keep his hands off his 
clients. He began by rubbing their temples with his moist- 
ened fingers while he recited the ritual developed by Mrs. 
Glover. He was sympathetic and he had the personality that 
convinces. Few people realized at first, as stated by Stefan 
Zweig in his marvelous study of Mrs. Eddy in Mental Heal- 
ers, that upstairs in one of the rooms was sitting the old lady 

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who animated Richard Kennedy with her energy. Indeed, 
says Zweig, “Never did she show herself in the consulting- 
room of her Golem.” But from this time on Mrs. Glover 
began to realize the value of the shekels that were to pour 
from the coffers of the sick into the coffers of Christian 
Science. From this time on every step that she took was 
marked by a written contract. She had professional cards 
printed, calling herself “Mrs. M. Glover, Teacher of Moral 
Science.” 

She now began to receive her pupils. Eventually she gave 
courses of twelve lectures, lasting three weeks, for a fee of 
$300. The opening fee was $100, but was soon increased to 
the $300. Moreover, every member of her class agreed to 
pay to her 10 per cent annually of the income received from 
practice. It is reported that she had some 1,200 pupils in 
four years, who, even at an average fee of $200, must have 
yielded a considerable income. Here was a medical school 
without prerequisites and a system of practice that anybody 
could learn. Here also was a school with an entire course in 
twelve lectures and with a textbook consisting merely of one 
of Quimby’s manuscripts, with Mrs. Glover’s improvements, 
if they can be called improvements. Indeed, the lady worked 
over the manuscript so often that eventually she felt it was 
her own. 

Much has been written and probably much more will con- 
tinue to be written concerning the relationship of the elderly 
Mary Morse Baker Glover, without the Patterson, and Rich- 
ard Kennedy. Here was a woman at a critical period in 
her life associated with a young man, a woman now begin- 
ning to feel the thrill of success, able to buy the clothing, the 
food, and the necessities of life which had previously been 
grudgingly tendered to her. Stefan Zweig feels that she ex- 
pected from Richard Kennedy something which he did not 
and could not give. Indeed, says Zweig, “The woman in her, 
the fleshly woman, wanted recognition quite as much as the 
prophetess wanted veneration, although she may never have 
given a plain sign of it to the young man.” 

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THE QUARREL WITH KENNEDY 

One evening a game of cards was played in the home of 
Susie Magoun, now Mrs. Dame. In the game were Kennedy, 
Mrs. Dame, and Mary Morse Baker Glover. The hand was 
won by Kennedy, and Mrs. Glover accused him of cheating. 
That night Kennedy produced his contract, tore it up, and 
announced that the partnership was at an end. The lady 
swooned, but Kennedy had apparently learned enough medi- 
cine not to take the swoon seriously. He left her to lie where 
she had fallen, and the next day paid Mrs. Glover $6,000 in 
cash as her share of their two years’ partnership. Hell has no 
fury like a woman’s scorn. From this moment Mrs. Glover 
asserted that Kennedy was an evil spirit constantly working 
against her. She read him out of the party and accused him 
of sending out adverse mental influences against her. Indeed, 
she was particularly careful to emphasize the fact that Ken- 
nedy was not practicing pure mind medicine but was laying 
his hands upon the patients. It was at this time that she wrote 
the following letter, quoted by Joseph Jastrow in Psychology 
of Conviction: 

“Among our very first students was the mesmerist afore- 
said , who has followed the cause of metaphysical healing as 
a hound follows his prey . . . . This malpractitioner tried 
his best to break down our health before we learned the 
cause of our sufferings . 

“His mental malpractice has made him a moral leper that 
would be shunned as the most prolific cause of sickness and 
sin , did the sick understand the cause of their relapses and 
protracted treatment, the husband the loss of the wife, and 
the mother the death of her child . 

“Filled with revenge and evil passions, the malpracti- 
tioner can only depend on manipulation, and rubs the heads 
of patients years together, first incorporating their minds 
through this process. . . . Through the control this gives 
the practitioner over patients, he readily reaches the mind of 
the community to injure another or promote himself, but 
none can track his foul course. 

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“Sooner suffer a doctor infected with smallpox 1 to be 
about you than come under the treatment of one who 
manipulates his patients ' heads. 

“The distance from ordinary medical practice to Christian 
Science is full many a league in the line of light ; but to go 
in healing from the use of inanimate drugs to the misuse of 
human will power is to drop from the platform of common 
manhood into the very mire of iniquity.” 

This was the beginning of Mrs. Glover’s doctrine of 
malicious animal magnetism, a phrase which is merely an- 
other name for witchcraft or magic, but an idea which 
preyed so greatly on the mind of this prophet of healing that 
she devoted a chapter to it in the third edition of Science 
and Health. 

THE PLAGIARISM OF SCIENCE AND HEALTH 

There is no doubt that the first manuscript from which 
Mrs. Glover worked was the Quimby manuscript. To this 
she constantly added, and again and again the text was re- 
written either by her alone or by some of the disciples who 
associated themselves with her. The poor lady’s education 
had never been good, as has been mentioned, and the manu- 
script shows the effects not only of this lack of education, 
but also of the many hands that worked upon it. Wherever 
it seemed to lack in order to meet the needs of some special 
inquirer, it could always be bolstered up. In the end it rep- 
resented the creed of Pollyanna that everything is for the 
best and that one need simply disregard all of the cruelties 
and facts of life. Just as soon as the leaders found that an 
aching tooth could be relieved only by extraction, the doc- 
trines were modified to permit extractions. When it was 
realized that a broken bone would heal properly only after 
it had good surgical attention, that type of attention was 
permitted. But little children went on dying of diphtheria 
while their confused parents sat beside the bed and mur- 
mured that “God is love.’’ It is impossible to estimate exactly 

1 The admission that there is such a thing as smallpox infection is, of course, 
inconsistent with Mrs. Eddy’s precepts, as with her many denials of its reality. 

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how many children may have died through this persistent 
credulity or ignorance in those to whom they had a right to 
look for safety, but the number is certainly in the thousands. 

There is plenty of evidence that Mrs. Glover developed 
her system of science from the Quimby technic. There is 
even a letter which she wrote to Julius A. Dresser, successor 
to Quimby, begging him to heal her of her spinal affliction 
by the Quimby technic. By 1880 the lady had even begun 
to deny the existence of Quimby. 

MRS. GLOVER PASSES THE CLIMACTERIC 

Whenever she wanted to indulge in some remarkable 
exacerbation of her personality she could find excuse for it 
in a revelation from her special providence. Now, at 55 years 
of age, she indulged in what all physicians recognize as the 
peculiar mental changes associated with women at the cli- 
macteric. The records of every type of faith healing and 
magic in medicine provide thousands of cases of women who 
at this stage in their lives developed complaints which are 
largely mental reflections of their physical condition, and 
who have been healed by the methods of magic. Stefan 
Zweig is convinced that there was always something wrong 
with the sex life of Mary Baker, “as was plainly shown by 
her indifference (almost detestation) in the matter of her 
only child, and by her repeated endeavours to compensate 
for this lack of maternal feeling by marrying or adopting 
young men.” Obviously all these pupils looked upon her as 
a goddess and followed her in mute adoration. 

DANIEL HARRISON SPOFFORD AND ASA GILBERT EDDY 

Following Kennedy, there came into her life Daniel Har- 
rison Spofford, affectionately called “Harry” by the high 
priestess of mind healing. On December 30, 1876, she wrote 
to Spofford, “Now, Dr. Spofford, won’t you exercise reason 
and let me live, or will you kill me? Your mind is just what 
has brought on my relapse and I shall never recover if you 
do not govern yourself and turn your thoughts wholly away 
from me. Do not think of returning to me again. I shall 

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never again trust a man. They know not what manner of 
temptations assail. God produces the separation and I must 
submit to it so must you.” 

Twenty-four hours later, however, Spofford received a 
message to the effect that the lady of his bosom was about to 
marry a friend to whom he had introduced her, Asa Gilbert 
Eddy. Eddy was a bible and sewing machine agent, both 
good occupations at a time when the United States was over- 
whelmed with agents selling sewing machines from door to 
door on the installment plan. He was a quiet, self-effacing, 
unassuming person; indeed, his sister said of him that he 
could do up his own shirts as well as any woman — just the 
type for a dominant personality like that of Mary Morse 
Baker Glover Patterson. It is interesting that the weakest of 
all her spouses should have conferred upon her the name by 
which she is now and will forever be known to all the world. 
On the marriage certificate both partners gave their ages as 
40 which fooled no one, not even themselves. 

Mrs. Eddy had thought a great deal of Daniel Harrison 
Spofford, but her temperament was such that those whom 
she could not love she hated. Now that she was married to 
Eddy, the wrath that had previously been bestowed on 
Kennedy was thrown to Spofford, even though she had given 
him the gold pen with which she insisted that she had first 
written Science and Health. She now pursued him with mal- 
evolence that is typical of her type of mentality. In 1878 at 
Salem, Massachusetts, noted for its trials for witchcraft, suit 
was brought against Daniel Harrison Spofford, charging him 
with malicious animal magnetism. His attorney pleaded that 
it was not in the power of the law to control a man’s mind, 
and the hearing was dismissed. One night Daniel Spofford 
was seized upon in the streets and beaten; indeed, given 
what is now called the “Chicago treatment.” His response 
was to bring suit for damages — and he had damages — against 
Eddy. It was wise to resort to the law. Our present charla- 
tans continually resort to the law as a means of justification 
and for the publicity that it will bring. Mrs. Mary Morse 
Baker Glover Patterson Eddy was always in the courts, in- 

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deed so frequently that the judges used to welcome her with 
smiles on each new appearance. 

She passed through all of the vicissitudes of every cultist 
leader. Sometimes her disciples withdrew in a body, but in- 
variably they or others returned. In 1882, when she was over 
60 years of age, because of difficulties with some of her asso- 
ciates in Lynn, she removed to Boston. In the same year 
there passed from this world her last official husband, Asa 
Gilbert Eddy. He died of heart disease, which must have 
been a great disappointment to the lady who maintained 
that disease was just a figment of the imagination. At this 
time her battered mind developed the notion that Eddy had 
been destroyed by her enemies, so she insisted on a post- 
mortem, which revealed endocarditis and myocarditis, a de- 
struction of the inner lining and of the muscles of the heart, 
due undoubtedly to infection. The lady refused to accept 
the scientific evidence of post-mortem examination. She in- 
sisted that he had been murdered by metaphysical arsenic or 
mental poison, and in an interview with the Boston Post she 
reiterated that it was “mesmeric poison” that had destroyed 
her husband. 


REJUVENATION AT SIXTY-ONE 

At 61 years of age most women are content, even in these 
modern times when grandmothers, in short skirts and with 
the aid of the beauty parlor, prance about in night clubs 
until the early hours of the morning, to spend much of their 
time resting quietly by the fire. But not Mary Morse Baker 
Glover Patterson Eddy! At this age she was just beginning to 
develop her magnificent organization in Boston. She pur- 
chased a three-story mansion, installed a lecture theater, 
marked her door with a silver plate. She read regularly on 
Sundays in her church and founded her monthly paper for 
the spreading of her propaganda. Each of the healers who 
went forth were agents for her magazine and her bible. 
Money poured in steadily and the doctrine grew. All sorts of 
subsidies were developed and the great central organization 
profited by each of them. The articles for sale included 

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authentic photographs of the prophetess at $5 each, pam- 
phlets, badges and books. There were even “Christian 
science’ * spoons, for this was the time of the spoon fad in 
the United States. These spoons carried Mrs. Eddy’s por- 
trait in enamel. 

Mrs. Eddy loved money, but she loved power even more. 
Perhaps money to her meant nothing but power, but from 
this time on money seems to have been the driving motive 
of her life. In the seventieth year of her life she retired to 
her home in Concord, New Hampshire, from which, how- 
ever, she issued the edicts which made the final changes in 
her great organization. At this time preachers in the church 
were replaced by readers, the mother church was established 
to receive all funds controlled by a central board of direc- 
tors, and there was a definite understanding that the capital 
could not be spent but only the income. 

At this age she naturally began to suffer with pains that 
come to all the aged. There is plenty of evidence that she 
had her pains alleviated by the methods usually adopted by 
medical science; the prescriptions for morphine are avail- 
able, showing how she secured relief. 

FOSTER EDDY AND CALVIN A. FRYE 

Still perhaps driven by the motives which had dominated 
her earlier life, she now adopted a homeopathic physician 
named Dr. Ebenezer J. Foster and renamed him Foster Eddy. 
But when she heard that Foster had become occasionally 
addicted to interest in somewhat younger ladies, she parted 
company with him, and turned to the factotum who domi- 
nated her in the concluding years of her life, Calvin A. Frye. 
He it was who kept her books, served as a footman when she 
went out driving, gave her injections of morphine, and 
guided and dominated completely her closing years. She 
spoke of him constantly as “the most disagreeable man that 
can be found,’’ but their relationship was perhaps of that 
masochistic type which makes the servant delight in his in- 
feriority, but makes him actually master of the one he serves. 

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THE APOTHEOSIS 

In 1902, just before she died, Mrs. Eddy raised $2,000,000 
for the building of the great church in Boston. In 1906 the 
church was dedicated, and delegates from all over the world 
attended the triumph. Mrs. Eddy did not attend. She 
thought it better perhaps not to have the world see her 
physically a wreck, mentally failing, about to die. Since the 
enemies of her church now made the charge that this woman 
who had denied physical existence was herself about to suc- 
cumb to mortal destruction, arrangements were made for an 
interview with representatives of the press at her home in 
Concord. The arts of beautification, subsequently to be de- 
scribed in this volume, had not yet been developed to their 
present high standing. The arts that permit Fanny Ward, 
Sophie Tucker, and other somewhat ancient performers on 
the public stage to have the appearance of youth had not 
been made available. Mrs. Eddy appeared rouged, powdered, 
and decorated with a diamond necklace, ermine cloak, and 
ostrich plumes, but with all these accompaniments she was 
merely the shadow of a being. 

Each day she used to drive through the streets that the 
faithful might look upon her. One day an adventurous re- 
porter from the New York World leaped on the step of the 
carriage, took the umbrella from the hand of the woman, 
and discovered that not Mrs. Eddy but her maid, dressed to 
resemble Mrs. Eddy, was receiving the adoration of the 
faithful. 

When she died and her remains were conveyed to their 
place of burial, it was found necessary to have one engine 
precede and one follow her last conveyance so that the body 
might be protected from any material accident. 

CHRISTIAN SCIENCE HEALERS 

Christian Science is of interest in this outline of medical 
follies for its demonstration of the life of a great cultist 
leader who is perhaps typical in her life of all cultist leaders, 
and second because of the number of healers who practice 

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mental medicine in the United States. A recent survey by 
Dr. Louis S. Reed indicates that there are in the United 
States today approximately 8,848 practitioners located in 
every state of the Union, but primarily in California where 
there are 1,887, or 34 to every one hundred thousand inhabi- 
tants. The District of Columbia, Colorado, New Hampshire, 
Massachusetts, and Illinois also have large numbers in pro- 
portion to their populations. Most of the healers are located 
in the large cities rather than in rural districts. Strangely 
enough there are 44 1 Christian Science nurses who cooperate 
with the practitioners. Another interesting fact is the indi- 
cation that 90 per cent of all Christian Science practitioners 
are women. Whether this is due to the influence of the high 
priestess in the establishment of the cult, or whether it is due 
to the fact that few healers practice their belief as a full time 
occupation it is difficult to say. Certainly the big money 
makers in many instances are men who practice their art on 
the ladies of leisure to whom the attentions of the faith 
healer are merely a method of occupying the mind — or 
maybe not only the mind. 

It has been estimated that there are approximately 
2,000,000 of the 120,000,000 people in the United States 
who are affiliated with Christian Science, and that altogether 
there are some 10,000,000 of our people who think first of 
faith and second of science in time of disease. Personally I 
have no wish to interfere with any adult choosing any 
method of healing that he may desire, but I burn with anger 
when I learn of a father or a mother who has sat solemnly 
by a bedside mumbling Mary Eddy’s metaphysics while a 
child slowly strangles to death with diphtheria. There is 
plenty of evidence that many hundreds of misguided Chris- 
tian Science parents have sat in exactly that manner and 
watched their children die. 

Christian Science happens to be a woman’s religion. Out 
of 137,000 members, 103,000 were women. This may be 
contrasted with the two-thirds to one-third proportion that 
exists in the Episcopal and Presbyterian churches and the 

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almost even number of men and women associated in the 
Catholic church. 

Until recent years, Christian Science, through its business 
methods, was able to dominate the press so that newspapers 
would print no word of criticism, magazines no articles of 
sensation, and publishers no books of facts. Within the last 
few years the censorship has been broken, culminating in the 
famous volume by Edwin Franden Dakin, entitled Mrs. 
Eddy , the Biography of a Virginal Mind, in 1930. The Dakin 
book reveals all of the facts of Mrs. Eddy’s life. An attempt 
was made by the Christian Science church to prevent its 
sale and indeed to buy up the books, but without success. 
Today it is even to be found on drug store book counters 
and can be bought for a dollar. The response of the church 
was to republish the so-called authentic biography by Sybil 
Wilbur, which is a glorification of the high priestess and to 
permit C. Lyman Powell, who had once written a somewhat 
skeptical biography, to rewrite his book as a saccharinelike 
appreciation of Christian Science. 

The investigations of Doctor Reed indicate that the aver- 
age income of Christian Science healers is approximately 
$1,500 a year net. 

CHRISTIAN SCIENCE OFFSHOOTS 

As a whole the people of the United States spend 
$9,000,000 annually in this form of healing. With Christian 
Science, however, have come some thirty-five or more other 
forms of mental healing, many of them including the word 
“science” associated with some other term. There is, for 
instance, “Divine science,” “Applied science,” and “Uni- 
fied science,” and New York City has a “Jewish science.” 
The latter has its bible, a book called Jewish Science and 
Health, with a Key to the Scriptures. Its founder is Rabbi 
Morris Lichtenstein, who began the cult in 1922, with the 
idea, no doubt, that it was hardly fair for the gentiles to 
have a monopoly on this system of easy money. 

The Church of the Universal Design is an outgrowth of 
Christian Science. New Thought seems to include all of the 

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modern religious healing cults as represented not only by 
International New Thought Alliance, but also by Divine 
Science, Home of Truth, Practical Christianity, the Church 
of the Truth, the Emmanuel Movement, and Christ Psy- 
chology. In Kansas City, the Unity movement, begun in 
1886, broadcasts health over the radio by the mind method 
and publishes vast numbers of books, periodicals, and pam- 
phlets. Constantly in the healing room one hundred healers 
sit broadcasting prayers for those who write in requesting 
help. 

Absent treatment is perhaps one of the most astounding of 
all of the accompaniments of mind healing methods. There 
is actually on record an instance of a woman who, after being 
treated by a Christian Science healer in California, returned 
home, making a contract with the healer to continue 
the absent treatment for another year. The woman unfortu- 
nately died three months after returning home, but the 
healer continued the absent treatments for the term of the 
contract. Then he tried to collect from her estate for the 
absent treatment given to her for nine months after her 
death. No doubt, the treatments did her a great deal of good 
wherever she happened to be during those nine months. He 
argued that he had fulfilled his part of the contract and was 
therefore entitled to his fee. In failing to live for the term 
of the contract, she had merely failed to fulfil her part of 
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"Men who have withstood the many huffetings of life without falter- 
ing , but also without looking beyond , are panic-stricken , and tremble 
at the restful vision of the release into forgetfulness.” 

— Georges ClemenceaU, " In the Evening of My Thought.” 


O ut of Christian Science and New Thought have come a 
variety of faith healers who depend wholly on the power 
of suggestion for their results. The manipulative healers de- 
pend on the power of suggestion but they also practice the 
laying on of hands. The naturopaths depend on the power 
of suggestion but they recognize the virtues of fresh air, sun- 
light, and frequent baths. No doubt the modern psycho- 
analysts also and, indeed, even the psychotherapists depend 
much on the power of suggestion, but they at least know 
what they are doing and are under no illusions as to a divine 
background or a religious inspiration. The doctrines which 
follow represent systems of faith healing with cultist leaders 
who exploited the system for personal gain. 

CHRISTIAN PHILOSOPHERS 

The Christian Philosophical Institute, Wilbert LeRoy 
Casper, D.C., Ph.D., Bishop, has held forth in Oakland, Cali- 
fornia. It advertised health-happiness-prosperity, personally 
or by mail. Private treatments were $10 a month, group 
treatments by the Watch-Tower staff $1 a month. The first 
consultation is with “Dr. Casper who, for his own satisfac- 
tion, uses the Sixth Sense method of mental discernment in 
locating the patient’s ailments.” Casper plays the cult game 

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clear across the board. He grants degrees of D.D. and C.P. 
in six months, conferring a beautiful diploma. The D.D. was 
$50; C.P., $100. He promoted a moving picture called the 
Kingdom of Human Hearts . The lady who played the role of 
“Faith” sued him for $6,255 t> ac k salary as secretary and 
actress. In 1924 he went bankrupt, listing his assets as 12 
collection boxes, 12 collection bottles, 11 boxes of posters, 
and a painting eight feet square (value unknown) . When 
he ran afoul of the law, testimony indicated his connection 
with certain osteopaths. He practiced obstetrics, endeavor- 
ing to conjure forth the child by dancing about, laying on 
hands, and boisterous conduct generally. 

CHURCH OF THE UNIVERSAL DESIGN 

This group, formerly known as the Christian Science 
Parent Church, is headed by John V. Dittemore, formerly 
a director in Mrs. Eddy’s great organization. It represents 
a secession from the central group and is unique in advo- 
cating cooperation with physicians. Indeed, it offered two 
physicians the cooperation of its practitioners should they 
wish to avail themselves of such service. 

COUEISM 

Out of France, heralded by such exploitation as was never 
before given to the introduction of any new system of heal- 
ing, came Emile Cou£, druggist, of Nancy. The system that 
he urged was “Self-Mastery by Conscious Autosuggestion.” 
According to Cou£, the power to control the activities of the 
body by autosuggestion is, like sin, an original endowment. 
Every human being possesses it at birth, and if one knows 
how to practice it consciously one may bring physical health 
to the sick, moral health to the neurotic and erring, and 
guide into right paths those who incline to dalliance along 
the primrose way. 

Among the testimonials published by Coue and his fol- 
lowers were claims for the cure of organic heart disease, 
tuberculosis, asthma, prolapse of the uterus, hunchback, in- 
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tions, paralysis of the limbs, club foot, bunions, varicose 
ulcer, and practically everything that made anybody sick, 
anywhere, any time. 

The method of M. Coue was simplicity itself. The patient 
is instructed as follows: 

Every morning before you are fully awake and every eve- 
ning as soon as you are in bed , close your eyes and murmur 
twenty times: “Day by day in every way Ym getting better 
and better.” It is well to be provided with a piece of string 
with twenty knots tied in it so that the counting may be 
mechanical. Let this autosuggestion be made with confidence 
and with faith. The greater the confidence , the more rapid 
and certain the results. Further , each time , whether by day 
or by night , a physical and moral suffering is experienced, 
affirm instantly to yourself that you will not consciously en- 
courage its existence and that you can make it disappear. 
Then, if possible, close your eyes and isolate yourself in 
thought, pass your hands lightly over the seat of pain, or on 
the forehead if the suffering be mental, and say as quickly as 
possible aloud, as long as is necessary, “It's going.” On each 
recurrence of the pain, employ the same method. These exer- 
cises must be made with great simplicity and, above all, 
without effort. 

This is, of course, merely Christian Science with reverse 
English. If the patient has a tumor of the spinal cord, an 
infection of the heart, or a cancer of the stomach, and if he 
is under the care of a competent physician, he can do no 
harm by occupying his spare moments in the mental exer- 
cises suggested. 

When M. Cou£ himself conducted the cure the procedure 
was much more elaborate. Then he emphasized to his people 
the functioning of every organ, calling each by its name. 
The prophet actually became lyrical. He told his patients 
that they would sleep soundly, that their dreams would be 
pleasant, that troubles and worries would melt away, that 
they would awaken to sing, not sigh, that there would be no 
more fears, no more thoughts of unkindness, and that shy- 
ness and self-consciousness would vanish. Above all, M. Coue 

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assured the waiting hundreds that the stomach and intestines 
would function regularly and copiously. So persuasive were 
his words that the vice provost of Eton related how, at one 
of the seances, “hardly had M. Coue finished speaking of the 
certain cure of constipation when the sufferer he had been 
addressing hurried from the room, announcing with mingled 
surprise and triumph that the event was going to justify the 
prediction.” Truly words may move mountains! 

Scientifically expressed, the laws of M. Cou£ were: When 
the will and the imagination are antagonistic, the imagina- 
tion always wins. In the conflict between the will and the 
imagination the force of the imagination is in direct ratio to 
the square of the will. When the will and the imagination 
are in one agreement, one is multiplied by the other. The 
imagination can be directed. To accept any of these laws as 
established, or as consistent with the established principles of 
psychology is quite impossible. Moreover, they conflict with 
common sense and with the facts of human disease as they 
have been established by medical science. 

So, M. Coue came to the United States, heralded by news- 
paper publicity planned by a great syndicate, whose man- 
agers should have known better. During his tour he was 
featured by radio, by motion picture, by lecture, and by all 
the other plans that the publicists use for snaring the 
unwary. 

The man himself gave an impression of sincerity and 
childlike earnestness. He seemed genuinely convinced of his 
own powers of healing and of the fact that he had made a 
great contribution to medical science. Of the many cults 
built on faith healing his was the first that had not been 
erected on a religious basis with more or less specific claims 
of divine inspiration, and this, no doubt, was partially re- 
sponsible for its speedy tendency to oblivion. In one of his 
meetings in Chicago an elderly woman, emaciated, feeble, 
short of breath and with every appearance of heart disease 
was urged, stimulated, and encouraged to walk vigorously. 
Under the stimulus of the excitement she succeeded tem- 
porarily by the exercise of every reserve of energy, and after 

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having served the purpose of this demonstration she retired 
from view, panting and exhausted. Later it was found that 
death had undoubtedly been hastened in several patients by 
tliis urging to an activity which the weakened organs could 
not bear. 

The atmosphere of a Coue demonstration was like that of 
a vaudeville hypnotist; the magic words, the mesmeric 
passes, and even the old parlor trick of suggesting to mem- 
bers of the audience that they could not separate their hands 
after they had pressed them tightly together, were utilized 
to hold attention. And in the background were the crippled, 
the deformed, and the disappointed dupes decoyed by the 
careless sensationalism of the press. 

“M. Coue gave four performances at Orchestra Hall (in 
Chicago) , seating about 3,700 persons, with a top price of 
$2. 00,” wrote Paul Leach. “On the one side of the footlights, 
3,600 persons, there to see a new show, something different to 
please their appetites satiated with fox-trot dancing, cats and 
canaries, and Ziegfeld Follies. On the other side of the foot- 
lights, the man who earnestly tries to tell them all that he is 
no miracle worker; behind him more than one hundred 
cripples. Whether he cures some or not, I have a mental pic- 
ture of a mother who sat in the front row on the stage, 
directly behind the man from Nancy, on her knees an eight- 
year-old boy whose eyes have never seen. The boy sat with 
bowed head, patiently, now and then twisting his slender 
fingers, an eager smile on his lips. He had been told he 
would be made to see. 

“There come storms of applause from the other side of 
the footlights. 

“ ‘What is it?’ the blind boy asks eagerly. 

“ ‘Someone has been cured/ he is told. 

“Outside, half an hour later, the boy patiently asks why 
M. Coue did not make him see with his eyes that have never 
seen. 

“On Saturday M. Coue sails for France, for Nancy. He 
will probably build himself a new chateau. Fifteen thousand 

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persons at four Coue performances had a new thrill. The 
eight-year-old blind boy still sits patiently twisting long 
fingers and wondering why.” 

The Nancy to which M. Coue returned to quiet oblivion 
was the home of a school of scientific hypnotism, under the 
leadership of the great psychologists Liebeault and Bern- 
heim, famous in the sixth and subsequent decades of the 
nineteenth century. The abrupt relief of hysterical symp- 
toms by suggestion and persuasion is a commonplace in the 
practice of the average physician. Unconsciously it is used 
by every successful doctor in the form of encouragement and 
optimistic predictions of recovery. It is the basis of the cult 
of healing brought to high financial power by Mrs. . Mary 
Baker Glover Eddy. As long as there are fools to believe, it 
can always be made the basis of a successful faith-healing 
cult. And as long as there are men there will always be 
believers. 

Not long after Coue returned to France he died. He left 
little of the funds he might have accumulated. Apparently 
the promoters had taken the lion’s share. When the prophet 
dies, the cult soon passes to purgatory with him, unless, as 
was the case of Mary Baker Eddy, it has a financial genius 
to arrange properly for its continuation. 

DIVINE SCIENCE 

Treatment of illness by “Divine Science” consists in per- 
suading the sufferer that God is good, that disease is the 
result of man’s own foolishness, and that God will cure him 
if he will give him a chance. These simple doctrines are 
shrouded, however, in the usual preposterous verbosity. 
Faith is secured by prayer, with the laying on of hands. The 
followers of Dowie, Schlatter, Newell, Hickson, Voliva, and 
more recently John Murray, are the chief disciples of this 
school of healing. 

DOWIEISM 

About 1900 Alexander Dowie announced that he was the 
prophet Elijah returned to earth, although without a chariot. 

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He healed by the laying on of hands. His system was obvi- 
ously faith healing. As a promoter Dowie was no doubt 
second only to Mrs. Eddy in this country. He built up a 
large following, established a city with tremendous indus- 
tries, and formulated church observances and a ritual suf- 
ficient to occupy the minds of those who followed him. Like 
other prophets of healing he thundered against physicians 
and attacked preventive vaccination. When he passed on, the 
holy robes succeeded to Glen Wilbur Voliva, now the czar 
of Zion City, the Jerusalem of the cult. Voliva thinks the 
world is flat. 

EMMANUEL MOVEMENT 

In 1906 the Emmanuel Church Health Class was organ- 
ized by Dr. Elwood Worcester and Dr. Samuel McComb, 
rector of Emmanuel Church, an Episcopalian church in 
Boston. It was planned perhaps as a resisting movement to 
Eddyism, with a view to combining the knowledge of a phy- 
sician and the influence of the church in the healing of 
nervous and mental diseases. The movement spread; other 
churches were established and books were sold in profusion. 
As long as it is limited to the mental conditions Emmanuel- 
ism probably does little harm. One wonders how far it sub- 
stitutes a religious interest for some underlying mental habit 
that is responsible for the illness and that ought to be re- 
moved. How far does it fail by overlooking organic causes of 
mental disease? 

JEWISH SCIENCE 

Rabbi Morris Lichtenstein, perhaps somewhat jealous of 
the profits of Christian Science, prepared a book of Jewish 
Science and Health with all of the orotund verbosity of the 
work which he affected to simulate. He established an elabo- 
rate ritual or prayers, a health prayer consisting of two 
parts: first, the visualization of divine giving and, then, of 
man’s receiving the process of healing and the state of health 
restored through that process. If any particular organ of the 
body is affected, the prayer must affirm that health is saturat- 
ing and obliterating all defection and suffering. 

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Founded in 1922, this cult has made but little progress 
since that date. Rabbi Lichtenstein seems to have been over- 
whelmed by mysticism. He argues that the divine mind 
communicates with the human mind through the imagina- 
tion. Therefore, the human mind should never form nega- 
tive images but must constantly affirm that health is sat- 
urating the system. The cult gives opportunity to a few 
exploiters to become Jewish Science practitioners. These 
healers offer prayers and induce in the patient a religious, 
hopeful attitude — and many a hope has been disappointed. 
The Reverend Lichtenstein wrote to Dr. Louis S. Reed early 
in 1931, suggesting that most of the cases treated by his 
group are cases of neurasthenia and general depression. The 
financial depression which began in 1929 increased tremen- 
dously the number of adherents to strange metaphysical 
doctrines and deluged the country with astrologers, numer- 
ologists, fortune tellers, and similar mystics whose sole pur- 
pose was to induce hope in those whose belief in life had 
been destroyed. 


LEONIC HEALERS 

A group of colored mystics established themselves in New 
York City and advertised their healing powers under the 
signs of the zodiac, offering at the same time horoscopic 
service and direction. The authorities, believing the “Leonic 
healers” to be more “lyin’ ” than Leonic, arrested the group 
and secured the assessment of small fines in municipal 
courts. The enterprise was shortly abandoned. 

NEW THOUGHT 

The term “New Thought” covers the teaching of all of 
the modern healing cults, including Christian Science and 
Jewish Science. It is, however, promoted through the Na- 
tional New Thought Society and the International New 
Thought Alliance. Its legitimate predecessor was the “Tran- 
scendental Movement” of 1830, and it is influenced by the 
doctrines of reincarnation and telepathy. Numerous teachers 
give lectures on relaxation, visualization, accomplishment 

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and manifestation, and activities with music, rhythmic exer- 
cise, “vitalic” breathing, and similar bunk. Hindus and Sene- 
gambians costumed like Hindus, have their followers in 
centers of Yogi philosophy and mysticism. At the last annual 
convention, ten thousand dreamers were present. The New 
Thought bible is Ralph Trine’s book, In Tune with the 
Infinite , which has passed through several hundred editions. 

The New Thought group is, after all, the antecedent not 
only of Christian Science but of Divine Science, the Uni- 
versity of Christ, the Home of Truth, Practical Christianity, 
the Church of the Truth, Christ’s Psychology, and many 
similar groups. Of late, New Thought has taken into its 
fold all of the actual Yogis and Hindu philosophers who 
have toured our country; and many a Senegambian of mixed 
blood, who has straightened his curly locks by the use of 
Madam Walker’s patented preparations, is showing as a 
Hindu mystic before some American audience. 

The difference between Christian Science and New 
Thought is much the same as the difference between chiro- 
practic and naturopathy. Chiropractic tells the individual 
that a bone is pressing on his nerve and must be pulled off 
Naturopathy insists that a ligament is responsible and must 
be pulled off. Christian Science tells its believers to fight 
and to affirm health. New Thought tells its followers to 
relax so that the divine spirit may overcome them. More- 
over, New Thought has lent itself especially to the great 
American craze for commercial success. Whereas most other 
cults emphasize healing, New Thought emphasizes success in 
business. Among some of the pamphlets recently issued are 
the following: “Getting On,” “Faith and Success,” “Dollars 
Want Me,” “Health and Wealth from Within.” Its an- 
nouncements read like those burlesque advertisements in 
Ballyhoo, Hooey, and similar publications which begin, 
“They spoke to me in French, and were they surprised when 
I answered them!” They have seized on the newer psychol- 
ogy and exploited it to the utmost. One suggestion reads: 
“Stand up before your mirror every morning and say; 'I’m 
it, I’m it, I’m as good as you are and a whole lot better.’ ” 

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rawson’s SCHOOL 

F. S. Rawson founded a school in 1919, which works on 
the negative rather than on the positive principle. The per- 
son is supposed to deny vehemently again and again the 
thing that he does not want. Obviously, this also is Christian 
Science with reverse English. Some hundred practitioners 
find it commercially successful. 

SCIENTIFIC CHRISTIANITY 

With headquarters in Kansas City, this organization pub- 
lishes Unity, with a circulation of 185,000. It sends out lec- 
turers, organizes communities, maintains prayer services, 
reaching some three to five million people yearly, not count- 
ing its recent attempts on the radio. The periodical is full of 
the usual preposterous testimonials of too credulous victims. 
A lady in Hot Springs sends a tithe of $50 because a hail- 
storm passed over her front yard. The funds come from 
ti things of 10 per cent. The headquarters in New York is 
directed by Mr. Richard Lynch, who talks on health, happi- 
ness, prosperity, and character formation to from three hun- 
dred to five hundred people. In 1923, he had an audience 
of six. He has probably, however, reached his maximum 
growth. 

What absent treatment is to Christian Science the Unity 
Movement or Scientific Christianity is to New Thought. 
Here is the promise, “Health, happiness, and prosperity for 
a dollar !” This group was founded by Charles and Myrtle 
Fillmore in 1886. From the headquarters in Kansas City 
emanate millions of pamphlets. The catalogue says that 
1,472,000 books, magazines, and tracts are issued every 
month. The radio station works constantly broadcasting 
health to the believers. Ninety workers sit hour after hour 
offering prayers for those who write requesting help. 

SPIRITUALISM 

Houdini exposed spiritualism so successfully that only the 
most credulous are likely to believe in its healing virtues. 

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The beliefs that insanity is due to the poisons of evil spirits 
and that the ghosts of famous physicians are able to write 
prescriptions through a medium are so absurd as to merit 
hardly a moment’s attention. Dr. Titus Bull in New York 
maintains that he has the power to heal by driving out evil 
spirits through his own saintliness and by the laying on of 
hands. The idea that there can be anything saintly in this 
laying on of hands, in the vernacular of the day, is Titus’ 
“bull.” 

THEOSOPHY 

Theosophy embodies telepathy and spiritualism with 
health interests somewhat secondary. Nevertheless, much is 
made of the ability to produce relaxation and relief of pain 
by earnest prayer, a sort of “spiritual anesthetic.” A church 
mission of healing in New York, using this cult, is carried 
on by the Rev. Thomas Calvert, who has developed his own 
system of psychoanalysis and complexes, and who will put 
them to work at $5 for forty-five minutes, $10 for ninety 
minutes, or $15 for two hours. 

One Dr. John D. Quackenbos, with the accent on the first 
syllable of the last name, claimed that he has cured more 
than twenty thousand cases of drug addiction by a system of 
mental maneuvers associated with metaphysical healing. 


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"Despite our remarkable advance of knowledge , nonsense is ever be- 
coming bolder and more rampant; it is preeminently a time of fads 
and crazes , and the question as to how people are to be brought to 
their senses grows urgent ” — W. Duncan McKim. 

"For centuries deductions based upon hypotheses have served as the 
basis upon which the thought and conduct of the human individual 
have been interpreted — Stewart Paton. 


I( /\n June 22, 1874,” says Andrew Still, in his autobiog- 
raphy, “I flung to the breeze the banner of osteopathy.” 
Before flinging it Still had been a free-lance doctor among 
the Shawnee Indians in Kansas. “I soon learned to speak 
their tongue,” he says, “and gave them such drugs as white 
men used, cured most of the cases that I met, and was well 
received by the Shawnees.” 

The founder and promulgator of osteopathy, a most ex- 
traordinary doctrine of human disease and its causation, was 
born in Lee County, Virginia, on August 6, 1828. It appears 
likely that his great-grandfather came to Buncombe County, 
North Carolina, from England; the almost irrelevant fact is 
cited merely because of the name of the county. The Still 
family was early American out of English and Irish, German 
and Scotch sources. Andrew Still was no accepter of author- 
ity even in his youthful days. He refused to attend one 
school because he and the teacher did not agree. The father 
of Andrew Still was a minister, doctor, farmer, and mill- 
wright; his mother, according to Andrew, was “a natural 
mechanic, and made cloth, clothing, and pies to perfection.” 
Analyzing the statements it seems probable that Still dis- 

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covered these unusual mechanical talents in his ancestry 
after he himself had developed his mechanical conception of 
the cause and cure of the ills that flesh may acquire or be 
heir to. 

While traveling about on the frontier Andrew Still be- 
came interested in some bones dug up in an Indian grave- 
yard. From his subtle cogitations on these osteological rem- 
nants, he became convinced that the bones are the most im- 
portant elements in the functioning of the human body, and 
that the backbone is the bone of all bones in the control of 
disease. On this point, in fact, he felt himself the recipient 
of a divine revelation, as he emphasizes repeatedly in his 
story of his life. “Have faith in God as an architect and the 
final triumph of truth, and all will end well,” he says; and 
again: “Osteopathy is the greatest scientific gift of God to 
man.” And still later he wrote: 

Osteopathy is simply this: The law of human life is abso- 
lute , and I believe that God has placed the remedy for every 
disease within the material house in which the spirit of life 
dwells. I believe that the Maker of man has deposited in 
some part or throughout the whole system of the human 
body drugs in abundance to cure all infirmities; that all the 
remedies necessary to health are compounded within the 
human body. They can be administered by adjusting the 
body in such manner that the remedies may naturally asso- 
ciate themselves together. And I have never failed to find all 
these remedies. At times some seemed to be out of reach, but 
by a close study I always found them. So I hold that man 
should study and use only the drugs that are found in his 
own drug-store — that is, in his own body . 

There is Andrew Still’s conception of his revelation. The 
belief in private and confidential relationships with the 
Deity, as has been pointed out, seems to be an inevitable 
part of the credo of every healing cult that has interfered 
with the progress of scientific medicine. It is perhaps a 
necessary ingredient; it lights an inward flame which gives 
the founder and prophet the power to attract his great 
hordes of fanatical followers. After all, in this statement 

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Andrew Still reveals the basis on which are founded the 
claims of all the healing cults, that they have the power to 
cure disease. Here he merely expresses his conception of 
what has been called the vis medicatrix naturae , the innate 
tendency of the body to overcome its afflictions. 

In the spring of 1864 two children and an adopted child 
of Andrew Still died of meningitis. The mental shock to the 
father was severe. “I propounded to myself the serious ques- 
tions/’ he says, “ ‘In sickness has God left man in a world of 
guessing? Guess what is the matter? What to give, and guess 
the result? And when dead, guess where he goes?’ ” In these 
questions are forecast the dissatisfaction of the man with the 
ignorance of his time so far as concerns the causes of disease 
and also his subsequent belief in spiritualism and his own 
alleged powers of telepathy. Today scientific medicine knows 
the cause of meningitis; it uses the antimeningococcic serum 
that has changed a disease with almost one hundred per cent 
of mortality to one that, seen early and properly treated, has 
a mortality of only some ten per cent. It is interesting to 
think that there might have been no osteopathy if the knowl- 
edge of the present day had been available for the family of 
Andrew Still. 

The mechanical trend of the mind of the apostle of osteop- 
athy is shown by his devotion to agricultural inventions 
between 1855 and 1870. He credits himself with the inven- 
tion of the automatic reaper, telling that representatives of 
the Wood Mowing Machine Company visited him and ap- 
propriated his idea. “Wood had the benefit of my idea in 
dollars and cents,” he says, “and I had the experience.” 
Then, too, he developed a mechanical churn. 

EARLY DAYS OF ANDREW STILL 

Now it must be borne in mind that for some fifteen years 
at least Andrew Still had given little if any of his time to 
the diagnosis and treatment of disease. In his autobiography 
he tells us that his mind had been busy with anatomy con- 
tinuously and that finally the great revelation came to him. 
Early in the sixties he had taken a course of instruction in 

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the Kansas City School of Physicians and Surgeons, and had, 
no doubt, practiced for a while, but the intervention of the 
Civil War and his subsequent preoccupation with his inven- 
tions quite definitely removed him from matters medical. It 
appears that he tried to introduce osteopathy at Baldwin 
University in Kansas but the faculty turned him from the 
door. He went to visit his brother in Missouri, whom he 
found to be using “seventy-five bottles of morphine annu- 
ally/’ and he “got him free from opium.’’ Then he went to 
Kirksville, Missouri, stayed three months, and in May, 1875, 
sent for his wife and family. In the preface to his autobiog- 
raphy the sage of osteopathy admits that he may be wrong 
at times as to places and dates, and at this time he does ap- 
pear to be a little confused. He places great importance on 
a case seen and treated in Macon, Missouri, in the autumn 
of 1874. Here, it appears, he followed a woman with three 
children on the street and noticed that one child was suf- 
fering with what he calls a bloody “flux,’’ so severe that 
blood was visible all along the sidewalk. He offered to help 
the woman home with the boy, and he describes pictur- 
esquely the course of the cure: 

I picked him up and placed my hand on the small of his 
back . I found it hot , while the abdomen was cold . The neck 
and the back of the head were also very warm and the face 
and nose very cold . This set me to reasoning , for up to that 
time the most I knew of flux was that it was fatal in a great 
many cases. I had never before asked myself the question : 
What is flux? I began to reason about the spinal cord which 
gives off its motor nerves to the front of the body, its sensory 
to the back ; but that gave no clue to flux . Beginning at the 
base of the child's brain, I found rigid and loose places in the 
muscles and ligaments of the whole spine, while the lumbar 
portion was very much congested and rigid. The thought 
came to me like a flash, that there might be a strain or some 
partial dislocation of the bones of the spine or ribs, and that 
by pressure I could push some of the hot to the cold places, 
and by so doing adjust the bones and set free the nerve and 
blood supply to the bowels. On this basis of reasoning 1 
treated the child's spine, and told the mother to report the 

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next day . She came the next morning with the news that her 
child was well. 

The story possesses all of the features of all of the stories 
that dramatize the cultist to his followers. Here are the sup- 
posedly fatal condition horribly pictured, the sudden revela- 
tion, and the immediate cure. What could be more naive 
than this pushing about of heat and of cold? And what 
story could be more ridiculous in the light of our present 
knowledge of the causes of such conditions as apparently 
afflicted the boy that Andrew Still describes? Indeed, if any- 
thing were lacking, it is promptly supplied in the next phase 
of the story, namely, the alleged persecution of the prophet 
by the citizenry of Macon, Missouri. 

The apparently miraculous cure of the boy with diarrhea 
naturally resulted in numerous calls for the services of the 
adjuster, and he modestly admits that he treated many cases 
with success. Here is his account of his subsequent persecu- 
tion: 

I soon found myself in possession of a large practice. I was 
not so much surprised to discover that all kinds of fevers, 
summer and fall diseases could be cured without drugs as I 
was to hear that a Methodist preacher had assembled my 
brother’s wife and children for the purpose of prayer. He 
had turned fool, or was born that way (as many hurried 
births have in all ages produced idiots) , and the old theo- 
logical blank poured out his idiotic soul to the Lord; telling 
him that my father was a good man and a saint in heaven, 
while he was of the opinion that I was a hopeless sinner, and 
had better have my wind taken away before I got any worse. 
He stirred up a hurrah and hatred in Macon, which ran to 
such a stage that those whom he could influence believed I 
was crazy. Children gave me all the road, because I said I 
did not believe God was a whisky and opium-drug doctor; 
that I believed when He made man that He had put as many 
legs, noses, tongues, and qualities as would be needed for 
any purpose in life for either remedies or comfort. Because 
of such arguments I was called an infidel, crank, crazy, and 
God was advised by such theological hooting owls to kill me 
and save the lambs. 

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The language of the prophet at its best is forceful. In the 
heat of his ire Andrew decided to move; he departed for 
Kirksville. “Long since Osteopathy has been given a big 
welcome in Macon City,” he says later. “They weep and 
mourn because they did not know a true philosophy, and 
help me build an infirmary there and make Macon the 
Athens of learning, in the science of Osteopathy, instead of 
the rival town in an adjoining county.” So at Kirksville he 
stayed, practicing osteopathy and teaching it to his four 
sons. Finally in 1894 he secured the charter of the Ameri- 
can School of Osteopathy, the institution that was to deliver 
upon the people of the United States some thousands of the 
ignorant followers of the osteopathic system of diagnosing 
and treating disease. 

THE BASIC CONCEPTION OF OSTEOPATHY 

The original divine revelation to Still was that the primary 
cause of every disease is some interference with the blood 
supply or nerve function, always caused by a dislocation 
of one of the small bones which make up the spinal column. 
This dislocation, he argued, brings about a change in the size 
of the little openings between the bones, through which the 
nerves and blood vessels pass. The result, according to Still, 
is pressure on the nerves and blood vessels, and disease at 
whatever distant point in the body the nerve or blood vessel 
may lead to. But this primeval osteopathy, handed down 
from heaven almost fifty years ago, was a somewhat different 
osteopathy from that which exists today. The gradual de- 
parture from the original tenets by his followers was a dis- 
appointment to the inspired founder. In numerous lectures 
delivered during 1894 and 1895 he remonstrated with them 
for their growing heterodoxy, and in the Ladies’ Home Jour- 
nal in 1908 he was still “believing . . . that the mechanical 
displacement of the bony vertebrae constitutes most of the 
lesions causing disease.” But even in his own school in Kirks- 
ville, Missouri, students were soon being taught to take care 
of a disturbance affecting the liver by adjusting the spinal 
column first, then waiting a week, and then adjusting the 

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liver itself. Still was against all this. The arterial supply to 
the organ was solely responsible for its health, he claimed, 
and adjustment of the bones to release the arterial supply 
would cure whatever disease beset it. 

THE OSTEOPATH BRANCHES OUT 

The modern osteopath, while still clinging warily to these 
spinal adjustments, reaches out to embrace all that he can 
of modern medicine. He attempts electrical treatment, water 
treatment, massage, anesthesia, even surgery; and when the 
Harrison and Volstead acts were passed he made desperate 
efforts to secure the privilege of prescribing narcotics and 
liquor. The simon-pure theory of Still denies flatly that 
drugs may have any favorable effect on the course of dis- 
ease, but the modern osteopath is apparently convinced that 
chloroform and ether will induce unconsciousness, that mor- 
phine and cocaine will relieve or deaden pain, and that the 
fermented juice of the grape has certain agreeable effects 
when administered in proper dosage, at proper times, and 
to good ends. All this must be taken as evidence that the 
osteopathy of today is essentially an attempt to enter the 
practice of medicine by the back door. 

CHANGES IN MEDICAL EDUCATION 

There was a time when the standard of medical education 
in the United States was a matter for despair. Half-educated 
plowboys and section hands attended a few sessions of medi- 
cal lectures and burst forth in the regalia of the physician. 
The medical schools were shambles. Scientific medicine 
makes no secret of this; it glories, however, in the fact that 
it did its own house-cleaning. In 1901, we reiterate, The 
Journal of the American Medical Association, under the 
editorship of Dr. George H. Simmons, began to publish the 
appalling facts regarding American medical education. That 
publication was like the finger of the housewife who writes 
her name in the dust on the mantelpiece to show the maid 
where to wipe. The organized medical profession promptly 
appointed a special committee to investigate the medical 

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schools, to establish standards, and to hold the schools up to 
those standards, once they were established. The weapon 
used to achieve all this was publicity. School after school, 
searched out and exposed, either met the standard or passed 
into limbo. The number in this country dwindled from al- 
most two hundred to less than ninety. The proprietary medi- 
cal school, conducted for the pecuniary profit of the profes- 
sors, gave way to the endowed institution which spends on 
the student far more than his fees. No longer was it possible 
for those who could hardly read and write to emerge in two 
years with a medical degree. The American M. D. of today 
has had a high school education, two to four years of college 
preparation, four years among the laboratories, lecture rooms 
and clinics of a well-equipped medical school, and one or 
two years enforced attendance as an interne in a standardized 
hospital. Before he can minister to the sick in private prac- 
tice he must also pass a State examination. The route is a 
long and difficult one. It is costly. That is one of the chief 
reasons why there are now osteopaths and other such nonde- 
script healers. 

But there are, of course, other reasons. With the advance 
of medical research, the naive belief in pills and philters 
with which the medical profession of the past was afflicted 
met a crucial test. There came a nearer and nearer approach 
to an actual science of medicine. Again the physicians did 
their own house-cleaning. They created a Council on Phar- 
macy and Chemistry to examine the claims made for all 
drugs, new and old, and to determine their actual virtues. 
If what was offered could not pass the test, it was put into 
an Index Expurgatorius and the facts were published. The 
public, catching this spirit from the medical profession, be- 
gan to waver in its allegiance to powders and pills. It thus 
became psychologically receptive to the claim of the drugless 
healer that his “system’ * was superior to drugging. Many 
such healers went even further. Still, for example, claimed 
that drugs were not only of no value in the treatment of 
disease, but even that they were responsible for most diseases. 

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"systems” of medicine 

Let us pause here a moment to consider this matter of 
"systems.” If there is anything the normal American loves, 
it is a "system.” Consider the immense number offered to 
him month in and month out in the advertising pages of his 
favorite magazines: systems of mind training, house decorat- 
ing, salesmanship, motor repairing, mushroom growing, 
health building, muscle building, eyesight training — systems 
for everything. If you would see the preposterous lengths 
to which the business may be carried in the pursuit of health, 
study the pages of the popular physical culture magazines. 
Now, scientific medicine offers no such system. It aims, by 
the utilization of all available knowledge, to determine the 
cause of disease, and then, by the use of all intelligent meth- 
ods, to benefit and heal the disease. It does not promulgate 
any theory or principle to the exclusion of established facts. 
It does not say, for example, that "all disease arises in the 
spine and all disease can be healed by manipulating the 
spine.” Neither does it say that all disease arises in the mind 
and can be removed by manipulating the mind. No doubt 
the acceptance of such systems by what are said to be intelli- 
gent persons is based on the fact that while they are wholly 
fallacious they are essentially simple. Even a moron knows 
that when you remove the brake on a motor car the wheels 
can go round. And when you tell him that there are brakes 
in the spinal column which keep the blood from flowing 
freely, or the nerves from functioning properly, he thinks 
of the brake on the car, and is sure that the idea is right. 
Imagine that same type of mind trying to understand how a 
tubercle bacillus, which he has never seen and of which he 
cannot conceive, makes a cavity within a human lung! As 
for such matters as the way in which insulin acts to metabo- 
lize sugar in diabetes, or the way in which salvarsan controls 
the insidious spirochaeta pallida — to explain these things 
to him would be as hopeless as explaining the theory of the 
well-advertised Professor Einstein. Scientific medicine ad- 
mits that there are diseases of the mind and diseases of the 

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spine, and its practitioners treat the former by mind-healing 
methods and frequently the latter by braces and supports 
and other manipulative measures. But scientific medicine 
does not treat an abscess of the liver by adjusting the back, 
or a broken leg by attacking the mind. The great fallacy of 
all the “systems” of disease and their healing lies in this 
“all or nothing” policy. When that policy runs counter to 
demonstrable facts the result is invariably disaster. 

INTO MEDICINE BY THE BACK DOOR 

It was the pride of Andrew Still that a number of States 
had legally empowered the graduates of his school to prac- 
tice osteopathy. It is our thesis that osteopathy as it is prac- 
ticed today is essentially an attempt to get into the practice 
of medicine by the back door. In 1917, for example, the 
Supreme Court of Washington convicted a licensed osteo- 
path of practicing medicine without a license because he had 
treated diseased tonsils by administering an anesthetic, plac- 
ing a snare around the tonsils, and cutting them out with a 
knife, after which he administered stypticin to stop bleeding. 
The court said: 

A perusal of the successive catalogues of the schools of 
osteopathy will show that their teachings are gradually being 
expanded and that the more modern of them now teach in 
some degree much that is taught in the older schools of medi- 
cine. The parent school has been more marked in this re- 
spect than perhaps any of them. It now teaches that in 
childbirth lacerations, in certain types of congenital deform- 
ities, in certain kinds of tumors, etc., surgery must step in, 
and that surgery must be resorted to for the removal of 
tissues so badly diseased or degenerated that regeneration is 
impossible by the process of adjustment . But this advance is 
modern. In 1909, the time of the enactment of the medical 
act, it was not in vogue. 

In fact, the laws of the various States which have at- 
tempted to regulate osteopathy have had a hard time of it 
to keep pace with the shifts of the osteopath in his attempt 

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to break into the practice of medicine. The Supreme Court 
of California, for example, told an osteopath who wanted to 
practice optometry that he was not licensed to fit glasses. 
He argued that his license to practice osteopathy under the 
medical practice act made him a physician and that the op- 
tometry law excepted duly licensed physicians. The Court 
ruled that the law permitted him to practice osteopathy and 
nothing more. 

We have forty-eight States in the Republic and we have 
forty-eight different medical practice acts. The Federal Gov- 
ernment encountered great difficulty in regulating the ad- 
ministration of narcotics because of this lack of uniformity. 
In some States osteopathy is, by legal enactment, the practice 
of medicine; in many others it is not. The Treasury Depart- 
ment, facing this conflict, became confused, and finally at- 
tempted to solve the problem by issuing the following order: 
“Osteopaths should be permitted to register and pay special 
tax under the provisions of the act of December 17, 1914, 
provided they are registered as physicians or practitioners 
under the laws of the State and affidavit to that effect is 
made in the application for registration. . . .” But this deci- 
sion made the confusion worse than before. The word “prac- 
titioners” might include clairvoyants, Christian Scientists, 
seventh sons of seventh sons, and all the motley crew that 
prey on the weak and ailing. It might — and often did — in- 
clude osteopaths. 

The evolution of osteopathic practice, as shown by these 
and many other court decisions and departmental regula- 
tions, into something resembling the practice of actual medi- 
cine is probably the reason for the relatively slow develop- 
ment of the cult in the matter of numbers and for the out- 
growth from it of the malignant tumor, chiropractic, which 
is apparently about to engulf the mother organism. Osteop- 
athy, growing complex and “scientific,” ceases to meet the 
demand for simplicity. Chiropractic falls into no such error. 
It appears to be essentially a reversion to the original hypoth- 
esis of Andrew Still, so simple that even farm hands can 
grasp it; indeed, an osteopath, viewing with alarm the in- 

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roads of the new cult, has said that “chiropractic is the first 
three weeks of osteopathy.” 

In 1908 the adherents of osteopathy claimed that the 
mother school had graduated 2,765 students, that schools 
merged with it had shed upon the community another 1,181, 
and that there was a total of 3,946 osteopaths. According to 
the United States Census, there were in the United States, 
in 1920, about 5,030 osteopaths. There were at the same 
time according to the same figures, 144,977 graduate physi- 
cians and surgeons, and 14,774 nondescript healers. Now, for 
a population of about 105,000,000 persons, that is certainly 
not a tremendous number of osteopaths. Apparently the 
public is finding it possible to stagger along fairly well with 
the attentions of the medical profession, which has been 
steadily raising its standards of education. It is, indeed, a 
confession of failure on the part of the cult that it should 
have departed from its original hypothesis and gradually 
embraced the adjustment of parts other than the spine, not 
to mention the use of water, heat, and electricity, and of 
anesthetics, antiseptics, and narcotics. In fact, a considerable 
number of its practitioners have even adopted the extraor- 
dinary hocus-pocus of Albert Abrams as a part of their diag- 
nostic and therapeutic armamentarium. Imagine what anath- 
ema would have been hurled upon the latter group by 
Andrew Still! How he would have ridiculed this apotheosis 
of buncombe! At least there is something real about a jolt 
applied with the thumb and finger to the back or directly to 
the seat of a throbbing, inflamed organ. But think of what 
Still would have said, in his peculiarly exalted language, 
about the diagnosis of disease by hitching up a drop of blood 
on a piece of blotting paper to a crude and confused mass of 
electric wiring, connecting this inanimate, impossible elec- 
tric jumble to a strange subject, and then percussing areas 
of dullness on this subject, and from them diagnosing 
disease! 

It was, indeed, a weakness of osteopathy that it had ambi- 
tions to be a science. When its schools increased their en- 
trance requirements to demand a high-school education — 

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usually on the insistence by legislators in the form of strin- 
gent practice laws — and when they extended their hours of 
study, the blacksmiths, barbers, motormen, and beauty spe- 
cialists who sought an easy road to healing turned by the 
thousands to the chiropractic schools, which demanded no 
preliminary education for matriculation and guaranteed a 
diploma to any aspirant who could pay their fees. 

THE LAXITY OF REGULATION 

Scientific medicine possesses today adequate records of its 
schools and its practitioners. In the offices of the American 
Medical Association in Chicago are all the pertinent facts 
about the medical colleges of the United States — the subjects 
taught, the hours, the teachers, the pupils. There is a card 
for every physician in America, and on it is recorded all that 
is known concerning his qualifications. As one Southern 
practitioner said on seeing the card devoted to his own 
record: “Doctor, they’ve got things on that card that even 
my wife don’t know, and I’ve been a married man goin’ on 
forty years.” Regularly all the medical schools are submitted 
to a rigid inspection. But nobody knows anything for cer- 
tain about most of the osteopathic schools or osteopathic 
practitioners. Even granting that the facts presented by the 
schools themselves are reliable, hours of study do not neces- 
sarily mean hours of training. Truth and scientific facts are 
not guaranteed by the time spent in instruction but by the 
reliability of the subject matter taught. And what of the 
training of the teachers in the colleges of osteopathy: is it 
perhaps a case of the blind leading the blind? The truth of 
the osteopathic theory as to the causation of disease has 
never, of course, been established. If diphtheria bacilli of 
sufficient virulence and dosage are placed on the membranes 
of the throat of animal or man, the result is diphtheria. In 
their absence, no possible dislocation or distortion of bones, 
muscles, ligaments, blood vessels, or nerves will bring about 
that result. 

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FAILURES IN SCIENTIFIC DIAGNOSIS 

Here are two quotations from a report written by the edi- 
tor of an osteopathic magazine; they refer to the death of 
his own son: 

Billie had diphtheria jour days before we knew what he 
had. ... I had never seen a case of diphtheria before ; never 

even thought of looking at his throat. . . . Dr. was 

called the fourth day and diagnosed the trouble at once. He 
is an M.D.; has had wide experience ; has had the training so 
many of us have not had. 

And then later: 

1 don't understand antitoxin ; I can't understand how a 
poison can cure disease or neutralize poisons. Yet when the 
death rate is cut from 50 per cent to 10 per cent , isn't it best 
to be a physician first , and an osteopath second? 

Osteopathy, chiropractic, Coueism, Christian Science, 
every system of healing without regard to established fact, 
comes a cropper when confronted with the established proof 
of the diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases. The 
case of Billie is an exposure of the fallacy that an individual 
may be safely permitted to practice a single branch of medi- 
cine without first undergoing complete instruction in all 
the fundamentals of medical science. But when the incom- 
petent undergoes such a complete course of instruction there 
is revealed to him, alas, the underlying lack of truth in the 
‘‘system’’ or cult to which he has been addicted! 

Physicians see almost daily in their practice the results 
of patients peddling their ailments among the variegated as- 
sortment of peculiar practitioners. Perhaps none of the cases 
which might be cited is more striking than the one described 
by a well-known Eastern neurologist: 

Recently I examined a boy, age 17 , lying in bed, very 
weak, extremely emaciated, totally blind, barely able to 
swallow. The ophthalmoscope ( the instrument which the 
physician uses to look into the back of the eye) revealed 
double optic atrophy (destruction of the optic nerves) . The 

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history of the case is briefly: failing vision over nine months 
in the spring and summer of 1920, very severe headaches and 
frequent attacks of vomiting, often when there was no food 
in the stomach, and repeatedly convulsive seizures limited to 
the right leg without loss of consciousness . It was easy to 
make a diagnosis of brain tumor; but the condition of the 
patient was such that surgical interference was out of the 
question . The diagnosis, which seemed perfectly clear, might 
easily have been made many months ago . The condition of 
the patient for many months was certainly grave and alarm- 
ing, and might have suggested to anyone that it needed 
thorough investigation. During all these months, while the 
vision was fading and blindness coming on, what did the 
boy receive ? Treatment by an osteopath and then a chiro- 
practor, and then treatment by another peculiar practitioner 
and still another practitioner, and so on, but never an 
ophthalmoscopic examination. 

THE AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF STILL 

The autobiography of Andrew Still was published in 1897; 
it is a true piece of Americana, remarkable for the crudeness 
of its style, its florid diction, its religious frenzy and exalta- 
tion. It closes with testimonials and tributes solemn and 
poetical. But in order to get at a little more of the true in- 
wardness of the man, one must consult some of his biog- 
raphers of the osteopathic faith. “Practically, Dr. Still is a 
spiritualist,” says E. R. Booth. And J. H. Sullivan writes: “I 
think the most beautiful thought Dr. Still ever gave voice to 
was that in which he said he believed each red corpuscle in 
the blood had an intelligence all its own, else how can one 
explain the fact of a certain red corpuscle journeying on and 
on, say in a peacock's tail feathers, and finally adding to the 
particular color, which we know to be a physiological fact.” 
Thus may a master dispenser of hokum inspire his followers. 

It is not surprising to find that Andrew Still believed him- 
self possessed of mystical powers. “There are scores of well 
attested instances in which Dr. Still has shown his power of 
clairvoyance — perhaps it would be better to say telepathy,” 
says E. R. Booth. “In the case of Dr. Still he seems to have 

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inherited this power, if such a thing is possible, from both 
sides of his family. . . . Most persons who have spent even 
a short time in Kirksville have heard stories of his power to 
divine what was taking place elsewhere.” 

Like many another prophet of healing Andrew Still was 
eccentric in his habits and in his dress. ‘‘Dr. A. T. Still, or 
as he was familiarly called by those who knew him best, the 
Old Doctor, was never a very particular man about his dress, 
or perhaps, it would be nearer the truth to say that he was 
usually very careless about his personal appearance,” says 
one of his followers. “This seems to be a characteristic of 
nearly all geniuses.” Still, it appears, was fully conscious of 
the impression made by his habits of attire. While working 
at one time in front of his house, repairing the brick walk, 
he was accosted by two ladies who asked him if Dr. Still 
was at home. He replied in the affirmative and they stated 
their request to see the doctor. “If you want to see Dr. Still 
look at me,” the great osteopath said, “but if you want to see 
a fifty dollar suit of clothes and a ‘plug hat/ Mother will 
show them to you, if you will step in the house.” 

As has been seen he resembled all other leaders of healing 
cults in his impatience with believers in other “systems” of 
healing, and he saw no good in any religion except his own. 
“If because I denounce drugs you call me a Christian Scien- 
tist,” he said, “go home and take half a glass of castor oil 
and purge yourself of such notions.” “Every advance step 
in Osteopathy,” he said on another occasion, “leads one to 
greater veneration of the Divine Ruler of the universe.” And 
he resented seriously any insinuation that osteopathy ob- 
tained its effects only in so far as it was a system of massage. 
As to this he said: 

Osteopathy absolutely differs from massage. The definition 
of ' Massage 9 is masso, to knead: shampooing of the body by 
special manipulations such as kneading, tapping, stroking , 
etc. The masseur rubs and kneads the muscles to increase 
the circulation. The Osteopath never rubs. He takes off any 
pressure on blood-vessels or nerves by the adjustment of any 
displacement, whether it be of a bone, cartilage, ligament, 

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tendon, muscle, or even of the fascia which enfolds all struc- 
tures; also by relaxing any contracture of muscle or ligament 
due to displacements, to drafts causing colds, to overwork or 
nerve exhaustion. 

That was the final pronouncement from the osteopathic 
Athens of America. 


MODERN OSTEOPATHY 

Today osteopathy concerns itself with the general practice 
of medicine. Essentially the osteopath is a physician who 
has come into practice by the back door. In addition to prac- 
ticing medicine, the osteopath believes that he adjusts what 
he calls osteopathic lesions. These lesions are presumably 
abnormalities consisting of slight displacements of the sur- 
faces of the bones at the points where they touch. The osteo- 
path believes that he finds these by feeling the bones, by 
looking at them, by using the x-ray, and by the patient’s 
own indication of local tenderness. The actual fact of the 
matter is that, in most instances, these dislocations are not 
present and, even if they were present, they would not cause 
the symptoms that are accredited to them. 

The osteopath feels that these lesions are associated with 
diseases in various organs, but he is likely to find the same 
lesion for all of the different diseases that might concern any 
one organ. For example, a kidney can be affected by inflam- 
mation by Bright’s disease, by tuberculosis, by the presence 
of an abscess, or by a tumor. But the osteopath would find 
the same trouble in the spine for all of these conditions. 

It is, therefore, quite likely that what is called the osteo- 
pathic lesion exists only in the mind of the adjuster, and 
that the manipulations used by the osteopath to correct such 
lesions represent essentially enhancement of the power of 
suggestion by the laying on of hands. That idea, as has pre- 
viously been said, was well known even in Biblical times. 
The very cases in which, to the patient, osteopathy seems 
to offer most relief are those in which the patient has some 
chronic disorder which has not yielded readily to any treat- 

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ment, or those in which the condition is benefited by mas- 
sage and stimulation of the circulation. 

Of late, the osteopaths have sought to gain a foothold 
abroad but their notions have seemed to offer but little ap- 
peal to the stolid inhabitants of Great Britain and Germany. 

RECENT STATISTICS OF OSTEOPATHY 

Of particular interest is the recent investigation made by 
the Committee on the Costs of Medical Care. This Commit- 
tee finds that there are some 7,650 osteopaths practicing in 
the United States, distributed largely in the Far West, Cali- 
fornia having the greatest number relative to population, 
with twenty osteopaths to every hundred thousand inhabi- 
tants as contrasted with a ratio for the whole United States 
of six for every hundred thousand inhabitants. California is 
the osteopathic paradise. In Los Angeles an osteopath is as 
good as a doctor and he doesn’t care who knows it. In fact, 
he is likely to consider himself much better. 

The osteopathic group have a portion of the County Hos- 
pital which they conduct but, fortunately for the sick, those 
with serious illness are likely to be assigned to the medical 
division, thereby increasing the mortality rates in that divi- 
sion and giving the osteopaths opportunity to crow because 
of the lower death rates in their own division. When health- 
ful patients are primarily selected as the basis for medical 
care by any group, that group is certain to show excellent 
mortality rates. 

Incidentally, the osteopaths are much more numerous in 
towns and small cities than are physicians. They are absent 
from rural communities and from large cities. The reasons 
should be obvious. The old laws of supply and demand work 
immutably. In the large city the osteopath is compelled to 
meet the opposition of an excellent and well established 
medical profession. The rural community confronts him with 
medical emergencies for which his education in no way pre- 
pares him. Hence, he locates in the small town where the 
old, chronic cases of rheumatism and what have you are 
willing to surrender themselves to his tender mercies. 

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In 1930 there were still seven osteopathic schools in the 
United States. In 1927 there were eight. Osteopathic schools, 
being dependent largely on the incomes from students for 
their continuance, come and go. Proprietary medical schools 
have disappeared since the cost of educating a physician is 
so great in proportion to what students can pay that there 
is no money in running a sound institute for medical edu- 
cation. 

Since 1900 the osteopaths have gradually reached out and 
helped themselves to most of the therapeutic measures used 
by medicine. One osteopath discovered obstetrics. It had 
been going on for many centuries, but he figured he might 
sit by the bedside and wait as well as a physician or a mid- 
wife. Hence, obstetrics became a part of the osteopathic 
curriculum. 

Another osteopath in the State of Washington discovered 
that the tonsils could be reached by anyone with a hook, and 
he began to jerk tonsils from their resting place in the throat. 
However, the State of Washington, through its Supreme 
Court, rendered a decision which prevented him, at least 
briefly, from embarking into surgery. 

Nevertheless, once the osteopath is in practice, he tries to 
become a physician. A survey of medical facilities in Phila- 
delphia showed that at least fifty per cent of osteopaths were 
vaccinating people against smallpox, and twenty per cent 
were immunizing against diphtheria. Today all of the osteo- 
pathic colleges teach the use of vaccines, antitoxins, and simi- 
lar preparations; whereas but ten years ago the editor of the 
osteopathic journal permitted his son to die of diphtheria 
without giving him a dose of antitoxin. 

At a recent convention of osteopaths the dean of one col- 
lege urged that osteopaths admit frankly that they are now 
embracing materia medica and really practicing medicine. 
Since this is the case, the public needs to be concerned with 
seeing to it that osteopathy does not continue to be a means 
of getting into medicine by the back door. Osteopaths should 
be compelled to meet the same requirements that physicians 
are compelled to meet. Indeed, there should be a minimum 

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standard of education for all who propose to heal the sick, 
regardless of the names which they give themselves or the 
system which they think they are practicing. 

Most of die states in diis country specifically provide for 
the practice of osteopathy. These laws fix minimum educa- 
tional qualifications, provide for special boards of examiners, 
and define the limitations under which osteopaths may prac- 
tice. No two states have laws exactly the same, and in many 
states osteopaths have been sufficiently influential to secure 
for themselves practically unlimited scope. 

In point of numbers, as is pointed out by Dr. Louis S. 
Reed in his report to the Committee on the Costs of Medi- 
cal Care, the growth of osteopathy has practically stopped. 
The reasons for its failure to grow are two: First, it has 
ceased to be a medical cult and is merely low grade medi- 
cine; second, its place as a medical cult has been taken by 
chiropractic. As will be revealed in the next chapter, chiro- 
practic was called by an osteopath a tumor on osteopathy 
which would inevitably engulf the mother organism. 

In the practice of medicine as a whole an osteopath cannot 
compete with a properly trained physician. When he tries 
to compete he indulges in claims which mark him as a quack 
and a charlatan. Dr. Reed believes that the osteopaths 
merely dilute the quality of medical care available to the 
people of this country. The people should weigh well the 
question of whether they care to submit themselves and 
their families to substandard medical care. 

WHY PEOPLE GO TO OSTEOPATHS 

Well, why do people go to osteopaths anyway? Don’t they 
ever help anybody? People go to osteopaths because they 
have been directly approached through advertising, in which 
reputable physicians do not indulge. They go because some 
friend who has been aided by an osteopath, or thinks he has, 
has urged them to go. They go when physicians have failed 
them. Ah! yes. I grant you freely that physicians fail. There 
are diseases in which science can be of but little service, and 
if the doctor is honest he will tell you so. I know a woman 

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who has been suffering eleven years or more with a gradually 
progressing case of paralysis agitans or shaking palsy. Three 
eminent neurologists told her ten years ago that her condi- 
tion was incurable; they prescribed a simple regime of life 
and told her to save her money for the invalidism of her 
remaining years. But during the intervening years she has 
spent every cent of her income on massage, on electric treat- 
ment, on nature cures, and on osteopathy, and she is un- 
doubtedly worse. And I am willing to admit that among 
those who treated her was a physician who should have 
known better. The incompetent or unprincipled physician, 
licensed to practice medicine by a too complaisant State, is 
the greatest menace to scientific medicine — as great a men- 
ace as all the cultists put together. 

Osteopathic or any other kind of manipulation undoubt- 
edly produces, at times, temporary benefit, or the feeling of 
benefit. The old-time physician used to put his hands on the 
patient; he used to work him up a bit, while at the same 
time he encouraged him mentally. There are many who feel 
that the modern physician might practice a little more of 
this laying on of hands. But it does not require any extraor- 
dinary mentality to see how serious it is to practice merely 
the laying on of hands and the conferring of a temporary 
feeling of benefit when a child is beginning to strangle with 
the accumulated debris of a diphtheritic membrane, or when 
the life of a woman is being slowly sapped by an internal, 
malignant tumor, or when some previously uncautious man 
is beginning to show the first signs of paralysis and the delu- 
sions of grandeur associated with an early encounter with 
the spirochaeta pallida of syphilis. These are surely no times 
for the laying on of hands; these are times for accurate diag- 
nosis, and the speedy administration of the life-saving diph- 
theria antitoxin, the merciful surgical knife, and the de- 
stroyers of spirochetes: mercury and salvarsan. 

In 1875, when Andrew Still went from Kansas to Kirks- 
ville, he found a letter addressed to his brother Edward 
from another brother, the Rev. James M. Still of Eudora, 
Kansas, “stating that I was crazy, had lost my mind and 

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supply of truth-loving manhood/’ Still’s comment on this 
letter, taken from his autobiography, offers a remarkable 
sidelight on the motives of the founder of osteopathy. “I read 
it,” says Still, “and thought, ‘As the eagle stirreth up her 
nest, so stir away, Jim, till your head lets down some of the 
milk of reason into some of the starved lobes of your brain/ 
I believed Jim’s brain would ripen in time, so I let him 
pray, until at the end of eighteen years he said: ‘Hallelujah, 
Drew, you are right; there is money in it, and I want to 
study Osteopathy!* ” The italics are mine. 


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"Men are usually competent thinkers along the lines of their special- 
ized training only. Within these limits alone are their opinions and 
judgments valuable; outside of these limits they grope and are lost — 
usually without knowing it” — Mark Twain. 


“np he spine is a series of bones running down your back. 

A You sit on one end of it and your head sits on the 
other.” A simple definition and one that is sufficient for the 
average man! But there is much more to the spine than that. 
If you don’t believe it, ask any chiropractor. In a glib and 
rhythmical manner that indicates hours of study of what the 
salesmen call a selling talk he will tell you things about the 
spine that will astonish you. Imagine, then, the astonishment 
of scientific anatomists, physiologists, pathologists, and physi- 
cians when these amazing views of the spine were first 
launched upon them by Andrew Still, the founder of osteop- 
athy! It was only later that they were adopted by the 
chiropractors and elaborated into a comprehensive system 
of pseudomedicine. 

About 1894, or some twenty years after osteopathy first 
saw the light, the following incident occurred in Davenport, 
Iowa. The story was told under oath on the witness stand 
by B. J. Palmer, high priest of chiropractic and son of D. D. 
Palmer, its founder: 

Harvey Lillard was a janitor in the building in which 
father had his office at that time , in the Ryan Block at Dav- 
enport. Harvey came in one day thoroughly deaf. Father 
asked him how long he had been deaf, and he told him 

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seventeen years. Father said , “How did this occur?” Harvey 
said, “I was in a stooped, cramped position, and while in 
that position I felt something pop , and heard it crack in my 
back” Father looked him over, laid him down on the cot , 
and there was a great subluxation on the back. Harvey 
said he went deaf within two minutes after that popping 
occurred in the spine, and had been deaf ever since, seven- 
teen years. Father reasoned out the fundamental thought of 
this thing, which was that if something went wrong in the 
back and caused deafness, the reduction of that subluxation 
would cure it. That bump was adjusted, was reduced, and 
within ten minutes Harvey had his hearing and has had it 
ever since. He is now janitor in the City Hall in Davenport . 

This little tale is inserted that the reader may see just 
how much credit is given to osteopathy by chiropractic for 
the idea on which the latter system, like the former, rests. 
As for Harvey Lillard’s deafness — if it was not imaginary — 
one can only surmise that it was of that order known as 
hysterical deafness, not due to any organic defect, and cur- 
able, as thousands of such cases always have been cured, by 
any strong suggestion, including the laying on of hands. The 
osteopaths will tell you that chiropractic is the first three 
weeks of osteopathy; the chiropractors will insist that there 
are vital differences between the original tenets of osteo- 
pathy and chiropractic, but no neutral student has ever been 
able to discover those differences. The younger Palmer told 
on the witness stand how his father, confronted with his 
experience in the case of Harvey Lillard, arrived by pure 
logic at the conception of chiropractic. But there is some 
evidence that the elder Palmer, while practicing as a mag- 
netic healer, also had opportunity to witness the demonstra- 
tions of old Dr. Still. So much for the founding of chiro- 
practic! 

THE BASIS OF CHIROPRACTIC 

The explanation offered by the chiropractor to account 
for all disease is simple, and hence well calculated to attract 
the minds of those who like to think for themselves in the 
absence of facts. When the chiropractor tells his patient that 

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the brake pressing on the nerve as it emerges from the spinal 
column keeps the nerve from transmitting the energy that 
makes the wheels of the body go round properly, the victim 
is impressed by what he calls “reason.” Unfortunately for 
this “reason,” the fundamental facts will not support it. A 
brake and a wheel are material objects that can be observed; 
the spinal column and the nerves that emerge from it are 
also material objects, but they cannot usually be observed. 
A man tries the brakes on his car and finds that they catch 
hold and the wheels stop. But let something go wrong under 
the hood of his car, in some of the internal workings that 
are beyond his ken, and he will have to take the word of an 
expert for the fact that the thing is wrong that the expert 
says is wrong. There have been, as we all know, motor me- 
chanics who were not above taking a little advantage of the 
car owner's ignorance of its internal mechanism. There are 
also body mechanics who do not appear to be above taking 
advantage of the layman’s ignorance of the anatomy of his 
spinal column. 

The nerves that emerge from the spinal column are much 
smaller than the holes between the bones of the column 
from which they emerge. The space about the nerve is 
padded with fat and soft tissue. The back may be bent into 
all sorts of angles and postures — everyone has seen the acro- 
batic dancer of the stage assume such angles — and yet these 
nerves are not squeezed or damaged because of the padding 
with which nature has protected them. Professors of anat- 
omy have dissected thousands of dead bodies and have been 
unable to find any spinal nerves pinched or compressed in 
the manner which chiropractors allege is responsible for dis- 
ease. The X-ray has been used to search for the dislocations 
which the chiropractors assert are present, but those dislo- 
cations cannot be found. Indeed, substances opaque to the 
X-ray have been injected into the canal within the spinal 
column, and photographs taken later have shown the fluid 
passing around the nerves in a manner that would be impos- 
sible if these nerves were impinged on by the bony struc- 
tures with which they are surrounded. Today this method 

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is used to locate accurately tumors of the spine. Moreover, 
experiments conducted in California have shown that a force 
of 1,200 to 1,300 pounds, while it will fracture one of the 
spinal bones, will not dislocate it or cause it to press on the 
spinal nerves. Thus the fundamental dogma of chiropractic, 
that disease is caused by dislocations or subluxations of the 
bones of the spinal column, pressing on nerves, is simply a 
complete misrepresentation of the demonstrable facts. Any 
chiropractor who tells an invalid that he is ill for that rea- 
son is either willingly deluding the patient or deluding him- 
self. 

The action in the chiropractor’s office is usually some- 
thing like the following: 

Patient: Are you the doctor? 

Chiropractor: I am the doctor. And what’s the little 
difficulty today? 

Patient: Well, doc, it’s this rheumatism I’ve been suffer- 
in’ with. 

(Of course it may be a cold, or a sore throat, or diph- 
theria, or diabetes, or almost anything else that has already 
been diagnosed, or that the patient, in his rough and ready 
manner, has essayed to diagnose.) 

Chiropractor: Well, strip off your things and get into 
the kimono. 

Patient: How much are the treatments, doc? 

Chiropractor: Two dollars. 

Patient (Stripped, so far, of clothes only) : All right. 

Chiropractor: Well, I should say so. (Rapidly runs 
fingers up and down patient’s back.) Why, here’s a subluxa- 
tion of the third, fifth, and ninth, and almost a lateral curva- 
ture. (The figures might just as well be first, seventh, and 
twelfth.) Get up here. 

(The patient mounts a leather-covered board with pillows 
at each end, that depresses the spine. The patient is already 
beginning to feel depressed. Then the chiropractor gives the 
patient a push in the back, using one hand, two hands, and 
sometimes the knee, according to what he thinks the sys- 
tem will stand. There are court records of fractures of the 

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bones brought about by this gentle manipulation, known 
as the Chiropractic Thrust.) 

Patient: Go a little easy there, doc. 

Chiropractor: We’ve got to get these little dislocations 
back into place. Now turn over on your back. (The chiro- 
practor now jerks the patient’s head until his neck cracks or 
pulls his leg, depending on the particular school of chiro- 
practic in which he was instructed.) 

Patient: Doc, I heard that crack. I think I feel better. 

Chiropractor: Well, yours is a pretty difficult case. Those 
bones may slip out again. It may take a series of treatments. 
Lessee, this is Chuesday; come in about Thoisday. Yeh, make 
it Thoisday an’ bring a kimono. I’ll give you a locker for it. 
Yes, two dollars for the treatment an’ a dollar rental for the 
locker. 

Thus chiropractic diagnosis and treatment. Disease is 
caused by certain bones of the spine impinging on certain 
nerves. Disease is cured by pushing those bones off those 
nerves until by some unknown mechanism of physiology 
they are persuaded to stay off. 

the chiropractic fountainhead 

The “fountainhead” of chiropractic is at Davenport, Iowa, 
and B. J. Palmer is its prophet. It is not always well to go 
directly to an individual for an evaluation of his attain- 
ments, but Palmer explained his on the witness stand some 
years ago. We may accept the record as representing the 
most that he could give himself. On December 22, 1910, a 
chiropractor was placed on trial in Milwaukee, and Palmer 
appeared in his behalf. In the course of his testimony. 
Palmer told the court that he had learned chiropractic from 
his father, that he was at the time of testifying twenty-eight 
years of age, and that at the age of twelve he was in the 
field as a practitioner of this strange art. He had attended 
common grade school at Davenport, Iowa. He said in one 
place, “At the age of eleven I was kicked from home, forced 
to make my living,” and in another that his education had 
been chiefly “common sense” and “horse reasoning.” Be- 

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yond that he had ‘‘graduated from the Palmer School of 
Chiropractic under my father” and had “studied art some in 
Chicago, not very long . . . landscape work, painting . . . 
I have studied music.” 

Now as a result of all this delving into knowledge, with 
what degree did Palmer decorate himself in the annual an- 
nouncements of his college? It appeared that he had the 
degrees of D. C. and Ph. C., conferred by the Palmer School 
of Chiropractic, which he owned. And after his name ap- 
peared: “Is a student, author, lecturer and teacher on any 
phase of chiropractic philosophy, science or art anywhere 
any time.” He was also described as the developer of the 
philosophy, science and art of chiropractic; author of many 
volumes on the science, art, and philosophy of chiropractic; 
secretary and philosophical counsel to the Universal Chiro- 
practors’ Association, honorary member of the German- 
American Chiropractors’ Association, secretary of the Iowa 
Chiropractors’ Association, counsel for the P. S. C. (Palmer 
School of Chiropractic) , and manager and assistant editor of 
the Chiropractor . And it was further said of him that “one 
of his aims in life is to be a Therapeutical Idol Shatterer” 
and “destroyer of superstitious ideas regarding man, and re- 
placer of practical studies.” 

From the evidence in the case cited it became quite clear 
that in the Palmer School, as conducted by the elder Palmer, 
anyone could embark on the study of chiropractic. It was 
not even necessary that he be able to read and write. The 
standard, by 1910, was higher. No primary education was 
required, but B. J. Palmer said that “each student must 
have a brain and know how to use it.” Every student was 
required to spend twelve months, totaling twenty-seven hun- 
dred hours, in the college before he got a diploma. If he 
passed his examinations with a degree of 98 per cent, he was 
awarded the degree of Ph. C. But when Dr. Thomas F. 
Duhigg reported the results of an inspection of the schools 
of Davenport for the Pennsylvania Bureau of Medical Edu- 
cation and Licensure he pointed out that in 1915 the three 
colleges which had developed in that capital of chiropractic 

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were really little fit to educate anybody in anything. None 
had a library, a hospital, a laboratory worthy of the name, 
post-mortems, or capable teachers. To these institutions came 
students without preliminary education, and after one year 
of study in miserably equipped buildings, consisting mostly 
of lecture halls and demonstration rooms, they were turned 
loose to minister to the sick. 

Low as were the requirements of the fountainhead school 
and some of its Iowa offshoots, chiropractic colleges estab- 
lished by exploiters in other states were not even one half so 
particular. The following letter, bearing all the evidence in 
its writing and general appearance of having come from an 
ignorant and illiterate woman, was sent from a town in 
Texas to the Carver Chiropractic College in Oklahoma City: 

Sirs , Mister Kirpatic School. I want to rite letter and see if 
i can be kirpatic dr. if you can make a kirpatic dr. for how 
much money I got about 2 thousend dolers that my husband 
got when he died from the insurance company that paid 5 
thousand dolers but I had ode lot of money and funerl and 
everything cost more 1 thousand dolers. Could i be kirpatic 
dr. y for this much money about 2 thousand dolers in bank. I 
been nurse some and help drs. and kirpatic dr say i am 
strong and pretty and i make a good kirpatic dr. since my 

husband die I can live with my ant here in but 

it is my money in bank. My ant say i have not been in school 
enuff but my father live on ranch an work wen I was girl 
and I go to school 3 years. My husband die with apensitis in 
his side and drs. say it to late after they operate an lots of 
pus and kirpatic dr. say he could cure him if he had called 
him but i did not no it that is why i did not send for him an 
i want to be kirpatic dr so i can cure apensitis sometime . I 
been ritin some other kirpatic schools and kirpatic colleges 
but they send me books and dont anser my letter so i can no. 
if you will anser my letter an tell me if you can make me a 
kirpatic dr. on how much money i got an how long it will be 
if i am a widow 24 years old and i will come right away. 

Mrs. Texas . 

Had this erudite document been received by any medical 
school in the United States the writer would have been in- 

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formed kindly but firmly that she was obviously not the pos- 
sessor of sufficient fundamental learning to warrant her un- 
dertaking the diagnosing and treating of human ailments as 
a life occupation. The Carver Chiropractic College, however, 
was in no way subject to any qualms. After all, two thou- 
sand dollars is not to be sneezed at. Following is the Carver 
reply: 

Dear Madam: Your most interesting letter stating that you 
were very much interested in the study of the subject of 
Chiropractic and reciting the incidence (Sic!) leading to the 
death of your husband and the information that you had re- 
ceived from some of your Chiropractic Doctor friends that 
his death was all unnecessary , had a Chiropractic Doctor 
waited on him instead of an M.D. I think you are entirely 
correct, however, that is an incidence (Sic!) That is a con- 
dition we must all meet . While it grieves us to give up the 
ones we love, your husband showed forethought in providing 
for you in a way and I can not think of a better means to 
put your money to than preparing yourself for a real life's 
work . 

Chiropractic is a profession based upon a science. While 
your education may be limited you have the intelligence and 
the determination and sufficient education to understand the 
English language you would have no difficulty in getting a 
knowledge of this subject so that you could go out and 
practice and be efficient. You can enter at any time and in 
eighteen months, upon making your grades, can be gradu- 
ated. If you can come at once it will be well for you to do 
so, but if not , make your arrangements to be here sure by 
the first Monday in April. Living conditions here are very 
reasonable. You will find no difficulty in getting good and 
economical living quarters. We will do what we can to help 
you when you come. You will find the student body a fine 
working, virile body. Oklahoma City is a city of 125,000 
which offers the advantages of a city of this size and you will 
enjoy life while here. 

I am sending you a catalogue under separate cover which 
will give you all the information I have not given you in 
this letter. 

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Trusting that we will hear from you or see you in a short 
time , I am. 


Very truly , 

Carver Chiropractic College 

H. E. Thompson. 


It would be possible to marshal innumerable examples 
of the crudity of chiropractic literature. An analysis of any 
considerable mass of this material reveals at once the fact 
that such of it as is sound from a grammatical point of view 
is florid with the phraseology of the writer of modern ad- 
vertising blurbs; that which has not had such censorship is 
almost invariably full of misspelled words and specimens of 
grammar that would excite the derision of a fifth grade 
scholar from any elementary school. The acme of chiro- 
practic diction was no doubt reached in the following defi- 
nition which constitutes a part of the act regulating chiro- 
practic signed in 1920 by the Governor of New Jersey. 


Definition of Chiropractic: The term chiropractic 
when used in this act shall be construed to mean and be the 
name given to the study and application of a universal phi- 
losophy of biology , theology , theosophy, health, disease, 
death, the science of the cause of disease and art of permit- 
ting the restoration of the triune relationships between all 
attributes necessary to normal composite forms, to har- 
monious quantities and qualities by placing in juxtaposition 
the abnormal concrete positions of definite mechanical por- 
tions with each other by hand, thus correcting all sublux- 
ations of the articulations of the spinal column, for the pur- 
pose of permitting the recreation of all normal cyclic 
currents through nerves that were formerly not permitted to 
be transmitted, through impingement, but have now assumed 
their normal size and capacity for conduction as they ema- 
nate through intervertebral forramina — the expressions of 
which were formerly excessive or partially lacking — named 
disease. 


When Dr. George Dock visited the fountainhead of chiro- 
practic in 1921, he found the business of training practi- 
tioners of chiropractic a most flourishing one. Palmer’s orig- 

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inal plant had expanded into a series of buildings devoted 
to the teaching of some three thousand aspirants annually, at 
a cost of several hundred dollars each. But the large build- 
ings, Dock reported, were still not devoted to teaching any 
of the fundamental facts of physiology, pathology, bacteriol- 
ogy, or even hygiene and sanitation. There were classrooms 
seating from 300 to 500 students in which the lecture 
method was used to force home the ideas of B. J. Palmer, 
Mrs. Palmer, and their colleagues of the faculty. The walls 
bore trite epigrams and aphorisms earnestly beseeching the 
students to give ear to the words of the prophet. There were 
a cafeteria, a printing plant, a private branch post office and 
express service, a room containing specimens of bone lesions, 
and a roof garden. More recently there has been established 
Station WOC, which radios chiropractic philosophy to pros- 
pective patients, the while it dispenses the usual form of 
aerial entertainment. This station is more egregious in its 
splendor, Harry Hansen informs me, than anything he has 
seen except the station conducted by Roxy in New York. 

It would seem that the chiropractic course has now length- 
ened — presumably with the advance in chiropractic knowl- 
edge — to three years of six months each, although arrange- 
ments may still be made to take the whole eighteen months 
straight through. In this course, alleged to be of 5,335 class 
hours, the student is taught the philosophy of chiropractic, 
how to use the chiropractic thrust, how to adjust patients, 
something about obstetrics, and more about salesmanship. 
With from three to five thousand students annually paying 
from $350 to $500 each, it can be readily seen that the busi- 
ness does not exactly lose money. 

Consider now the length of the terms of the ordinary 
medical school, the expensive equipment of its laboratories, 
and its large staff of professors in the various fundamental 
branches and medical specialties. At once it will be realized 
why the medical school requires State or philanthropic sup- 
port for its maintenance, and why the ignorant and un- 
equipped aspirant who wants to embark on a career of heal- 
ing will choose chiropractic, with its eighteen months of 

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lectures, instead of medicine with its preliminary high school 
and college education, its four years in the medical school, 
and its one to two years of interneship in a hospital. Inci- 
dentally, in the medical schools, there is no course in sales- 
manship. 

As may well be imagined, chiropractors have multiplied. 
And as they have multiplied, so also have chiropractic 
schools. In 1920 B. J. Palmer made a speech at a convention 
of chiropractors in Butte, Montana. The astute B. J. was a 
little incautious, or perhaps the wine of fame had gone a 
little to his head. For he said: 

Our school back at Davenport is established on a business 
and not a professional basis. It is a business where we manu- 
facture chiropractors. They have got to work just like ma- 
chinery. A course of salesmanship goes along with their 
training. We teach them the idea and then we show them 
how to sell it. 

This phase of chiropractic education has become more and 
more important. Indeed, advertising concerns have been 
formed for no other purpose than to aid the chiropractor in 
reaching his prospective patients. One such organization in 
Indiana is frank: 

To advertise inside the chiropractic , medical and truth 
laws , requires some adroitness , some ingenuity of expression , 
some more than common ability as a wordsmith. 

The advertising matter of the exponents of the chiro- 
practic art has provided amusement to thousands since first 
it burst upon the American scene. In 1921 the Idaho Falls 
Times-Register displayed the announcement of the Busby 
Chiropractic Specialists. It was headed in black-faced type: 
“Why His Wife Left Him/’ It told of the case of one Jack 
who “never had a smile for his wife” and “was grouchy with 
the baby.” Mrs. Jack thought he had ceased to love her be- 
cause he desired to sleep alone. As a matter of fact, the 
Busby Chiropractors inform us, he did love her “but, due 
to nerve pressure in the spinal column, he was not normal 
sexually.” Mrs. Jack did not know this and in time she left 

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him. “A happy home could have been made if he had gone 
to the Busby Chiropractic Specialists and had those verte- 
brae adjusted to normal.” 

The pleasant little item that has been cited appeared on 
the “Society and Personal” page of the paper as being, per- 
haps, especially suitable for home reading. It is matched 
only by the chiropractic testimonial for which the Chicago 
Tribune vouches: 

Dear Doctor. — Before taking Chiropractic and Electric 
treatments , I was so nervous that nobody could sleep with 
me. After taking six treatments anybody can sleep with me. 

A few years ago the press made much of the story of the 
“talking girl” of Waukegan who had been cured after talk- 
ing seven days and nights. Medical practitioners, it was 
stated, had failed and then the chiropractor had achieved a 
successful result. It made a good newspaper story, especially 
for those newspapers that saw in it the opportunity to sug- 
gest to the chiropractic fraternity that their business had 
been given a magnificent boost in the news column, and 
that it was highly desirable that they should add to this free 
advertising momentum an additional urge through the ad- 
vertising pages. Rate card enclosed! Briefly, the child did 
not suffer from so-called “talking sickness”; the alleged ad- 
justment of the spine did not “cure” the “sickness” and, 
finally, the child had not completely recovered. The case 
was one of epidemic encephalitis, with a temperature rang- 
ing between 99 and 103 and active delirium, inequality of 
the pupils, and strabismus. The improvement was gradual 
and that incident to the ordinarily observed progress of the 
disease. As shown by the case record, the chiropractor’s 
“treatment” did not modify the course of the disease. The 
“talking” had ceased at intervals previous to his visit and 
continued at intervals after his “treatment.” But the pub- 
licity given the case offered great opportunities for adver- 
tising, and advertising is an important part of the chiro- 
practic curriculum. In fact, the child never completely re- 
covered from the disease. 

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CHIROPRACTIC ORGANIZATION 

It is an aphorism that where there is money there is power. 
Expensive legal organizations were early established for tak- 
ing care of the chiropractor who fell afoul of the laws gov- 
erning the healing art. Funds were established for releasing 
him when he chanced to be the victim of an enforced rest 
behind the bars. The usual committees for lobbying protec- 
tive legislation through State and national legislative bodies 
began to function — and it must be said for them that they 
have functioned efficiently in most cases. Already chiroprac- 
tic is legally established in many States, and apparently im- 
mune to prosecution in those where it still flourishes with- 
out legal warrant. 

In the meantime, B. J. has not been idle. His fertile mind 
saw that chiropractic must grow if it was to survive. In 1910 
he testified that he would not adjust the vertebra of a dog 
for a stomach-ache or yelping at night. “I think I would use 
a shotgun in that case,” said B. J. But in 1921, chiropractors 
were adjusting mules that refused to get up and cows that 
were somewhat swelled. But in this bright land of the free 
trifling with the health of the animal seems to be a much 
more serious matter than offering treatment to one's fellow 
citizens. Chiropractic veterinarianism has not yet become 
popular. 

Those who have taken at least a casual interest in medical 
quackery will remember that one Albert Abrams, of Cali- 
fornia, some years before his death propounded an entirely 
new method of diagnosing and treating disease, the same 
having to do with certain vibrations, currents and ohms, 
and a mumbo jumbo of pseudoelectrical nomenclature. The 
osteopaths, struggling against the flood of chiropractic sew- 
age which threatened to engulf them, saw in the Abrams 
method an opportunity for a new lease of life. Many osteo- 
paths hailed its coming with shrieks of happiness, both in 
the public press and directly to their clientele. And the ex- 
ceedingly clever Dr. Abrams, knowing the superior flavor 
that attaches to exclusiveness, announced early in his exploi- 

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tation of the “oscilloclast” and the other oscillating devices 
with which his name was connected, that their use would be 
limited to physicians and osteopaths. The humble chiro- 
practor was to be excluded. 

Now, the astute B. J. Palmer is not averse to taking a leaf 
from some other man’s book. As has been mentioned, his 
esteemed ancestor, the magnetic healer, adopted certain prin- 
ciples promulgated by Dr. Andrew Still. So B. J. suddenly 
appeared on the horizon with a little device of his own 
called the “neurocalometer” — “the little wonder instrument 
which so accurately locates impinged nerves.” B. J. is too 
wise to discard chiropractic ideas in favor of any theory of 
vibrations, and thus to sacrifice the identity of his hereditary 
science. But he does develop “a little wonder instrument” 
to put on the spine to tell the chiropractor where to do his 
pushing. In a letter issued from the chiropractic fountain- 
head on December 15, 1924, a prospective student was urged 
to enroll promptly in order to take advantage of current 
prices on this device: 

The neurocalometer is not sold , but is leased for a period 
of ten years . As you may know, the original lease price for 
ten years was $620, soon increased to $1,200, later to $1,500, 
and then to the present price of $2,200, with the prospect of 
an increase at an early date to $ 5,000 . 

But if the aspirant for chiropractic honors would enroll 
in the January, 1925, class at Davenport (either cash or 
deferred payment) , he was told, he could get a neurocalom- 
eter with his diploma, or even six months later at the cur- 
rent lease price. All he had to do was to pay $200 down and 
then $50 a month for sixteen months. The neurocalometer 
is simply one of those sensitive little electrothermal devices 
called thermopiles which produce a weak electrical current 
with any change of temperature. B. J. says it shows such a 
change when the nerve coming out of the hole in the spinal 
column is being pressed upon. But apparently he hasn’t been 
able to convince all the rest of the chiropractors that the 
device is a scientific one. Here and there previous gradu- 

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ates of the Palmer School, as well as chiropractors of other 
educational ancestry, have begun to object to its intrusion 
into the field. Here are the resolutions adopted by the 
Hoosier Chiropractors* Association, printed in its Central 
States Bulletin: 

Whereas , apparently in order to intimidate chiropractors , 
to hold a monopoly upon the chiropractic profession, and to 
increase his own personal fortune by perhaps two millions 
of dollars, B. J. Palmer has and is attempting to force the 
lease of an instrument called the neurocalometer upon chiro- 
practors who in turn are required to extort from their pa- 
tients an exorbitant fee for its use; 

Whereas, the neurocalometer has been carefully examined 
and tested by members of this Association, and found to be 
merely an instrument to be used to enable the user to in- 
crease his charges, which increase in his income has been 
boasted about by many of the users; 

Whereas, by these tests which were made without preju- 
dice or favor, it has been found that said instrument can- 
not in any way be relied upon, neither does it add in the 
least in rendering more efficient chiropractic service, nor can 
any advantage to the patient be accomplished by its use; 

Whereas, the statements of B . /. Palmer since the intro- 
duction of said instrument have been damaging and appar- 
ently made with malice aforethought; 

Therefore be it resolved, that we, the members of the 
H. C. A. do hereby condemn the use of the neurocalometer; 

Be it further resolved, that we go on record as warning 
all chiropractic patients of the inefficiency of the neurocal- 
ometer and against the compulsory exploitation of prices by 
those chiropractors employing the use of said instrument; 

Be it further resolved, that one copy of the resolution be 
sent to B. J. Palmer and that we hereby authorize the pub- 
lication of this resolution when deemed proper by chiro- 
practors . 

And the editor of the publication continues: 

The issue is clear cut . Palmer has made the division, it is 
Palmer and one thousand chiropractors against the field . 
Every chiropractor must take his stand and choose his side. 

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It might further he added that not all of the thousand will 
remain put to the neurocalometer idea. Already reports are 
current that suits have been filed for the return of the money 
paid on the lease; reports that chiropractors are returning 
the machines because they will not do what is claimed . . . . 
Had only a few purchased the leases , B. J. would have had 
little ammunition and chiropractic would have been little 
harmed from his ruthless onslaughts. Every time he fails to 
sell a lease it means about $ 2,006 less for him to use in his 
national advertising by way of radio, magazines, etc. A day 
of adjustment in the future is certain. 

CHIROPRACTIC STATISTICS 

According to an investigation recently made by Dr. Louis 
S. Reed, chiropractic with its 16,000 practitioners is the 
largest medical sect now existing in this country. Of course, 
no one knows exactly how many chiropractors there are, but 
the figure is quite certainly between 15,000 and 17,000. Ac- 
cording to recent studies, California, stamping ground of 
most medical cultism, has some 2,400 chiropractors. New 
York 1,475, and Missouri 900. Other states in which the 
chiropractors are prominent are Wyoming, Colorado, Kan- 
sas, Oregon, and Iowa. Wyoming, which has just a few doc- 
tors, has one chiropractor for every two physicians, and 
Oregon one for every three. It has been argued that chiro- 
practors replace physicians and take care of the shortage that 
exists in the small towns. Actually, the chiropractors tend 
to concentrate in the cities, 39 per cent of them being in 
cities of over 200,000, as contrasted with 26 per cent of 
physicians. 

As has previously been told, chiropractic grew rapidly 
up to 1923. Then it entered a decline which seems to have 
persisted since that time. A report of a convention of chiro- 
practors held in New York in 1930 indicated acceptance by 
Mabel Palmer herself, and by many other leaders, of the 
idea that chiropractic was on the road to ruin. According to 
Dr. Reed, there are today some 2 1 active schools with a prob- 
able total attendance of 1,400 students. Within the last 
three years chiropractors are no longer dominated by the 

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Palmerites. Moreover, just as the osteopaths have gradually 
spread into physical therapy, so also the chiropractors, once 
in the field of healing, undertake to advise concerning diet, 
massage, physical therapy, colonic irrigations, and similar 
procedures. From the main cult have come offshoots which 
are concerned more with the ligaments than with the bones; 
others which mix hot air treatment with adjustments. 

As may well be imagined, most chiropractic colleges are 
conducted for profit or as adjuncts to a practice. The great 
fountainhead in Davenport is declining. Instead of 2,000 to 
3,000 students, as in its heyday, it now boasts only a few 
hundred. Much of the success in its early days depended on 
the business methods. These included the meal ticket sys- 
tem of practice, the nonreturnable kimono, and the higher 
degree. 

By the meal ticket system, the patient is told when he first 
enters that he will require twenty adjustments, and he is 
sold a ticket, paid for in advance, containing twenty num- 
bers. Each time he comes a punch is taken in the ticket as 
well as in the patient. It is not recorded that any patient 
recovers until he has completely exhausted the punches in 
his ticket. Though the chiropractor insists that he pushes 
back the vertebra he is unable to offer any explanation as to 
why it does not stay back. 

Most of the patients of chiropractors are women. An old 
farmer down in Kansas said that he had noticed that when- 
ever a man came to a chiropractor, the bone in his spine 
that was out of place was usually near the head. The idea 
offers intriguing possibilities for continued thought. Women 
have, unfortunately, been much more the victims of char- 
latans than have men. When the lady comes she is told to 
bring with her a kimono, which she wears when reclining 
on the table. Each time she leaves, the kimono is placed in a 
steel locker. Should she decide, between treatments, not to 
continue, she must always come back for the kimono. It is 
an old rule in charlatanism that the difficult step is to get 
the patient into the office. Once inside, he can be sold again. 

Although most chiropractors are just ordinary “D. C’s.,” 

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a few of the anointed boast other appendages. Some are 
not only Doctors of Chiropractic, but Masters of Chiroprac- 
tic, Chiropractic Instructors, and Chiropractic Philosophers. 
In the catalogues of the college it was the custom to publish 
the diplomas granting these degrees. It is significant that the 
name sometimes appears twice on the diploma — once where 
it is granted, and once where the recipient signs it as grantee. 

A visit to the Palmer School made by a representative 
of the American Medical Association revealed an extraordi- 
nary assemblage of buildings typical of quackery. First comes 
the home of B. J.; then the famous Garden of St. Peter 
resembling, superficially, John Graham’s Temple of Health. 
St. Peter is the custodian. On payment of ten cents one en- 
ters the garden and is permitted to see the stuffed snakes 
and animals, the fountains and the statues. Then one pro- 
ceeds to the famous Museum of Spines. Here, it is reported, 
there are assembled the spines of every species that boasts a 
vertebral column and, most interesting of all, the spine of 
the boa constrictor, some 25 feet long and containing 400 
vertebrae. Consider what happens to the vertebrae of the 
boa constrictor when it is wrapping itself around a tree. 
Consider the tremendous number of subluxations in its boa 
constrictor spine! What anguish to its serpent heart! 

Next to the Spinal Museum is the Library. The investi- 
gator found, on visiting this Library, that it was locked, and 
the key was located by the janitor only with difficulty. When 
he finally did get in, he discovered less than a five-foot shelf 
of old medical books and three periodicals, the Ladies Home 
Journal , True Detective Stories , and some similar publica- 
tion. What a farce such a collection when contrasted with 
the marvelous libraries associated with modern medical 
schools! As Dr. Louis Reed emphasizes, without exception, 
all chiropractic schools are business institutions run for the 
profit of their owners. 

Ten per cent of the revenues of the Palmer school was 
formerly devoted to a fund for securing chiropractic legisla- 
tion in various states. Through their national organization, 
the chiropractors endeavor to promote chiropractic to the 

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public, they broadcast on the radio, they defend members 
arrested for practicing without a license, and they conduct 
exhibits of the spines of beautiful girls who enter chiro- 
practic exhibition, or should it be exhibitionistic, contests. 
In state after state chiropractors are practicing without hav- 
ing fulfilled legal requirements. Time and again they are 
arrested, but the lack of funds for prosecution on the part 
of State officials has made such arrests well nigh futile. The 
chiropractor is not, in any sense of the word, a scientist. He 
is a dangerous charlatan opposing scientific medicine and 
endeavoring to enter from the basement the practice of 
healing. Just what the ultimate outcome of the chiropractic 
cult will be no one knows. It is reported that B. J. Palmei 
has on several occasions considered a possible fusion of this 
cult with some evangelistic doctrine. All of our states exempt 
religious healers. 

It has been said that osteopathy is essentially a method of 
entering the practice of medicine by the back door. Chiro- 
practic, by contrast, is an attempt to arrive through the cel- 
lar. The man who applies at the back door at least makes 
himself presentable. The one who comes through the cellar 
is besmirched with dust and grime; he carries a crowbar 
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NATUROPATHY AND ITS PROFESSORS 


" After bis decease , and a severe casualty deemed fatal by skilful 
physicians , we discovered that the Principle of all healing and the law 
that governs it is God , a divine Principle , and a spiritual not material 
law, and regained health” — Mary Morse Baker Glover Patterson Eddy. 


O f all the nations of the world, the United States is most 
afflicted by its healers. Besides those holding the degree 
M. D., signifying doctor of medicine and, nowadays, some 
seven years of study following high school graduation, a 
host of queer practitioners pervade the medical field. They 
have conferred on themselves strange combinations of let- 
ters, indicating the peculiar systems of healing which a 
somewhat lax system of legislation and law enforcement per- 
mits them to practice on an unwary public. 

Cult follows cult, and quackery succeeds quackery, fre- 
quently with amazing rapidity. Moreover, many cults seem 
to be definitely confined to small districts and fail to come 
to light in the available literature on the subject, or even in 
a careful investigation. Then, too, a single temporarily suc- 
cessful cult like chiropractic — itself the child of osteopathy 
and magnetic healing — gives birth to many offshoots which 
again propagate more bizarre offspring and unusual hy- 
brids. A complete picture of the farcical scene would require 
endless research. The United States unquestionably bears 
the palm in every class so far as healing cults are concerned. 

The scientific medicine of today is based on the discov- 
eries made in the fundamental sciences. It holds to no single 
theory as to the causation of disease and it does not insist 

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correspondingly that the successful treatment of disease de- 
pends on the use of any single method of manipulation or 
administration. The cults may be classified easily into men- 
tal healing cults, mechanical cults, electric cults, nature 
cults and similar divisions, since they adhere definitely to 
such single devices. Other cults may be classed merely as 
nonmedical, since they deprecate the use of medicaments. 
They are founded, moreover, on peculiar fallacies with rela- 
tion to the anatomy of the body, on misconceptions of cer- 
tain physiologic functions, or on exaggerations of the rela- 
tive importance of certain parts of the body in maintaining 
it in a constant state of health; these cults avoid the funda- 
mental sciences as far as possible. Rather than attempt to 
correlate the fallacies on which the cults are based with 
established knowledge, cultist leaders are inclined to deny 
flatly the facts that have been demonstrated. Of germs and 
their causation of disease, they take little cognizance, re- 
ferring constantly to the “germ theory.” Many cultist leaders 
denounce the eating of meat because of some weird notions 
of body chemistry. Others employ apparatus of such intrica- 
cies as would bring a flush of envy to the cheek of Rube 
Goldberg; mechanically such machinery excites the ridi- 
cule of the humblest tyro in the science of physics. The 
complacency with which cultist leaders dispose of the fun- 
damental facts of science in promoting their views may be 
taken as sound evidence of their essential eccentricities. 

THE ORGANIZATION OF NATUROPATHY 

In one of the suburbs west of Chicago was a sanatorium 
conducted by a son of a naturopath, one Dr. Henry Lind- 
lahr, who was a graduate of a low-grade medical college in 
Illinois called the National Medical University; that also 
has passed into the beyond. Chief in this college (?) was old 
Dr. L. D. Rogers, once secretary of the National Association 
of Panpathic Physicians, an attempt to organize all of the 
comical cultists into a single group. 

The evidence available indicates that Henry Lindlahr fell 
early in life for the strange notions of health and disease 

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exploited by Bernarr Macfadden in the moron’s bible, Physi- 
cal Culture, and also for the schemes of Benedict Lust, 
founder, as he claims, of the main school of naturopathy in 
this country. Of him, more later! As in every other naturo- 
pathic institution, the methods of diagnosis used in the Lind- 
lahr institution were preposterous, the methods of treatment 
varied and ridiculous. The slogan of the institution was that 
rallying call of all the peculiar cubists — “no surgery, no 
drugs, no serums.” The methods of treatment used include 
strange diets, air baths, water cures, light treatments, chiro- 
practic, osteopathy, homeopathy, herbals, psychoanalysis, and 
any other monkey business that any strange healer might 
bring temporarily in the limelight. For instance, schools of 
naturopathy teach, among other courses, sysmotherapy, glu- 
cokinesis, zone therapy, physicultopathy, astrological diag- 
nosis, practical sphincterology, phrenological physiology, 
spectrochrome therapy, iridiagnosis, tension therapy, and 
naprapathy. 


THE DEATH OF EUGENE DEBS 

When Eugene Debs, eminent leader of the Socialist party, 
left Atlanta Prison, he was sent by a woman practitioner of 
the Abrams electronic methods in Terre Haute, Indiana, to 
the Lindlahr institution. One night I went to see him with 
Sinclair Lewis and Paul De Kruif. Lewis was interested in 
Debs as material for a novel on labor. The ride was an 
event, but the details are of little interest for the present 
story. As a physician I was much surprised at that time to 
find a patient in a sanatorium coming down to see guests 
on his own responsibility just before midnight. We sat on 
the porch of the institution talking until the early morning 
hours. I explained to Mr. Debs casually the nature of the 
institution to which he had committed his health. I remem- 
ber that Lewis pleaded with him to get some modern medi- 
cal attention. I did not see Debs again, however, until the 
night before his death. The freethinker in politics is likely 
to fall for freethinking science just as he falls for political 
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One evening in 1926 I received a telephone call from the 
Lindlahr Sanatorium. The person who called said that Mr. 
Debs was dying and that his brother wished to have me 
secure for him the advice of some medical specialist. Mr. 
Debs, it appears, had told his brother that he wanted me to 
be notified in case he was ever in a serious condition. To 
the person who called I said that a competent medical man 
would ask first to have the patient removed to a reliable hos- 
pital. The patient was in this instance too far on the last 
trail to permit removal. Mr. Debs, it seems, had gone to 
visit Carl Sandburg who lives in Elmhurst near the sana- 
torium. While returning, the great socialist had lapsed into 
unconsciousness. For two days he had been treated in the 
institution, then his condition being apparently fatal, his 
brother had been sent for. 

In view of the circumstances I consented to ask two well- 
known medical specialists in Chicago to make the trip, and I 
went with them to see Mr. Debs. What was the procedure fol- 
lowed in the naturopathic institution when its chiropractic 
director and its medical consultants, such as they were, were 
confronted with a serious situation? Mr. Debs, when we saw 
him, was clearly the victim of malnutrition. He had been 
treated with the strange diets and the starvation treatment 
recently so strenuously supported by Bernarr Macfadden in 
his periodicals. The noted speaker for socialism lay in bed 
barely breathing. His heart was in a state of fibrillation — 
a mere twitching of the fibers rather than the sustained 
beat characteristic of an active heart. The pupil of one eye 
was dilated and the other contracted. The record sheet of 
the institution made no note of this observation, which 
would have indicated to any competent diagnostician a prob- 
able disturbance in the condition of the brain. Confronted 
with this situation, the healers of the naturopathic sanato- 
rium had attempted to overcome the congestion in the lung 
due to impeded circulation of the blood by applying dia- 
thermy or electrical heat. Perhaps because of the uncon- 
sciousness of the patient, he had suffered burns which were 
visible on the skin at the points of application of the elec- 

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trodes. Apparently he had not been turned in bed as a com- 
petent physician would always turn such a patient to prevent 
congestion from settling of fluids in the lung. The tissues 
were practically dehydrated. Water had not been put into 
the body, as it must be put into the tissues of every uncon- 
scious person if life is to be saved. An unconscious man does 
not voluntarily ask for a drink. 

Disturbed by the failing heart, the practitioners, whose 
slogan was “no surgery, no drugs, no serums,” endeavored 
first to support the heart by giving a prescription which was 
listed on the history chart merely as “eclectic remedies.” 
An inquiry revealed the fact that cactus, an old eclectic 
remedy, had been prescribed — a plant preparation which 
was once seriously tested by the American Medical Associa- 
tion. During the tests it was found that cactus solution put 
into the tissues of a dog would not produce a symptom. 
Then when the eclectic remedies failed, an attempt was 
made to give digitalis. This sovereign drug in diseases of 
the heart almost always produces results when properly ad- 
ministered. The tincture had been given in small doses; a 
few drops placed upon the tongue. Finally when this remedy 
failed also in stimulating and controlling the heart an at- 
tempt was made to inject a preparation of digitalis into 
the muscles. Obviously, since the practitioners were unaccus- 
tomed to the use of drugs, they hardly knew how to avail 
themselves of potent remedies when they found them neces- 
sary. The incident is typical of naturopathic treatment. 

THE BASES OF NATUROPATHY 

A naturopath ought to be, as his name implies, a healer 
who depends on natural methods pf cure. However, while 
walking barefoot in the dew, exposing one’s self in the garb 
of nature to the rays of sunlight, the eating of hay, grain, and 
oats, and similar technics may constitute a part of every 
course of naturopathy, the cult has gradually embraced every 
strange system of healing that has come across the American 
horizon in the past twenty-five years. 

The chief exponent of naturopathy is one Benedict Lust 

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of the American School of Naturopathy in New York City. 
Following the name of this philosopher appear usually N.D., 
D.O., D.C., and M.D. The N.D. signifies doctor of naturop- 
athy; the next two degrees cover osteopathy and chiropractic; 
the M.D. claimed is from some homeopathic and eclectic 
medical college, although on the witness stand Lust was 
apparently unable to prove graduation. Lust claims osteo- 
pathic licensure in New Jersey, but there is no evidence that 
he has ever been licensed for anything in New York. On the 
other hand, he has been convicted of practicing without a 
license and fined $100 in that state. In his Naturopathy 
School and Health Home he offers, as do all other naturo- 
paths, the whole category of peculiar technics. Benedict 
Lust used to be found constantly among the advertisers in 
Macfadden publications. There he promoted from time to 
time his scheme for blood washing. The technic of blood 
washing can be had also by correspondence for $100. It is 
taught, furthermore, in several resorts operated by this 
minor prophet of healing in Florida and in New Jersey. 

From the first, naturopathy has been developed as an 
effort to give chiropractic something more to sell than adjust- 
ments of the spine. Several chiropractic schools teach natur- 
opathy. Probably 50 per cent of naturopaths have come from 
the ranks of chiropractic, and any chiropractor can become 
a naturopath by taking a three months’ post-graduate course 
in a naturopathic school. To dignify these institutions with 
the title of schools is exalting them far beyond their merits. 
The average course runs through 24 or 36 months with a 
short school day. Students come and go as they please. One 
school has twenty different names for its courses and offers 
a liberal reduction to a student taking four courses at the 
same time. One school counts attendance in each class twice 
— once for naturopathy and once for chiropractic. Another 
school gives each student two diplomas, each diploma bear- 
ing a different name for the school. These systems are 
planned primarily to meet special requirements in various 
state laws. Our laws regulating the practice of healing are 
the joke of the universe. Of course no school of naturopathy 

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is associated with a regularly established hospital. The stu- 
dents learn what they can, when they can, on whom they can. 

Recently the Department of Medical Education of the 
American Medical Association undertook a special investi- 
gation of naturopathic schools. The shrine was visited on 
November 7, 1927, when it was situated in an old apartment 
house on E. 35th Street in New York. There it used two 
floors and a portion of a third. The equipment included an 
osteopathic table, five chiropractic adjusting tables, a chem- 
ical laboratory with one table big enough for two students, 
two old cupboards, some glassware, and some Bunsen burn- 
ers. Twenty students were in the college, and fifteen were 
graduated in 1926. The school meets only at night and the 
students pay two hundred and fifty dollars annually. In 
Philadelphia the naturopathic college and hospital is housed 
in an old apartment building, the hospital thus far existing 
only as a dream. Nevertheless the college issues an eight- 
page announcement which not only gives a picture of the 
hospital with a complete list of its staff, but also announces 
the appointment of six of the graduates as assistant physi- 
cians to the hospital. Although the school claimed ninety 
students, about forty were actually found somewhere around 
the institution. Most of the courses are given at night. 

In Newark, New Jersey, a two-story dwelling house, the 
First National University of Naturopathy, is operated by one 
F. W. Collins, N.D., A.M., and his assistant John Parsons 
Fields, who it seems is D.C., Ph.C., N.D., D.C., D.Ph., and 
M.D. In the same institution are also the Collins and Hill 
Realty Co. and the Standard Products Corporation, which 
manufactures a water softener and cleanser. This school 
gives each graduate two or three diplomas and charges him 
six hundred dollars tuition. Actually the school advertises 
some twenty bizarre courses, representing twenty different 
colleges. The one classroom of which the twenty institutions 
can boast, included when seen thirty chairs, a blackboard, a 
table, and a piano. 

The most recent scheme of geheimrat Collins is the Ameri- 
can Academy of Medicine and Surgery, incorporated in New 

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Jersey not for pecuniary profit and registered with the Re- 
corder of Deeds of the District of Columbia, under Con- 
gressional Act. An admission fee of $25 charged at first was 
raised later to $50. A certificate in the form of a diploma, 
granting the degree of a Doctor of Medicine and Master 
Diagnostician is given to those who attain a total average of 
75 per cent or over in the examination required by the 
Academy. This diploma or certificate, be it understood, does 
not permit or give anyone the right to practice Medicine and 
Surgery. Each member was requested to send in at least once 
yearly a report of his investigations, relative to the applica- 
tion of surgery, drugs, serums, vaccines, electrical and drug- 
less treatments, and mental therapeutics. 

The Academy, President Collins now announces, which 
has been attacked from many sides, and has been inspected 
through the Federal Department, Department of Justice, 
Attorney General's Office, and Post Office Department, is 
still in good standing. 

Any graduate physician or surgeon, medical or drugless, 
who desires to become a member of the Academy must fur- 
nish at the time of application a photograph of himself and 
photostatic copy of his diploma or diplomas. He must answer 
99 questions and, upon receiving a total average of 75 per 
cent or over, he is granted the diploma of the American 
Academy of Medicine and Surgery, signifying that he passed 
a successful examination and conferring upon him the de- 
gree of Doctor of Medicine and Master Diagnostician. In 
case of failure in the examination his admission fee into the 
Academy is refunded. So far no list of diplomates or failures 
has been reported. 

The investigation recently completed revealed ten naturo- 
pathic schools actively engaged in turning out peculiar 
healers for those who like their medicine fantastic. Pennsyl- 
vania has four of the schools and New York, New Jersey, 
Minnesota, Maine, Florida, and California provide one each 
of the remainder. 

Among the strange devices promoted through schools of 
naturopathy are biodynamochromatic diagnosis, in which 

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the patient sits facing east or west while his abdomen is 
thumped, and colored lights are thrown upon it; iridiag- 
nosis, which claims ability to diagnose disease through the 
color of the iris of the eye; spectrochrome therapy, in which 
the patient is advised to wear clothing and garments accord- 
ing to the colors of the spectrum; and, in many schools, zono- 
therapy. In this technic the body is divided into zones 
lengthwise and crosswise, disease in one zone being cured by 
the application of little wire springs around the fingers and 
toes controlling other zones. 

Benedict Lust’s own definition of naturopathy includes 
the ‘'art of natural healing and of the science of physical 
and mental regeneration on the basis of self-reform, nat- 
ural life, clean and normal diet, hydrotherapy (Priessnitz, 
Kneipp, Lehmann, and Just system) , osteopathy, chiroprac- 
tic, naturopathy, electrotherapy (sunlight and air cult) , diet, 
phytotherapy, physical and mental culture to the exclusion 
of poisonous drugs and non-adj us table surgery.” 

Out of the schools of naturopathy and our exceedingly 
lackadaisical laws controlling the practice of healing have 
come opportunities for other inspired prophets to develop 
still more bizarre institutions in medical instruction. 

The American College of Sagliftology, located in San 
Diego, California, is controlled by one P. Hollow Poole and 
his wife. Poole assumed the title of doctor and was promptly 
indicted for misuse of that title. His technic is primarily 
a part of the uplift movement. Mr. Poole is convinced that 
health depends on keeping everything in the interior up- 
lifted. He therefore sells corsets, belts, rubber stockings, and 
other devices planned toward this end. In his college anat- 
omy, contourology and mensuration constitute courses run- 
ning from six to twelve months. A graduate is called a 
sagliftologist. 

In St. Louis Dr. William H. Woodfin, A.M., Ph.D., D.D., 
first a Methodist and then a Congregational minister, has a 
college of divine metaphysics. There he offers courses in the 
psychology of business success, metaphysical interpretation 
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the master mind system. Dr. Woodfin confers the degrees of 
Doctor of Psychology, Doctor of Metaphysics, and Doctor of 
Divinity for from $20 to $100. He must be busy, since he has 
about twenty stenographers constantly employed. He not 
only trains healers but himself treats the sick. 

In Seattle, Washington, in 1919 the Universal Sanipractic 
College was organized. The word “sanipractic” was defined 
as the “practice of health” with the keyword “elimination.” 
The devotees were concerned with all methods of treatment 
except drugs and major surgery, but permitted the adminis- 
tration of herbs and teas. The Washington state law permits 
sanipractors to try everything except the administration of 
drugs. The students were therefore primarily chiropractors 
who wanted unlimited rights to practice. This institution 
represents merely another attempt to find a short route into 
the practice of healing for those who want to enter by the 
back door. 

Naturopathy and the allied cults represent capitalization 
for purposes of financial gain of the old advice that outdoor 
life, good diet, enough exercise, and rest are conducive to 
health and longevity. When these simple principles can be 
linked with the printing of worthless pamphlets, intricate 
apparatus, or faith cures, the formulas yield gold. By these 
systems, misinformation in the field of science is spread 
widely among what is probably one of the most ignorant 
people in the world relative to the organization of their own 
bodies and their care. The slogan, “no bugs, no drugs, no 
surgery,” is used to catch the unwary. The appeal is one 
likely to attract particularly the laborite, the radical, and the 
freethinker. The writings of Upton Sinclair on these subjects 
mislead thousands. The example of Eugene Debs must 
have misled hundreds of others. In time of stress when 
pain becomes impossible to bear even by the self-hypnosis of 
Christian Science, the nature cure healer himself or the 
fanatical exponent of faith healing reaches eagerly for the 
hypnotic tablet of a barbituric acid derivative, the soothing 
needle of the narcotic, or the blissful unconsciousness of 
anesthesia. Then when the heart is no longer able to urge 

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the tired circulation and begins feebly to discontinue its 
automatic functions, the physician is called in; shaking his 
head mournfully he provides enough digitalis to slow the 
beat and make it more forceful. To this state of affairs one 
may apply the reverse of the slogan of a famous rat-paste: 
“They don’t die in the house.” As the spectre of dissolution 
peeps over the foot of the bed the naturopathist, chiro- 
practor, manipulator and faith healer depart. The physician 
enters, fountain pen in hand, ready to sign the death cer- 
tificate. 

The practitioners of naturopathy, according to Dr. 
Louis S. Reed’s late report to the Committee on the Costs 
of Medical Care, number some 1,500. Whereas most cults 
embrace a single conception as to the cause and healing of 
disease, naturopathy embraces everything in nature. Bene- 
dict Lust, N.D., D.O., D.C., M.D., already mentioned, pre- 
sents the following definition: 

. . . a distinct school of healing , employing the beneficent 
agency of Nature's forces , or water, air, sunlight, earthpower, 
electricity, magnetism, exercise, rest, proper diet, various 
kinds of mechanical treatment, mental and moral science. As 
none of these agents of rejuvenation can cure every disease 
(alone) the Naturopath rightly employs the combination 
that is best adapted to each individual case. The result of 
such ministrations is wholly beneficent. The prophylactic 
power of Nature's finer forces, mechanical and occult, re- 
moves foreign or poisonous matter from the system, restores 
nerve and blood vitality, invigorates organs and tissues, and 
regenerates the entire organism. 

The real naturopaths were, of course, such healers as 
Father Kneipp, Priessnitz, and others who advocated natural 
living and healed by the use of sunlight, baths, fresh air, and 
cold water, but there is little money to be made by these 
methods. Hence the modern naturopath embraces every 
form of healing that offers opportunity for exploitation. 
Thus, there have grown from naturopathy a myriad peculiar 
doctrines which run the gamut from aeropathy to zono- 
therapy. 

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The schools of therapy having any status whatever are 
three in number, one in Philadelphia, one in New York, 
and one in Florida. In these schools the strange notions that 
have been mentioned are taught to candidates who may not 
be able even to read or write, because preliminary require- 
ments in such schpols are given little if any consideration. 
Although a high-school education may be mentioned as a 
necessity, its equivalent may be substituted and the equiva- 
lent, in the judgment of the admitting officers, would give 
pause even to such a mathematical genius as Einstein. The 
professors themselves are without baccalaureate degrees or, 
in most instances, any other degree of importance; and the 
students are not even the equivalent of the professors. 

A few of our states provide for licensing naturopaths but 
most states include them with the drugless or limited prac- 
titioners. Once admitted to the practice of healing, these 
cultists begin at once to practice unlimited medicine. Since 
the weapons of medicine against disease are potent for harm 
as well as good, such practitioners are a menace to the public 
health and a drain on the public purse. A description of a 
few of the extraordinary doctrines follows: 

A 

Aerotherapy . Among the hundred or more types of heal 
ing offered to the sophisticated is aerotherapy. Obviously, 
aerotherapy means treatment by air, but in this instance hot 
air is particularly concerned. The patient is baked in a hot 
oven. Heat relieves pain and produces an increased flow of 
blood to the part heated. The blood aids in removing waste 
products and brings to the part the substances that overcome 
infection. There is nothing essentially wrong about hot air 
therapy. 

Since the time of Hippocrates and indeed even in Biblical 
legend men have availed themselves of the healing powers 
existing in nature. The light and heat of the sun, the burn- 
ing steam from natural hot springs, the dry air of the desert, 
and even the buffeting of the waves of the sea have been used 
for physical stimulation in overcoming disease. It has re- 

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mained for the astute commercial minds of our progressive 
land to incorporate these qualities for their personal gain. 

Aerotherapy as one department of physical therapy be- 
comes a cult when it is used to the exclusion of all other 
forms of healing. In New York a progressive quack estab- 
lished an institute equipped with special devices for pour- 
ing hot air over various portions of the body. He issued a 
beautiful brochure, illustrated with the likenesses of beauti- 
ful damsels in various states of negligee, smiling the smile 
of the satisfied, under his salubrious ministrations. In this 
document appeared incidentally the claim that hot air will 
cure anything from ague to zoster. The same claim has been 
made by the faith healers and the apostles of manipulation. 
But the first call it Christian Science and the second call it 
chiropractic. 

Alereos System. Here is a system of drugless healing which 
“recognized the human body as a wonderful and perfect 
machine, which, properly adjusted and taken care of, will 
run without friction.” It emanates from Brooklyn. “The 
Alereos system,” says the folder, “in relation to the human 
machine, occupies the place of the skilled mechanic to the 
disabled engine. It searches for the causes of the trouble and 
seeks to remove them by its tools. These are the hands, aided 
by several mechanical appliances and vibrations.” The home 
office supplies heat and mechanical vibration with “several 
specially constructed apparati (sic ) .” Not content to sell its 
simple hot air and vibration treatments on their merits, the 
Alereos system plays strongly on the osteopathic and chiro- 
practic claims of contractions and pinched nerves, and con- 
demns all drug treatment as poisoning. It is the acme of ex- 
ploitation of the sweat bath and massage. One takes ten 
treatments for twenty-five dollars in advance ; obviously, the 
cost is little, provided one is not fooled into neglecting 
tuberculosis or ulcer of the stomach, which are among the 
conditions mentioned in the Alereos folder. 

Astral Healing. Casanova, international lover and charla- 
tan, tells at great length of his delving into magic, of the 
drawing of horoscopes, and of astrology. The mystery of the 

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stars has always had fascination for the multitude and it 
would have been strange, indeed, if some astute healer had 
failed to take advantage of this folly in the founding of a 
cult. The Astral healers advertise in foreign language news- 
papers. They read the diagnosis from the horoscope and 
then make an additional charge for giving the advice indi- 
cated by their readings. 

Autohemic Therapy . For many years one L. D. Rogers 
was the head and chief owner of the National Medical Uni- 
versity of Chicago. The school was a low-grade institution, 
virtually a diploma mill. Rogers is a promoter of medical 
schemes and fancies. Like many other cultist leaders he is 
constantly founding societies of which he is the chief pan- 
jandrum. Once he was the permanent secretary of the Na- 
tional Association of Panpathic Physicians, apparently an 
attempt to organize all the comical cultists into a single 
group. However, the society had only a brief existence, and 
the permanent secretary was quite temporary. Then he 
began to exploit a cancer serum and organized the Ameri- 
can Cancer Research Society, L. D. Rogers, president. 
Finally, he got the notion called “autohemic therapy.” “It 
consists,” he says, “in giving the patient a solution made by 
attenuating, hemolizing, incubating and potentizing a few 
drops of his or her own blood, and administering it accord- 
ing to a refined technic developed by the author.” Playing 
the game to the limit, Rogers also advertises a one-hundred- 
dollar mail order course for other physicians. He wrote a 
book called Autohemic Therapy and organized the Auto- 
hemic Practitioners. Newspaper publicity in the form of 
full-page advertisements and clever press agentry fetch the 
come-ons for the course. The appeal is made cleverly to the 
anti-medical cultists of all varieties by the slogan “without 
use of bugs or drugs.” A clever and shrewd old fakir is 
L. D. Rogers! There is not an iota of scientific evidence that 
his method or his system ever cured anybody of anything. 

Autology . E. R. Moras, M.D., founder of autology, finally 
arrived in the “booby-hatch.” Before that, however, he had 
achieved a considerable following through advertising in 

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the press, and through exploitation along the lines estab- 
lished by Elbert Hubbard. Indeed, Elbert said of autology: 
“Dr. Moras has written a Commonsense Book on Autology, 
and by so doing, placed the Standard of the Creed of Health 
farther to the front than any man who has lived for a thou- 
sand years.” Ah, well, Elbert was never much given to con- 
servative statements! As might be expected Moras also had 
the support of Physical Culture , Bernarr Macfadden*s major 
opus; of J. H. Tilden of Denver, who has some fads of his 
own, and even of Luther Burbank. 

Autology is a system of stereotyped hygienic and dietetic 
advice sandwiched in between a lot of pseudoscience and bad 
counsel. It is essentially another preachment of Ecclesiastes* 
urge for moderation in all things. Unfortunately it was 
carried to the point at which Elbert Hubbard said, “Mod- 
eration, equality, work, and love — you need no other phy- 
sician.** Moras exploited his book at anywhere from $10 to 
$2, and on the side sold some patent medicines. Finally, his 
eccentricity went beyond the bounds of legal sufferance. He 
was arrested for insulting a woman on a train; he attempted 
to blackmail Leon Mandel out of a million dollars, and 
appealed to the President of the United States to help him 
collect $50,000 from Parke-Davis and Company. So his 
friends put him in a sanatorium! 

Auto-Science. An Auto-Science Institute is conducted in 
San Francisco, devoted, it appears, to practical psychology, 
scientific serums, and suggestive therapeutics. The watch- 
word is “Law of Creative Energy.** Regular lessons can be 
had for four weeks on trial, but the diploma, the degree, and 
the “Auto-Science** textbook cost $35, which is a special re- 
duction from the sum of $50, the regular fee for the course. 
The high priest, Dr. E. C. Eeyrer, presents testimonials of 
grateful imbeciles who have been cured of all sorts of things. 
It appears that not only can you heal yourself, but you can 
help others by mental broadcasting. Is there no protection 
against this sort of thing? Must one be healed even when he 
enjoys ill health? 

Autotherapy. This pleasant little idea grew in the mind of 

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a homeopath, presumably obsessed with the homeopathic 
slogan “similia similibus curantus ” or “like cures like.” 
Dr. Charles H. Duncan of New York was able to have his 
views promulgated through some of the good medical jour- 
nals and their strangeness secured him unusually great news- 
paper recognition. “Autotherapy,” as the name implies, is 
“self-therapy” or “natural therapy.” The word “nature” is a 
term to conjure with in cultism. Carrying the idea of the 
“hair of the dog that bit you” to its ultimate interpretation, 
Duncan recommends the healing of boils by cooking up and 
swallowing the matter from the boil; for dysentery he filters 
the excretions and injects the fluid that filters through; for 
tuberculosis he filters the sputum and injects the filtrate. He 
claims all sorts of cures. It is the belief of competent authori- 
ties that the system has no basis in scientific knowledge and 
that the results secured, if any, are merely such as follow 
injections of foreign substances of any kind into the body. 

B 

Biodynamochromatic Diagnosis and Therapy. Whenever 
the irregulars in the healing art assemble for the purpose of 
exchanging trade secrets and telling each other how good 
they are, George Starr White, M.D., F.S.Sc. (Lond.) , D.C., 
Ph.D., LL.D., Los Angeles, is among those present. He was 
“second vice president” of the Allied Medical Associations 
in 1918. He is also opposed to vaccination and helps out 
the American Medical Liberty League. White was gradu- 
ated from the New York Homeopathic Medical College 
when he was forty-two years old. He played with Abrams’ 
spondylotherapy (see later) and also pushed Fitzgerald’s 
“zone therapy” (see later) . Then he developed the fancy- 
name system that combines a lot of hocus-pocus — it seems 
one diagnoses disease by a “Sympathetic Vagal Reflex.” To 
elicit the said phenomenon, the patient faces east or west 
and his abdomen is thumped until a dull area is found. 
Then colored lights are thrown on the abdomen and the 
thumping is continued. A ruby and blue light with asso- 
ciated dullness means one thing and a green light combina- 

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tion another. That is to say, Dr. White says so; really, it 
doesn’t mean anything. Once Dr. White took a flier in the 
patent medicine business. The F.S.Sc. (Lond.) , with which 
he is endowed, means “Fellow of the Incorporated Society 
of Science, Letters, and Arts of London, Ltd.’’ Lots of people 
who play the same game as White have the same letters. The 
cost of the elegant diploma is about $5. Sometimes White 
also puts after his name D.C., Ph.D., LL.D. No one knows 
where he got those. The method was given a beautiful send- 
off in Mr. Macfadden’s Physical Culture magazine by Dr. 
Edwin F. Bowers in February, 1918. Dr. Bowers is not a 
doctor of medicine, and the only M.D. he has is the one 
Macfadden gives him. Strange how the same names recur 
again and again in these stories of the ghoullike activities 
of the harpies who live by exploiting the sick! 

In 1925, White produced the last word in this fancy busi- 
ness, the Rithmo-Chrome and Duo-Colors. He has a lot of 
books to sell and a lot of apparatus. For instance, in his 
latest announcement, Figure 10 shows a “person sitting 
on a Filteray Cushion and receiving Filtered Ultrared 
Rays while doing Rithmo-Chrome breathing and inhaling 
Oxygen-Vapor or Medicated Vapor and at the time getting 
therapeutic effect of the magnetic forces of the earth, as he 
is grounded and facing exactly north and south.” If the 
Duo-Colors are added to this, Dr. White affirms, the patient 
is certainly getting “Natural Methods Condenst.” And if 
he isn’t getting that, what is he getting? 

Biological Blood-Washing . This utter humbug is accred- 
ited to Benedict Lust, of whom more later. He is one of 
the king pins of the naturopathy cult. Under “naturopathy” 
his record will be made apparent. 

C 

Chirothesians. This peculiar group emanates from Cali- 
fornia, and its fountainhead is the Western College of Drug- 
less Therapeutics. It combines a new religious cult with 
medical hocus. Many State laws give amnesty to religious 
healers. The catalogue of the college says: “While working 

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under this title, healers ordained to work are protected 
from annoyance by the state medical board.” Evidently a 
chirothesian is not limited to any system. One had his office 
full of bottles labeled cancer, paralysis, rheumatism, and 
tumors; another said that he made his diagnoses by exami- 
nation of the pulse and “irido-diagnosis.” (For the latter 
system, see Under “I.”) Chirothesianism is apparently a 
method of mixing religion and fake healing to get around 
the medical practice laws. 

Christos (blood washers) . A half-dozen cults use the term, 
“blood washing” as a come-on. It usually refers to some 
method of purging the intestinal tract. The Christos cult 
consists mostly of Negroes. Herb tonics are dispensed with 
the claim that they are especially blessed by Christ, the 
Savior. Taken in the form of tea, these herbs wash the blood 
of sin and impurities. New York authorities arrested and 
prosecuted the Negro leaders. 

Chromopathy. Naturopathic physicians who practiced 
White’s colored light system on the side used this term to 
indicate the healing of disease by colored lights. 

Chromatherapy . Another modification of White’s colored 
light scheme. 

E 

Electric Light Diagnosis and Therapy. See Electrotherapy. 

Electro-Homeopathy. A combination of electrotherapy and 
homeopathy. (See under each.) 

Electro-Naprapathy. A combination of two cults. (See 
under each.) 

Electrotherapy. The use of electric devices has a definite 
place in the treatment of disease. It should not be thought, 
however, that any electrician or machinist is competent to 
use such methods. Electricity is a two-edged sword; in the 
hands of the ignorant, it may wreak disaster. Actually its use 
should be limited to those who have had the training of a 
physician and then given special study to the use of electric 
devices or to competent technicians working under the direc- 
tion of a physician. 

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G 

Geotherapy . New York investigators found a concern 
treating disease by the application of little pads of earth — 
hence the grandiloquent title. A warning resulted in the 
abandonment of the enterprise. 

I 

lrido-Diagnosis. The poetical notion that the eye is the 
mirror of the soul evidently convinced a minor medical 
prophet in Chicago that money might be made by founding 
a school of medicine in which the diagnosis of all diseases 
would depend on the ability to notice the changing colors 
of the iris or colored material of the eye. With a remarkable 
genius for publicity, he succeeded in attracting much free 
newspaper mention and in leading to his school numerous 
ignorant satellites who desired to enter on the practice of 
healing by some easy route. Among those attracted have been 
a few regularly licensed physicians who sought to exploit 
themselves and enhance their incomes by adding the claim 
of this superior power to such as might already have been 
conferred upon them by the state. Even today the practi- 
tioners of this vagary burst into temporary luminescence in 
the sensation-seeking press. Fortunately the prophet himself 
was accused by his wife of mental vagaries. He gradually 
subsided! 

K 

Kneipp Cure. See Naturopathy. 

L 

Limpio Comerology . A Mrs. Caroline M. Olsen and her 
husband, Emil, hailing from St. Louis, adopted the name of 
Limpio Comerology for their health service, which appears 
to have been founded primarily on the doctrine of clean 
eating. In connection with the teaching of the science, there 
were dispensed “Q-33” and “Q-34,” proprietary prepara- 
tions, to make the clean eating physically successful. Mrs. 

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Olsen, obviously Norwegian or Danish, explained that the 
term “Limpio Comerology” was taken from the Spanish. 

M 

McLean . James A. M. McLean, born in Martinique, 
claims that he is a geologist, evolutionist, pathologist, psy- 
chologist, anatomist, biologist, chemist, erosionist, and the- 
ophonist. Like many other quacks, he turned up in Cali- 
fornia, claiming in his advertisement the special powers of 
reducing and building obesity, and reducing various dis- 
orders, diseases and infirmities. His system was a combi- 
nation of physical, metaphysical, and spiritual healing — 
bunk from start to finish. 


N 

Naturology. This is merely another name for naturopathy. 
This school was founded by a naturopath of the Benedict 
Lust school who adopted this fanciful name to show that he 
knew things that even they didn’t know. 

P 

Pathiatry. This particular cult is trademarked. “It com- 
bines the best principles of spinal adjustment, traction, 
manipulation, deep massage, etc., administered by oneself. 
So simple and delightful as to become a part of the daily 
toilet. Done anywhere, at any time, while standing, even 
sitting; without appliance of any kind.” 

Poropathy . Arthur de Collard turned up in Richmond, 
Va., and persuaded the legislature in that State, in 1918, to 
license him to practice poropathy. Arthur claimed to be a 
cousin of Napoleon and a graduate of several European uni- 
versities. His diplomas, he said, had all been burned, and 
he would not answer the simplest question on the elements 
of medicine and surgery. The bill defined poropathy and 
manipulative surgery as a new branch of therapeutics. It 
employs no medicine taken through the stomach, and does 
not employ the knife. Healing and curative agencies and 
lotions, however, applied directly to the diseased organs and 

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to the nerves controlling those organs, through the pores of 
the skin and mucous membrane, which are opened by med- 
ical manipulation, immediately reach the disease or ailment 
through the eliminating organs, and by this process heal and 
cure most of the ills to which flesh is heir, including: inter- 
nal cancer, cerebrospinal meningitis, epilepsy, tuberculosis 
of the joints and heart disease. This system, according to the 
bill, would adjust, heal and cure broken bones, sprains, and 
dislocations. After a committee substitute for the bill and 
various amendments to the substitute had been rejected, the 
bill was passed and Arthur de Collard through it acquired 
the right to practice poropathy in Virginia. There are now 
several poropathists in the state who have taken a course 
under De Collard. 

Practo-therapy, This was a group of men and women, 
mostly nurses, who treated human ills through intestinal 
irrigation. “Practo-therapy” was evidently a fanciful title in 
place of the word “procto.” 


Q 

Quartz-therapists. A term used by “Naturopath” irregulars 
who use quartz mercury vapor lamps. 

S 

Sanatology. Sanatology is a delightful title conferred on his 
particular science of healing by Dr. P. L. Clark, Chicago, 
who insists that he is the first man in the world to make 
the pronouncement and prove that acidosis and toxicosis 
are the two basic causes of all disease. In his school on Prairie 
Avenue in Chicago he teaches people, so he says, how to re- 
move the causes and restore the body to normal. He issues 
little cards for free consultation and blood-pressure test, 
which are the “come-ons” by which he secures permanent 
contributors. 

Somapathy. The Illinois College of Somapathy is located 
at Elgin, Illinois, and its fond father is Dr. C. H. Murray. It 
appears that this science is devoted to the body suffering. 
The diagnostician feels around in the place where the nerves 

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emerge from the spinal cord and adjusts them. Then he 
continues his good effects by applying ice cold, or material 
heated up to two hundred degrees at the place of adjust- 
ment. Here again is an offshoot of chiropractic and osteop- 
athy, with which it is associated in another school. Dr. 
Murray promises his graduates $10,000 a year if they are 
successful. 

Spectrocromists . This was an establishment operated 
through advising individuals to wear clothing or garments 
according to the color of the spectrum. How they came to 
the conclusion as to what part of the spectrum the indi- 
vidual should assume, in selecting his colors, is not clear. 
Perhaps it was for this advice they charged. They have been 
arrested and fined. 

T 

Tropo-therapy. This was a group of food faddists adver- 
tising special nutritional foods under this fanciful name. 


V 

Vita-O-Pathy. The name of this particular system indicates 
how hopeless is any attempt to simplify the control of quack- 
ery. Its prophet, Orrin Robertson, Ph.D., D.M., M.D., 
announces that: 


Vita-O-Pathy is the essence and quintessence of the follow- 
ing thirty-six systems with additional discoveries and inven- 
tions; yet it is unlike any of them. Consequently it Restores 
Health to Humanity without a Surgical Operation. It is 
based on Geometry, a true science which contains the funda- 
mental secrets of Ancient Science, Philosophy and Religion . 


1. Prana-Yama 

2. Zoism 

3. Spiritual Science 

4. Psychic Sarcology 

5. Somnopathy 

6. Christian Science 

7. Osteopathy 

8. Chiropathy 

9. Divine Science 


10. Botanic 

11. Allopathy 

12. Biopneuma 

13. Prayer Cure 

14. Rest Cure 

15. Diet Cure 

16. Eclecticism 

17. Hydropathy 

18. Magnetism 
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19. Phrenopathy 

20. Nervauric Therapeutics 

21. Electro-Therapeutics 

22. Chromopathy 

23. Vitapathy 

24. Homeopathy 

25. Psychopathy 

26. Magnetic Massage 

27. Faith Cure 


28. Biochemic System 

29. Therapeutic Sarcognomy 

30. Physio Medical 

31. Mechanical Therapy 

32. Suggestive Therapeutics 

33. Auto-Suggestion 

34. Tripsis 

35. Spondylotherapy 

36. Chirothesia 


He has worked out a scheme of muddling the moronic 
mind, and there are apparently enough persons of an intel- 
ligence below that of a child of eight to provide him with 
plenty of victims. His price varies from $40 a week to what- 
ever he can get. It appears that he was born on May 28, 
1858, in Cass County, Missouri, under the control of the 
Archangel Haniel, who it seems controls Friday, and whose 
chief characteristic is spiritual love. Further than this the 
deponent saith not. 


Z 

Zodiac Therapy. This group was an offspring, formerly 
employed in an establishment called 4 ‘Aero- therapy- Astral 
Healers.” On the walls of the establishment, on blue paper, 
were photographic enlargements of signs of the Zodiac. The 
ceiling was painted to look like the heavens. Persons desir- 
ing their horoscope read, the effect of the horoscope on their 
health was determined, for which a charge was made. 
Pamphlets were sold, also herb remedies. 

Zonotherapy . One Dr. Fitzgerald of Hartford, Connecti- 
cut, has divided the body into zones, lengthwise and cross- 
wise, and heals disease in one zone by pressing on others. To 
keep the pressure going he developed little wire springs. For 
instance, a toothache on the right side may be “cured” by 
fastening a little spring around the second toe of the left 
foot. Naturally, Fitzgerald has never convinced any one with 
ordinary reasoning powers that there is anything in his sys- 
tem — except what he gets out of it. 

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THE QUACKERY OF ALBERT ABRAMS 


"A false tendency ,** replied Goethe , "is not productive ; or if it is, 
what it produces is of no worth. It is not so difficult to perceive this 
in others ; but with respect to oneself the case is different, and great 
freedom of mind is required. And even knowledge of the truth is not 
always of use; we delay, doubt, cannot resolve, — just as one finds it 
difficult to leave a beloved girl of whose infidelity one has long bad 
repeated proofs.** — Conversations of Goethe with Eckermann. 


a lready well sunk in the oblivion that is the terminus of 
•XX most forms of medical quackery, nevertheless the 
\brams box, E.R.A., the electronic reactions of Abrams, or 
some more recent modification of this bizarre notion are still 
promoted by a few charlatans. Albert Abrams attracted 
world-wide notoriety by the unusually picturesque character 
of his methods. He was born in San Francisco in 1864. 
According to available records, he attended the University 
of Heidelberg, Germany, and was graduated in 1882. The 
story of his career in brief as told by himself in Who’s Who 
(for he was early included in that assemblage of the noted 
and notorious) , indicates an average medical existence until 
1910. Some ten years after his graduation, he became pro- 
fessor of pathology in the Cooper Medical College in San 
Francisco, holding the position from 1893 to 1898. His ear- 
nestness and intelligence had apparently been recognized by 
the California State Medical Society, of which he became 
vice president in 1889; he had been made president of the 
San Francisco Medico-Chirurgical Society in 1893. Coinci- 
dent with his recognition as a pathologist, he began to write 

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profusely not only on scientific topics, but also a sort of 
medical belles-lettres which were considered clever for their 
day. They were somewhat satirical in tone and attracted 
wide attention. 


SPONDYLOTHERAPY 

In 1909 Abrams published a work called Spinal Thera- 
peutics, and in 1910 a volume on Spondylotherapy , which 
two books constituted his first definite departure from med- 
ical orthodoxy. The term came from spondylo, a Greek word 
referring to the spine, not the American “spondulix.” In 
creating spondylotherapy, Albert Abrams emphasized the 
peculiar hypothesis that the reflex centers in the spine could 
be stimulated by constant, rapid percussion or hammering, 
and that this could be used for diagnosis and treatment. In 
reviewing his book, The Journal of the American Medical 
Association called attention casually to the fact that this 
might be considered an attempt to give the general medical 
men something akin to osteopathy and chiropractic. At any 
event, Dr. Abrams soon began to exploit his idea, giving 
courses on spondylotherapy in various parts of the country 
at $50 per course and calling the attention of physicians to 
his methods by various types of advertising, just within the 
fold of ethical procedure. In 1922, after Abrams had con- 
ceived his remarkable scheme of electronic medicine, spon- 
dylotherapy courses of one month each advanced to a fee 
of $200 per course. At the time when he first began to pro- 
mote his conception of spinal percussion, he founded the 
American Association for the Study of Spondylotherapy, of 
which he naturally became president and later honorary 
president. 

It is not at all unusual for medical cults to organize them- 
selves promptly for efficient salesmanship and exploitation of 
their wares. It must be pointed out, however, that this is 
not the same thing as the organizing of scientists into bodies 
that meet once each year for the interchange of advance in 
scientific knowledge. 

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THE BIRTH OF E.R.A. 

Twelve years after he had apparently percussed the back 
to the fullest extent of what it would yield monetarily, Dr. 
Albert Abrams turned the patient over and began to thump 
the abdomen. 

For many years the art of percussion has constituted a sig- 
nificant part of the practice of physical diagnosis. Indeed, 
Auenbrugger, who evolved the science of percussion more 
than a century ago, had shown physicians that various parts 
of the body when struck give off a resounding tone or a dull 
tone, according to the type of tissue that lay underneath. 
The method had been used to great advantage since that 
time for the diagnosis of such diseases as pneumonia, tuber- 
culosis, enlargement of the heart, collections of fluid in the 
lungs or abdomen, and similar conditions. However, Dr. 
Abrams did not confine himself simply to percussion of the 
abdomen. That indeed was simply incidental. It added to 
the psychic suggestion of his machinery a vicarious laying 
on of hands. He utilized all of the mystery and profound 
awe that are inherent in electric apparatus, particularly the 
radio. Instruments were developed beside which a Goldberg 
cartoon is simple indeed. In the Goldberg cartoon a brick 
falls on a springboard causing a rock to hit a cat which 
springs at a canary causing it to flutter its wings. This puts 
out a candle which has been heating some water in a spoon. 
The steam condensing drops on the bald head of a sleeping 
man in a rocking chair. Awakening with a start he begins to 
rock, thus activating a fan which chases away a fly that has 
been crawling on the fat man’s bald head. 

In brief, Abrams secured from a prospective patient a 
drop of blood upon a piece of filter paper and placed this in 
an apparatus called a “dynamizer.” This dynamizer was in 
turn connected with a rheostatic dynamizer from which 
wires passed to a vibratory rheostat, which finally was con- 
nected with a measuring rheostat. But in order to introduce 
a variable factor in the operation of this extraordinary com- 
bination of wires, coils, batteries, and what-not, a final wire 

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passed from the measuring rheostat to the forehead of some 
healthy individual. The individual stripped himself to the 
waist and then faced west in a dim light. Notice this added 
hokum that goes back to the symbolism of Biblical legend! 
The operator, or Abrams’ disciple, as he may better be 
termed, then percussed or tapped upon the abdomen of this 
healthy subject. Various areas of dullness naturally were 
found, and it was the peculiar delusion of Albert Abrams 
that he could tell whether the person whose blood was being 
tested was suffering from syphilis, sarcoma, carcinoma or 
cancer, typhoid fever, malaria, gonorrhea, tuberculosis, or 
various forms of sepsis by such dull areas. Note that he 
selected the diseases most feared by mankind. Not only that! 
He claimed he could determine the very spot within the 
body of the individual who had supplied the blood at which 
the disease had its focus. Furthermore, the severity of the 
condition was measured in ohms of resistance. Still more 
wonderful, but unfortunately not true, Dr. Abrams claimed 
that one could substitute the autograph of some dead indi- 
vidual instead of his blood and find out what diseases that 
individual suffered from. Finally, he asserted that he could 
determine, according to the amount of dullness and its 
position, the religion of the person tested. In his periodical, 
founded especially for disseminating these extraordinary 
ideas, he classified six types of religion, including Catholic, 
Methodist, Seventh-Day Adventists, Theosophist, Protestant, 
and Jews, with the area of dullness for the Methodist in the 
left lower quarter of the abdomen and that for a Protestant 
in the right lower quarter, never explaining what peculiar 
conditions of the appendix in the right lower corner, or the 
lower large bowel in the lower left quarter might be re- 
sponsible for the varying dullness in the subject tested. The 
explanation was never forthcoming as to why the blood of 
persons of the Jewish faith should produce so much more 
abdominal dullness in the subject than that of Christians. 
Had the percussion been made directly on the persons con- 
cerned, the frequency of constipation in persons of Jewish 
origin, who are naturally heavy eaters, might have explained 

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the matter satisfactorily, but it must be borne in mind that 
the percussion was invariably made on a healthy subject and 
that the person concerned supplied only a drop of blood 
which was placed in the Abrams dynamizer. Once these 
strange devices were developed, Dr. Abrams made them 
available to physicians and osteopaths who cared to have 
them. 

A periodical known as Physical Clinical Medicine was 
founded and “devoted to the study of the electronic re- 
actions of Abrams in the diagnosis, treatment, and pathology 
of disease.” It was sold at $1 per copy or $2 per year. Here 
Abrams advertised his courses in spondylotherapy and elec- 
tronic diagnosis and treatment at $200 per course in ad- 
vance, and here also he offered to furnish the four pieces 
of intricate machinery for a total of $198 with the significant 
legend “no apparatus sold on credit — terms cash.” 

It will be seen that thus far Albert Abrams was concerned 
only with the diagnosis of disease and that the electronic 
method had nothing to say about treatment. It is a well- 
known fact, however, that much more money is to be made 
from persistent courses of treatment which involve numer- 
ous visits to the office of the cultist than from the single 
visit that produces a diagnosis. It might have been expected, 
therefore, that the astute Abrams would develop a method 
of treatment on the basis of his system of diagnosis. The 
device which he finally issued was known as the oscilloclast. 
This device was to be had only on lease, however. The lessee 
had to sign a contract that he would not open the device 
after it was received. The oscilloclast was sold for a first pay- 
ment of either $200 or $250, according to whether it was 
wired for alternating or direct current, and the lessee was 
responsible for monthly payments of $5 each, covering its 
term of use. According to the theory of the exploiter of this 
device, each disease has a vibration rate. When the patient 
is subjected to treatment with the device the vibration rate 
is made the same as that of the condition from which he 
presumably may suffer. 

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EXPLOSION OF THE ABRAMS NOTION 

In October, 1923, an opportunity occurred in Los Angeles 
to examine the actual value of the Abrams apparatus 
through the medium of a justice court case. In connection 
with this matter, Professor R. A. Millikan, head of the Cali- 
fornia Institute of Technology, winner of the Nobel Prize 
in physics and an authority in the realm of physics, exam- 
ined the Abrams apparatus and its method of use. He stated 
that he did not consider that this apparatus rested upon any 
sort of scientific foundation whatever, and, indeed, that the 
claims set up by Abrams and his followers from the stand- 
point of physics are the height of absurdity. In a more tech- 
nical explanation, Professor Millikan pointed out that when 
making a diagnosis, the Abrams followers insert electric 
resistance into a circuit which cannot oscillate at all, and 
therefore has no vibration frequency and that the claim that 
a diagnosis can be made by turning a dial to different 
buttons indicates complete ignorance of the fundamental 
laws of physics. He further pointed out that Abrams* fol- 
lowers claim that they impose on the microorganism of dis- 
ease its own vibration frequency; yet what they actually do 
is to impose one and the same vibration frequency for all 
diseases. “If a microorganism has any natural frequency at 
all,” said Professor Millikan, “it would have to be millions 
of times higher than any audible frequency of the kind they 
use in the treatment, so that the claim that they are finding 
and then imposing upon the disease its own natural fre- 
quency is simply the height of ignorance in view of the kind 
of physical mechanism with which they are dealing.” Pro- 
fessor Millikan characterized the device perfectly when he 
said it was the kind of machine a ten-year-old boy would 
build to fool an eight-year-old. 

At the same time other investigations were made by phy- 
sicians who did not hesitate to open and analyze the Abrams 
apparatus. It was found that it constituted a veritable jungle 
of electric wires — an apparatus violating all the sound rules 
of electric construction. Indeed, cases are reported of deaths 

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that occurred to persons subjected to treatment, because the 
construction of the apparatus was such that the ignorant 
electronic practitioner so connected the machinery that the 
full city current passed through the body of the patient. 

THE ABRAMS PRACTITIONER 

We come then particularly to the type of physician who 
employs the Abrams apparatus, and who is pleased to call 
himself an “electronic practitioner/* The records of many 
were in the files of the American Medical Association that 
are devoted to quacks and quackery. As was pointed out, 
Abrams organized early the American Association for the 
Study of Spondylotherapy. Promptly on the launching of so- 
called electronic medicine he developed the American Elec- 
tronic Research Association with various state branches. 
Albert Abrams was first president and then honorary presi- 
dent. Early in the development of his campaign, Abrams 
determined to admit osteopaths to the exclusive circle of 
electronic practitioners and to his courses in San Francisco. 
He knew the value that attaches itself to exclusiveness, and 
the humble chiropractor was not admitted into the sacred 
fold. However, certain chiropractors are apparently not 
averse to employing the Abrams machinery for extracting 
shekels from the deluded and unwary. Indeed, the report of 
the annual convention of the American Electronic Research 
Association brought prominently to the attention of those 
present the fact that manufacturers of Abrams apparatus 
were regularly selling such a device to chiropractors. One 
Dr. Cowan, who it appears represented the American Insti- 
tute of Rational Therapeutics in Chicago, spoke as follows: 

Question : What is the name of the machine? 

Mr. Cowan: We have two types of treating machines. One 
is a unit that treats one person at a time. That is called the 
electronoclast. We have also a master machine that treats six 
patients at a time. That is known as the isoclast. 

Question: The diagnostic machine? 

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Mr. Cowan: That is known as the hemopathometer . Hemo 
means blood, path means pathology , meter means measure, 
hemopathometer . 

Question: Do you sell to chiropractors? 

Mr . Cowan: Do we sell to chiropractors? I answered that 
by saying that we do just exactly like everyone else on the 
floor . If a chiropractor is licensed by the State of Illinois 

Question: Yes or no. 

Mr. Cowan: All right, I do exactly like my competitors, 
yes, I do like they do. Does that answer it? 

As I said, we have over 300 graduates who have taken our 
work. The vast majority of them are osteopaths, next are the 
medical men. We have a smattering of other practitioners. 
In the state of Illinois we have no chiropractic license. These 
men are on a plane with the medical men, almost. They can 
sign death certificates. They are permitted to practice. If 
they come to us we teach them the work. If it is wrong, if you 
people think so, we are willing to change it, if they do. 

Dr. Replogle: I would like to know what is the use of so 
many funny names? Why not call it the oscilloclast? That 
was the original name. 

Mr. Cowan: That is a very good question. Why not call 
it the oscilloclast? Unfortunately, we are living in an age 
where it is not heaven yet, and if a name is perfected by any 
one individual and copyrighted, no one has a right, even if 
they so desired, to name their apparatus after that. Iso means 
the same, clast means to break down. That is the principle 
of our treating machine. We break down by similar vibra- 
tions. That is why we call it isoclast. The word oscillo is 
different. 

Dr. Replogle: Oscilloclast, clast means to break, does your 
machine mean any more than that? 

Mr. Cowan: If I would use the word oscilloclast, I could 
not use it if I wanted to. 


Dr. Cowan was no modest violet in discussing his appa- 
ratus: “In the diagnostic machine/’ he said, “we check up 
Dr. Abrams. We don’t maintain that Dr. Abrams was wrong, 
but he knew nothing of what he was talking about.” It is the 
opinion of most of the electricians who have investigated 

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Abrams’ device, that Abrams knew little or nothing at all 
about the fundamental facts of electricity. 

Were the cult still active, it might be worth while to 
recapitulate some of the many data accumulated by the 
American Medical Association of attempts to study scien- 
tifically the Abrams apparatus and to submit Abrams and 
his followers to tests under scientifically controlled methods. 
The blood of a guinea pig, and a lady guinea pig at that, was 
sent to an Abrams practitioner in Oklahoma City, purport- 
ing to be from Mr. P., whose history was sent with it. The 
Abrams practitioner submitted one of those remarkable 
diagnoses of all sorts of diseases with various ohms of re- 
sistance. Yet a postmortem of this virtuous, unsuspecting 
lady guinea pig showed her to be suffering from none of the 
highly unvirtuous complaints which were accredited to the 
blood that she yielded. Then the blood of a most gentle- 
manly guinea pig was sent to an Abrams practitioner in 
Albuquerque, and the astounding report was returned that 
this remarkable animal suffered from a streptococcic in- 
fection of his left fallopian tube. He had shown no female 
characteristics up to that time, and a postmortem examina- 
tion yielded no evidence of ladylike attributes. Similar ex- 
periments were made with all sorts of Abrams practitioners 
in all parts of the country and with equally preposterous 
results. When I asked Mr. Upton Sinclair what he thought 
of these experiments, he said: “I think that was a dirty 
trick to play on a man like Albert Abrams.” 

The apotheosis of Abrams’ career came with the intro- 
duction of the sphygmo-biometer, to be used in diagnosing 
the presence of oil beneath the surface of the earth. One 
thing about oil, however, it is either there or it is not. Some- 
body digs down to prove its presence or absence. But a lady 
may be told that she has a cancer, which is promptly re- 
lieved by the Abrams machine, and since she never had a 
cancer in the first place she is found in many summer resorts 
bragging about her cure. It takes an X-ray and most times an 
operation to determine the certain presence of this internal 
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This remarkable cult naturally attracted wide attention in 
the daily press. It became a common subject of newspaper 
consideration, and astute editors of magazines saw opportu- 
nity for exploitation. Early in the history of the cult, Pear- 
son’s Magazine succumbed to the Abrams publicity. On the 
other hand, the Dearborn Independent , perhaps stimulated 
somewhat by Mr. Ford’s anti-Semitic leanings, revealed the 
fallacies and interests underlying the Abrams exploitation. 
Again the Scientific American published a series of articles 
constituting a complete investigation of the Abrams matter 
which showed it to be quite without reason. 

ABRAMSISM IN ENGLAND 

In January, 1925, the British Medical Journal published 
the full report of a British committee on a device developed 
by one Dr. E. W. Boyd, apparently a disciple of Abrams, 
who had developed what he called an “emanometer.” One 
of the members of this committee, an engineer named 
W. Whatley Smith, soon came to light as the author of 
articles in several periodicals addressed to the public, in 
which he featured the findings of the committee, emphasiz- 
ing his belief that the results had to some extent established 
the principles underlying the observations of Dr. Abrams. 
One of his articles was headed with the direct question: 
“Did Dr. Abrams Make A Real Discovery?” To that the 
answer is obvious. Since time immemorial it has been known 
that a certain number of credulous persons will always be 
found who will believe anything that they cannot under- 
stand; this, after all, was the great discovery of Dr. Abrams. 
The complicated machinery that he devised for extracting 
the shekels of the unwary was the modus operandi for put- 
ting his discovery to practical effect. 

In Mr. Smith’s statement as to the work of the British 
committee he omitted many facts which can be gleaned by 
careful reading from the original report. In the first place, 
Dr. W. E. Boyd derived his knowledge of the Abrams device 
from X-ray pictures of the apparatus, since he had contracted 
not to open it. He concluded that the Abrams resistance box 

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was not a resistance device, but a coil wound for inductance. 
Sir Thomas Horder, the head of the committee, emphasized 
that the Boyd apparatus is not the Abrams apparatus. “It is 
commonly but erroneously supposed,” he said, “that the 
instrument of Boyd is no more than a minor variation on 
that of Abrams, whereas it appears actually to be a design 
de novo based on a different conception of the phenomena 
involved.” Sir Thomas Horder also pointed out that none 
of the members of the committee mastered the technic for 
themselves and that they depended on the work of the ex- 
ponents of the method; he thanked Dr. Boyd particularly 
for lending himself to the work. 

In analyzing the results it may be important first to point 
out that attempts were made to measure electrically the 
changes alleged to occur, thus avoiding the percussing tests 
on the abdomen of a human, but that this was found im- 
possible. The results were indeterminate and the committee 
does not even report them. Let us consider then the report 
on the tests of the sputum, to which Mr. Whatley Smith 
refers. A first series of tests was carried out in London. Here 
Dr. Boyd endeavored to separate correctly twenty pairs of 
specimens of sputum taken from two patients chosen and 
approved by one Dr. McCrae. “The outcome of the test was 
unfavorable to the technic,” says the report, “for of the 
results returned by the exponents only eleven were correct, 
while nine were wrong; which is just the kind of result 
which would be expected if chance alone were operative.” 
Mr. Smith says nothing in his paper of this test. 

The report points out that Dr. Boyd sent a memorandum 
to the committee ascribing his failure to the fact that the 
arrangements were not satisfactory and that the time re- 
quired for checking the specimens caused them to become 
stale. He then arranged for another test in his own labora- 
tory, in which he supplied the specimens and in which the 
only ones present were Mr. Whatley Smith, Dr. Boyd, Dr. 
Boyd’s secretary, and two Glasgow boys who were the sub- 
jects. It was this test which Mr. Whatley Smith glorifies as 
one hundred per cent perfect. No real scientist who reads 

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the details of the tests conducted for Mr. Whatley Smith will 
feel anything but a sort of pity for Mr. Smith’s credulity. 
One can remember in this connection only similar groups of 
investigators who have been the willing scapegoats for think- 
ing horses, spiritualistic mediums, and hysterical malin- 
gerers. Indeed, it occurred to the representatives of the com- 
mittee that Mr. Smith might have been overenthusiastic, so 
the full committee, including Sir Thomas Horder, Mr. 
E. J. Dingwall, and Dr. Heald proceeded to Glasgow for a 
repetition of the tests exhibited for Mr. Smith. The whole 
committee was satisfied. That is the sum and substance of 
the tests made in England to determine whether or not the 
Abrams ideas were sound and the Abrams devices trust- 
worthy. 

A real scientist would have drawn the conclusion from 
these tests that Dr. Boyd, in his own laboratory, using cer- 
tain electric apparatus, had apparently been able to dis- 
tinguish between two specimens of sputum through a change 
in the percussion notes of the abdomens of two boys with 
whom the sputums were connected electrically. Instead, the 
committee drew the conclusion that these experiments estab- 
lish to a high degree of probability the fundamental propo- 
sition underlying the apparatus designed for eliciting the 
electronic reactions of Abrams. They have the saving grace 
to say that the whole thing is extremely elusive and highly 
susceptible to interference and that it would be premature 
even to hazard a hypothesis as to the physical basis of the 
phenomena described. As is obvious to anyone who can read, 
the experiments have nothing whatever to do with the 
diagnosis of disease. Realizing perhaps the dangerous use 
that might be made of their conclusions by the followers of 
Abrams, the committee stated their view on this point in 
no uncertain terms: 

“To sum up,” they said, “the conclusions arrived at in 
this communication leave the position of the practicing elec- 
tronist as scientifically unsound and as ethically unjustified 
as it was before. They give no sanction for the use of E.R.A. 
in the diagnosis or in the treatment of disease. Nor does 

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there appear to be any other sanction for this kind of prac- 
tice at the present time.” 

THE DEATH OF ABRAMS 

On January 13, 1924, Dr. Abrams departed this life, suc- 
cumbing to an attack of pneumonia. He left behind him 
considerable property and several relatives, together with a 
will indicating his desire that a school be established for 
perpetuating his electronic methods and his discoveries. 
Promptly suits were instituted involving the property thus 
concerned. Electronic practice had paid well, as is apparent 
from the fact that the available assets amounted to at least 
a million dollars, not including the value of the patents for 
the Abrams devices. These patents are obviously worthless 
without the promotion of an Abrams behind them and if 
one is to judge by the available evidence, the future will 
show only diminishing returns. Indeed, in filing her suit, 
the sister of Albert Abrams pointed out that the organization 
of the college, the charitable institution which he had in his 
lifetime established, was merely a profit-making concern of 
Dr. Abrams and was his individual property. But now the 
Abrams College no longer functions except as the address 
of an alleged Abrams research organization. 

It is common in the history of cults in medicine that they 
live as long as there are two reasons for their existence: (1) 
The survival of and promotion by the major prophet who 
inspires his followers by his personality, his enthusiasm, and 
his methods; (2) the existence of funds to a considerable 
amount, administered by trustees who cannot reach the prin- 
cipal, and capable of earning additional funds which are 
devoted to the perpetuation of the cult. So far as electronic 
medicine is concerned, the major prophet has passed and 
there seems to have appeared on the horizon thus far no 
chief disciple of his unusual personality. On the other hand, 
the funds left by Abrams constituted a juicy bone for which 
the attorneys for his relatives and representatives of the elec- 
tronic organizations contested mightily. Apparently an agree- 
ment was reached whereby the institution elaborated by 

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Albert Abrams for the promotion of his methods and his de- 
vices is perpetuated. So long, therefore, as these funds are 
not detoured from that purpose there will be a few elec- 
tronic practitioners to ply the public with their method of 
diagnosing and treating disease. It has been customary to 
characterize such methods as pseudoscientific. To use such 
a term in connection with the Abrams technic and devices 
is to dignify them far beyond their merit. They are, in fact, 
only the continuous proof that a considerable number of 
people are willing to believe anything that they do not 
understand. The possibilities of financial gain invariably 
attract many who are willing to believe so long as belief 
constitutes a source of income. 

EVOLUTION OF THE ABRAMS NOTION 

It has been said that whenever a new idea develops in any 
field it becomes the source of innumerable similar extraor- 
dinary conceptions. Attention has already been called to the 
neuro-calometer developed by B. J. Palmer to get aboard the 
Abrams band wagon, exactly as Abrams developed that to 
take advantage of the public interest in osteopathy and 
chiropractic. Shortly after the appearance of Albert Abrams 
upon the medical scene, Gaylord Wilshire of Los Angeles 
brought to public attention, through extensive announce- 
ments in the press, a device which he called the “Ionaco,” 
and which Arthur J. Cramp, Director of the Bureau of In- 
vestigation of the American Medical Association, rechris- 
tened the “magic horse collar.” 

The Ionaco, briefly, consisted merely of a coil of wire 
inside a second coil. The second coil was connected with the 
house current. Sometimes there was placed at the end of the 
second coil a little light. Exactly as the moving point on the 
dial of a gas meter, or the deflecting needle of a galvanometer 
will fix the patient’s attention and thereby enhance the 
power of suggestion, so also will a little light serve this 
purpose. The patient was told that he might be rid of any 
chronic disorder merely by placing this device around the 
neck and turning on the current. It was said that by this 

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means a magnetic field was created and that this magnetic 
field controlled all disease by magnetizing the iron in the 
blood. If the reader has ever attempted to pick up a piece 
of spinach with a magnet, he will ascertain how utterly pre- 
posterous is this notion. The iron in the blood is organic 
combined iron exactly as is the iron in spinach, and there is 
no evidence that the creation of a magnetic field in any way 
influences such combined iron. However, even if the hypoth- 
esis were true, there would still be no reason for magnetizing 
the iron in the blood to overcome tuberculosis, heart disease, 
disease of the kidneys, or similar disturbances. 

Gaylord Wilshire sold these devices for $55 cash or $65 
on time payments, and thousands of them were sold by his 
methods of promotion. Shortly after the development of the 
device Wilshire himself died of a disease of the kidney in a 
New York hospital, no doubt without the benefit of his own 
invention. He was a remarkable charlatan. Twenty-five years 
previously he had first attracted public attention by selling 
gold mines to socialists on time payments, one dollar down 
and one dollar a week. Then he came to public notice 
through speculation in subdivisions outside Los Angeles — 
somewhat the same type of financial promotion. However, 
the City of Los Angeles still perpetuates his name in the 
Wilshire Boulevard and the Wilshire Building. 

Following the death of Gaylord Wilshire, hundreds of imi- 
tators brought similar devices to public notice. They were 
christened variously, as the “Ionizer,” the “Theronoid,” the 
“Restoro,” and many other appellations. All were promoted 
with the same type of publicity that sold the Ionaco. No 
doubt the greatest sales were secured by the use of the radio. 
Of the use of the radio in the promotion of quackery, more 
will be said in a later chapter. The modern charlatan avails 
himself of this, as of every other method, of publicity. 

One of the most remarkable examples of the power of sug- 
gestion was demonstrated in an exhibit of the Restoro in a 
Chicago salesroom. Following a morning of fatiguing work 
in nearby department stores, employees would stop briefly for 
luncheon in a restaurant in which all of the seats had, as 

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Irvin Cobb put it, elephantiasis of one arm. They then pro- 
ceeded to the exhibit of Restoros and sat fifteen or twenty 
minutes quietly in a chair with the Restoro device about 
their necks. At the end of the treatment they readily signed 
testimonials stating that they felt much better on leaving 
than when they came in. The observation was entirely true. 
What they failed to take into account was the fact that their 
ordinary routine did not include luncheon followed by 
twenty-five minutes of enforced rest. The Restoro device was 
simply the intermediary that made the rest compulsory. This 
is what scientific medicine calls an uncontrolled experiment. 

It has been difficult to separate from the scientific field of 
physical therapy the remarkably important powers inherent 
from the point of view of suggestion in shooting sparks, bril- 
liant lights, and similar electrical manifestations. It is pro- 
posed later, in a discussion of the rise of physical therapy, to 
analyze some of these methods. 


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XI 


“PHYSICAL CULTURE,” BERNARR MAC- 
FADDEN, AND GLUTTONS FOR EXERCISE 


"Exaggeration is in the course of things. Nature sends no creature , no 
man into the world without adding a small excess of his proper qual- 
ity — Ralph Waldo Emerson on "Nature.” 


T hree types of persons are interested in health: those who 
are well; those who are sick; and those who are well but 
who think they are sick. In these times, the interest of those 
who are well is present, albeit apparently somewhat slight 
and casual. The interest of those who are sick is intense, but 
transitory; when they are well their interest tends to lessen. 

The interest of those who are well but who think they 
are sick is constant and pitiful; they form the substance on 
which the “patent medicine” mongers have thrived since 
time immemorial; they constitute, in large part, the great 
audience for false prophets of health, as well as for those 
who are attempting to give honest information about the 
body and its care in health and in disease. 

Nineteen thirty witnessed the appearance on the literary 
scene of several biographies of Bernarr Macfadden, one of 
them indeed almost a self-revelation, since it came from the 
pen of Fulton Oursler, adviser to the Macfadden publica- 
tions, and so intimate with their control that his wife has 
published her chats with the Macfadden family. As Allene 
Tamley remarks in a consideration of these three opera in 
the Outlook , “There has never in our history been a national 
hero so important as to rate three biographies in a single 

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“physical culture,” bernarr macfadden 

day.” True, Washington, Lincoln, and Roosevelt have been 
favorably mentioned, and indeed unfavorably on various 
occasions, but the great Bernarr bursts upon the scene like 
a charge of T.N.T. 

Our hero greeted the morning sun on a hot August day in 
1868 near the village of Mill Spring, Missouri. Both parents 
died before he was eight years old. Successfully overcoming 
the common diseases of childhood, he ran off to St. Louis 
and began to develop himself in a gymnasium. The records 
reveal that he was no mean opponent on a wrestling mat. 

With this background he began to promote himself as a 
“kinistherapist.” A kinistherapist, for the information of my 
readers, is a person who treats muscles or who concerns him- 
self with their motions. By 1899, when he was 31 years old, 
our hero had already begun to display for an interested 
public those poses of his body which revealed vast areas of 
cutaneous tissue, and which have made him known since 
that day as “Body Love Macfadden.” 

In his earlier publications he associated his promotion of 
physical culture with advertisements for various cures, with 
announcements of hair culture, and with insinuations re- 
garding available books on delicate subjects. Gradually this 
publication evolved into Physical Culture . Quite promptly 
he attracted the attention of that protector of public morals, 
Anthony Comstock. Raids on his New York office resulted in 
removal to New Jersey, where he was arrested and charged 
with sending lewd and obscene matter through the mails. 
For this he received a sentence of two years’ imprisonment 
and a fine of $2,000. Eventually the sentence was remitted, 
but the Government has not yet returned the $2,000. 

With this introduction, let us consider some of the med- 
ical notions promulgated in what is alleged to be a non- 
medical periodical, namely, Mr. Bernarr Macfadden’s Phys- 
ical Culture . The type of fiction and general literature 
issuing from the Macfadden press is another story. If Mr. 
Macfadden were to content himself purely with preaching 
the gospel of simple diet and adequate exercise, one could 

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have no fault to find with him, except that he utilizes the 
erotic appeal in his teachings. 

The manner in which the sex appeal is used by the 
Macfadden periodicals has been duly criticized by numer- 
ous observers, and perhaps nowhere else so well as by 
N. H. Bowen, in a brief discussion in the Detroit Saturday 
Night. 

Mr. Bowen says, in a consideration of the Macfadden 
string of periodicals: '‘The important thing to note is that 
in every one of these stories the suggestion is of something 
relative to sex; in fact, these two magazines reek of sex.” 

It needs no reading of the Macfadden publications to 
convince any sound observer that their appeal is primarily 
sexual and erotic. The covers, invariably in the gaudiest of 
colors, are devoted to pictures of women in various stages 
of nudity, usually sufficient, however, to avoid conflict with 
the postal authorities. The illustrations place emphasis on 
the beauties of the salacious and the cabaret, rather than on 
the higher types of art which have less sex appeal. Even the 
illustrations of the crude stories that form the basis of the 
Macfadden literature are the old male and female struggle 
type or the slow fadeout rigid clasp that featured the movies 
in their earlier and rawer stages. 

The fiction of the Macfadden periodicals is quite fre- 
quently of the so-called confession type. Perhaps these con- 
fessions are true, but if they are, their appeal lies, not in 
their truth nor in any moral lesson that they may teach, but 
in their essential suggestiveness. Of literary value they have 
none, and their duration is as evanescent as the paper on 
which they are printed. 

However, we are concerned here not so much with the 
exceedingly low scale to which the Macfadden literature is 
pitched, as with the false campaign of health which his 
periodicals promote. 

It does not suffice Mr. Macfadden to prove that good 
health may be achieved through proper diet and proper 
exercise; he seems to have felt that in promoting these de- 
siderata he must attack those phases of the scientific care of 

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the body that lie within the purview of the scientifically 
trained physician. In Physical Culture , he has attacked pri- 
marily those who use methods and knowledge which are not 
available to him through the fact that the law is inclined 
to protect the public by guaranteeing to some extent the 
sanctity of the M.D. degree. 

In his campaign, Bernarr Macfadden aligned himself with 
the border-line cultists that oppose scientific medicine and 
devote themselves to the promotion of some single concep- 
tion of disease causation, prevention, and treatment. 

One finds him promoting actively the interests of the 
manipulative cults, including chiropractic and osteopathy; 
of the Abramsites, with their fantastic electronic conception; 
of the naturopathic cult, with its emphasis on barefoot walk- 
ing in the morning dew; of colonic flushing with its filling 
stations and vegetable diet; of the antivaccinationists and 
antivivisectionists; of the fanatical groups that feel that their 
personal beliefs are more important than the good of the 
community; and, indeed, of any of the extraordinary fads 
which have risen for a moment above the horizon of med- 
ical practice only to sink rapidly into oblivion. 

One goes through volume after volume of the health 
faddist’s monitor and selects therefrom articles showing how 
Mr. Bernarr Macfadden has lent himself to the promotion of 
dozens of now discredited notions. This, however, is unneces- 
sary at this time, since Macfadden has himself indicated his 
willingness to promote every new notion — it would be 
beyond the mark to call them ideas. It is, moreover, neces- 
sary only to refer to a few issues of Physical Culture to see 
the type of science which Mr. Macfadden is willing to accept. 

In one number, one finds a defense of the now completely 
discredited Albert Abrams, by the completely deluded 
Upton Sinclair; a defense of naturopathy, by Bernarr 
Macfadden; and a defense of the unestablished views of 
W. H. Bates, who believes that it is possible to train a de- 
formed eye to see without glasses, again by no less an author- 
ity than Bernarr himself. 

There is also an article showing that bobbing of the hair 

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makes women bald, without the slightest basis in scientific 
proof — certainly with no actual evidence. 

Moreover, two issues contain a symposium devoted to the 
triumphs of osteopathy, without any recognition of the fact 
that it never has been shown that the very conditions which 
form the basis of osteopathy actually exist. 

With a peculiar disregard of his own constant and un- 
warranted attack on medical science, Mr. Macfadden has 
employed, to bolster his views, such physicians as are willing 
to take a few dollars for writing articles for the Macfadden 
magazines. 

It should be obvious to any logical-minded man that a 
physician who has even an ordinary ability to interpret what 
he reads will know that the Macfadden periodicals have 
been devoted largely to an attack on scientific medicine, and 
to discrediting not only the modern treatment of disease but 
also the campaigns for the prevention of disease carried on 
by scientific medicine. These campaigns, history shows defi- 
nitely, have cleared up the plague spots of the world and re- 
sulted in the saving of millions of lives wherever they have 
been applied. It should be obvious to any physician that the 
lending of his name and his M.D. degree to the periodicals 
of Mr. Macfadden constitutes a definite departure from his 
scientific training, and certainly from the ethical ideals 
which were conferred on him with his medical education. 
It is perhaps the boast of Mr. Macfadden that he has been 
able to secure a few — fortunately only a pitiful few — phy- 
sicians who are willing to contribute to his pernicious 
propaganda. 

Those who have, on occasion, looked into a Macfadden 
periodical turned but a few pages until they came upon a 
photograph of the “Bare Torso King’ — to confer on him 
the title originally conferred by the Detroit Saturday Night. 
Time calls him “Body-Love” Macfadden. 

There he stands, almost in the garb with which nature 
clad him, a majestic figure with lungs inflated and pompa- 
dour defying the world. His skin, if we are to believe his 
own accounts, is full of vigor and strength. But apparently 

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the attacks that have been made on his motives, if not on 
his facts, have been sufficient to pierce even a skin strength- 
ened by all of the methods known to the apostles of physical 
culture. 

In particular, Mr. Macfadden was worried some years 
ago by an editorial which appeared in the Ladies' Home 
Journal , in which the editor of that long established period- 
ical called attention to the evil that is being spread by sex 
publications. Mr. Macfadden’s defense is to claim that many 
of the great health campaigns for which the Ladies' Home 
Journal is renowned were his own innovation. With colossal 
impudence he states that Physical Culture began twenty-five 
years ago to expose the patent medicine takers, and that the 
Ladies' Home Journal took up the fight only after Physical 
Culture had started. 

And this in a periodical which has always reeked with the 
advertisements of nostrums and fallacious health systems! 

It is claimed further that Physical Culture originated the 
campaign against venereal disease. And this in a periodical 
which by its refusal to recognize the scientific facts concern- 
ing venereal disease may contribute to the spread of these 
diseases. 

It is the belief of at least many editors that the Macfadden 
periodicals, with their sex stimulation and appeal, promote 
unchastity. The refusal to recognize that such conditions 
as gonorrhea and syphilis are caused by definite bacterial and 
parasitic organisms will help to prevent the dissemination of 
knowledge as to the way in which these diseases may be 
prevented through the use of antiseptic substances. It is this 
Macfadden who claims that he has contributed greatly to the 
war on venereal disease! 

It was the view of the intelligent Greeks that the human 
body well taken care of is a holy and spiritual thing. The 
laws of health and hygiene which they promoted were such 
as bring the body to a high state of perfection and discourage 
immodesty and salaciousness in relation to health. The Mac- 
fadden gospel is essentially an appeal to a large minority of 
persons whose eyes are aroused by the flash of nakedness or 

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whose weakened wills succumb to every new health fad. He 
has taken what should be a beautiful search for health, for 
vigor, and for strength, and made of it an ugly and dis- 
couraging thing to every right-minded individual. 

GLUTTONS FOR EXERCISE 

The Macfadden gospel is primarily the belief that big 
muscles are synonymous with health and that exercise is the 
road to this goal. One of the difficulties with the whole 
physical culture and athletic movement has been the cre- 
ation of outdoor fanatics, marathon runners, hundred mile 
pedestrians, and similar enthusiasts who believe that the 
road to health lies in the exceptional performance rather 
than in well conducted and suitably regulated physical 
activities. 

One of the most amusing performances ever witnessed by 
the people of these United States, directly or in the movies, 
was the cross-country marathon promoted by C. C. Pyle. In 
this foot race from Los Angeles to New York, some 200 run- 
ners started, and about a quarter of this number finished the 
3000 mile grind. Just what that was planned to prove, or just 
what relationship it might have to the general subject of 
health, has not yet become apparent. 

No doubt, the one hundred mile walker is a healthful 
person or he could not walk a hundred miles, but the aver- 
age man has little occasion to walk one hundred miles and 
does not need the hundred mile equipment. Man, like other 
domesticated animals, did not always live indoors. Modern 
investigations indicate that a certain amount of time out- 
doors is beneficial to health. But outdoor exercise to the 
point of overfatigue, of irritating sunburn, or of undue ex- 
posure to the elements is likely to do as much harm as good. 

Various authorities have suggested the amounts of muscu- 
lar activity desirable for persons of various ages. Hethering- 
ton of the University of California suggested four hours of 
muscular activity at the age of five years, five hours from 
seven to nine, six hours from nine to eleven, five hours from 
eleven to thirteen, four hours from thirteen to sixteen, three 

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hours from sixteen to eighteen, and two hours daily from 
eighteen to twenty as the proper amounts. 

Williams states that one hour should be given daily to 
activities involving the use of the large muscles of the body 
after 20 years of age, and that anything less than that will 
result in physical deterioration. 

Men should not live for the muscles alone. Think of 
Sandowl Think even of Bernarr Macfadden! And when you 
think of them, what have you got? But maybe some people 
want to be Sandows and Macfaddens. 

Calisthenics, daily dozens, and similar exercises are valu- 
able within limitations, but our tendency is to become exer- 
cise fanatics if we do not become fanatics about something 
else. The tendency is dangerous. There is no royal road to 
health by means of any daily dozen, or any other exercise 
formula promoted by some former trainer of prizefighters 
with the aid of good advertising agencies. 

The chief advantages of exercise are that the body’s gen- 
eral chemistry and physiology are stimulated, the circula- 
tion is aided, and the elimination encouraged. 

There are no magical formulas in exercise that will guar- 
antee freedom from disease or the presence of what is com- 
monly called “pep,” vim, vigor, and vitality. The latter char- 
acteristics seem to be just as much a part of the mental dis- 
position as of the physical state. Keeping young, vigorous 
and happy depends largely on one’s state of mind. 

After all, what does the average person accomplish by his 
exercise? The physiologists have found that a healthful man, 
with well developed muscles, who is working very hard, can 
sustain an average output of about one-tenth horse power for 
eight or ten hours. If he works himself up to an output of 
two-tenths horse power, he is exhausted in two or three 
hours. Expert rowers in racing shells can work up to five- 
tenths or six-tenths horse power, but they are all through 
after 20 minutes. 

An automobile engine or any kind of motor gets far more 
done with less wear and tear on the machine than occurs 
with the human machine. For 10 or 15 seconds, the amount 

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of time required for a 100-yard dash, a human being can 
develop, according to Haggard, as much as three to three 
and a half horse power. But what of it? Any kind of an au- 
tomobile engine does better than 20 horse power. 

THE SHAKING MACHINES 

About 1 857 a Swedish physician named Dr. Gustav Zander 
began to use mechanical means for massage and exercise. 
These machines were the first ever used for the purpose. 
Since that time various devices have been developed, includ- 
ing the hobby horse, popularized by Mr. Coolidge, and all 
sorts of vibrators, shakers, and springs, as well as machines 
for manipulating and vibrating the muscles of the human 
body. 

In a consideration of the use of these machines, the Coun- 
cil on Physical Therapy of the American Medical Associa- 
tion condemns them, although not unreservedly, for several 
reasons. In the first place, it is felt that the psychology that 
their use develops in the patient is wrong, since they con- 
vey the impression that the machine has curative qualities 
and that it is unnecessary for the patient to do anything, 
but that he can leave everything to the machine. 

It is argued that the machine will accomplish things that 
cannot be accomplished by simple exercise, but in the in- 
stance of extra fat around the waist actually better results 
are accomplished by leg and abdominal exercises without 
apparatus, and better results for weight reduction can be 
accomplished by a walk or slow run in the fresh air. The 
machines treat only one part of the body at a time and do 
not have the advantage of general exercise in developing 
other parts of the body. 

Indeed, the Council on Physical Therapy points out that 
vibratory massage of the abdomen with a strap attached to 
a motor for ten minutes cannot give as much benefit as a 
ten minute fast walk with conscious effort given to holding 
in the stomach and abdomen. 

The tendency is for people to become very tired promptly 

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of the shaking devices and hence to discontinue all exercise. 
Moreover, a few instances have been reported in which peo- 
ple with appendicitis, or rupture, or ulcers of the stomach 
have been seriously injured by using these machines with- 
out any adequate knowledge of their physical condition. 


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XII 


THE BIG MUSCLE BOYS 


" Although men are accused for not knowing their own weakness , yet 
perhaps as few know their own strength** — Jonathan Swift. 


T urning the pages of a periodical like Physical Culture, 
or noting the pages devoted to sport in our daily press, 
one might become impressed with the notion that the chief 
goal of man is muscle. Not that Bernarr Macfadden, the 
“Bare Torso King” neglects the mind, for in the Macfadden 
string of periodicals was one known as National Brain 
Power . 

But most of the great gospel is the lauding of strength 
both as a means and an end — of strength for strength’s 
sake. And not just ordinary strength, but the kind of strength 
that bends crowbars between the teeth, bites chains in two, 
lifts a team of horses and carries five or six men posed in 
artistic designs, while giving huge grunts to the accompani- 
ment of an orchestra. 

Once upon a time there was only one “Bare Torso King,” 
the pictures of whose powerful frame thrilled the multi- 
tude as he appeared clad only in a breech clout, with fists 
clenched and gorilla-like chest pumped out like that of a 
pouter pigeon. But nowadays as one turns the pages, he 
comes upon coupon after coupon, inviting him to subscribe, 
urging him to inquire, pleading with him to be strong. 

As the reader scans the advertising literature and the 
other material that he receives when he sends the coupon, 
he will observe a remarkable sameness. He will derive from 

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his observations certain fundamental opinions as to why 
the exponents of muscularity are engaged in the business of 
selling muscle-building courses and as to the kind of persons 
who fall for such courses. 

He will probably discover that there is a peculiar appeal 
in the portrait of the nude that is cleverly worked on by the 
bare torso gentlemen to secure their clients. He will find, 
no doubt, that these gentlemen are not suffering inordi- 
nately from modesty as to their own accomplishments, and 
he will probably become convinced that their business is 
one that is profitable. 

Let us first glance over a few of the leaders in this unique 
occupation. 


INTRODUCING L. W. ALBIZU 

Consider first Prof. L. W. Albizu. He is — or was — the in- 
ventor of the Roller Dumb-Bells — “The World’s Quickest 
Way to Strength.” He has a system; in fact, each of the bare 
torso gentlemen has a system, and Professor Albizu admits 
in connection with the exploitation of his system that he is 
“the sensation of the physical culture world.” 

Apparently all that you have to do to become strong by 
the professor’s method is to roll his dumb-bells up and down 
the wall. He does not give you a diploma, and he empha- 
sizes this fact because some of the big muscle men do give 
you a diploma. Professor Albizu gives you a health and 
strength course at $20 cash or $22 on time, and, with it, you 
get a pair of dumb-bells — or perhaps you are a dumb-bell — 
who knows? 

Of course, he has a question blank, because mail-order 
physical culture, these gentlemen all carefully explain, can 
only be properly conducted on those who are sufficiently 
healthful to stand the rigors of the exercise. Still it is adver- 
tised to make the weak man strong. But Professor Albizu is 
not unduly curious. Chiefly, he wants to know your meas- 
urements, if you have ruptures, if your neck is short or long, 
and if your collar bone shows when you stand naturally. 

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INTRODUCING CHARLES ATLAS 

Alphabetically next comes Charles Atlas. Somehow Atlas 
is such a good name for a strong man that one hesitates to 
believe it a real one; but maybe it is. 

Atlas has occupied many a page with his advertisements 
in the physical culture magazines. He offers “Health — Domi- 
nating, Wealth-Winning Health.” He emphasizes “Big Pow- 
erful Muscles,” and he tells you that Atlas-trained men are 
“Personality” men. “My system,” says Mr. Atlas, “is the last 
word in Health and Energy Building.” “I give only actual 
instructions, high-powered secrets (all of these mail-order 
Samsons have secrets) that do get the quick and certain re- 
sults. And who could be Better qualified to teach you these 
amazing secrets than the World’s Most Perfect Man?” Curi- 
ously, each of these bare torso gentlemen is the world’s most 
perfect man. Or is that Clark Gable? 

So you clip the coupon and send for “Secrets of Muscular 
Power and Beauty.” It’s free — absolutely free. “Scores upon 
scores of vital, inspiring pages of information and beautiful 
art pictures yours FREE.” (All of these bare torso gentlemen 
emphasize the beautiful art pictures that are free.) We will 
not try to duplicate the different kinds and sizes of type that 
an Atlas advertisement uses; our printers might object. But 
besides the type, there is a little insert that tells you about 
your chances to get free “seven large photographs of myself” 
as well as “cash prizes, expensive trophies, and beautiful 
diplomas.” Where is the farmer’s boy or the dry goods clerk 
that could resist an appeal like that? 

The reader sends the coupon and the Atlas book comes. 
A letter comes also with more capital letters than a Hearst 
editorial. Charles Atlas tells you in the mimeographed per- 
sonal letter that he himself is full of “boundless energy,” 
“great power,” “wonderful strength,” and “radiant, vibrant 
health.” He is glad “for your sake” that he has it and can 
transmit it to you. No apparatus is required. He pleads with 
you to send $30 cash or $35 on time in payments for his 
course. To prove to you how good he is, he encloses some 

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circulars showing four or five other gentlemen with clenched 
fists, puffed out chests, and breech clouts, breaking up iron 
chains and poising for Ajax defying the lightning. These 
bare torso gentlemen, it seems, are graduates of Mr. Atlas* 
course. And ah! how Mr. Atlas pleads with you in connec- 
tion with each of these photographs. Indeed, he rises at last 
to these heights of beautiful sentimentalism: 

WHAT WILL THEY THINK OF YOU? 

Your sweetheart — you know what kind of a man she ex- 
pects you to be. Are you going to disappoint her? Will you 
let all her dreams about her lover fall to the ground? She 
wants you to be a virile, manly man, full of strength and 
power, able to protect her. Your mother — she expected great 
things of you. She hoped you’d grow up a splendid example 
of vigorous manhood. Don’t let her hopes of you be shat- 
tered. Resolve now to make something of yourself. Refuse 
to be a weakling. Health and strength can now be yours. 

The confidential question blank with the questions com 
piled by Mr. Atlas, or his advertising agent, seems to be cal- 
culated particularly to appeal to the psychoasthenic and 
hypochondriac. 

Mr. Atlas wants to know, among other things, if you are 
“nervous or fearful?” “Despondent, angry, worried, irritable 
at times?” (Who isn’t?) “Have you any harmful habits you 
wish to overcome?” (This is the old appeal, based on ancient 
beliefs as to the dangers of certain sexual habits.) “Is your 
will power weak or strong?” “Are you sexually weak?” “Are 
you timid, shy, bashful?” And so on and so on! 

And then, “If you really crave Superpower, Glorious 
Health, Uncanny Strength, Tremendous Nerve Force and 
a Perfectly Developed Body Mail This Enrollment Blank 
Right now.” 

So much for Mr. Atlas! 

INTRODUCING MR. BREITBART 

Mr. Breitbart, ladies and gentlemen! He has learned “not 
only the wonder of being strong but the secrets — the knack 

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— of acquiring tremendous strength.” In fact, his system has 
given him “such marvelous strength that people refer to me 
as the Superman of the Ages.” 

We warned you, reader, that these bemuscled gentlemen 
were in no sense to be compared with the modest violet. 
But Mr. Breitbart shames the chrysanthemum or the rhodo- 
dendron: 

There is nothing else like my method and there is nothing 
else that will as surely or quickly give you the big, bulging 
muscles and crushing strength that every red-blooded man 

wants. 

See what I have been able to accomplish myself, by the 
use of this system. I support more weight than any other 
man. I drive heavy nails through many layers of oak and 
iron with my bare hands. My muscles are trained. I am able 
to bend heavy steel bars into carefully worked designs. I per- 
form feats of strength that astonish thousands with the sheer 
power of muscle that my system has given me; and this same 
method can give the same power to you. 

Like Mr. Atlas, Mr. Breitbart has secrets; he not only has 
his own secrets, but he admits that he knows everybody 
else’s secrets. And he continues, “mine is a new and far better 
method, unlike any you have ever seen or heard.” 

All you need to do is to send for Mr. Breitbart’s new 
book. He has been offered real money for this book, he tells 
you, but he is willing to give it to you for a dime to cover 
the cost of mailing. Send him a dime at once, and you will 
get not only his book but also “Breitbart’s Muscle Meter” 
FREE. 

As can be imagined, for your dime you get quite a pack- 
age. You get first Mr. Breitbart’s book entitled “Muscular 
Power,” showing on its cover Mr. Breitbart in the act of 
pulling open a tiger’s mouth. Now that’s the kind of ac- 
complishment so many of us need; Mr. Breitbart does this 
sort of thing quite as a matter of routine. 

Next you get to see a picture of Keith’s Theater in which 
Mr. Breitbart performed; then you get to see Mr. Breitbart 

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and his muscles from the waist up, including, also, a most 
aggressive pompadour. 

Then comes the text matter with such headings as “Muscle 
Rules the World/ * which tells you that exercise and muscle 
building make success. By this time, evidently fearing that 
he may be thought a braggart, Mr. Breitbart coyly makes 
this little disclaimer: 

I do not wish to be thought egotistical or go about shout- 
ing and blowing my own horn . I leave such praise to others 
and I hold myself far above such cheap and unbecoming 
practices . I determined in this book to let others tell you all 
about myself. 

Then follow page after page of clippings about Mr. Breit- 
bart and photographs of Mr. Breitbart when Mr. Breitbart 
was on the vaudeville stage. There is Breitbart breaking a 
heavy iron chain with bare hands — with a closeup of the 
chain — Breitbart bending and coiling a one-half inch thick 
iron bar around his arms with bare hands, Breitbart biting 
through a heavy iron chain which six husky men were un- 
able to break apart; Breitbart resting on a bed of nails sup- 
porting a bridge with a man and an ox weighing over a 
ton. 

And so on and on and on interminably: Breitbart after 
Breitbart — and muscle after muscle, until at last one comes 
to the pages of testimonials and the photographs of the pu- 
pils, and the final plea to “Fill out and mail the enrollment 
blank at once.” 

We are convinced that Charles Atlas was the world’s most 
famous man, but here is Mr. Breitbart’s claim. 

Muscle by muscle, inch by inch, Breitbart easily outstrips 
every claimant to Strength and physical development — 
surely he is the Superman of the Ages . 

Nevertheless, Charles MacMahon of Philadelphia, about 
whom we shall speak later, outstrips Breitbart — he doesn’t 
even wear a breech clout. 

Mr. Breitbart’s free “muscle meter” is a piece of red paper 

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that you paste around your biceps muscle. Then you bend 
your arm and if your muscle is as big as Mr. Breitbart’s you 
can break the paper. We refer here not to the strength of 
the muscle but to its volume. Mr. Breitbart’s isn’t stingy. He 
gives you a paper tape measure in addition to the “muscle 
meter,’’ and he gives you a money-order blank all filled out 
ready to send him $25 cash or $26 on time. Mr. Breitbart 
also has a confidential information blank in which he in- 
quires if you are subject to colds, asks about your appetite, 
and if your temperament is nervous and emotional, or quiet 
and steady. Naturally Mr. Breitbart has to know these things 
to plan your course. 

INTRODUCING EARL LIEDERMAN 

Mr. Earl Liederman offers you ten more years of life. “I 
don’t claim to cure disease,” he says. “I am not a medical 
doctor but I’ll put you in such condition that the doctor will 
starve to death waiting for you to take sick.” 

Earl Liederman fixes you up in ninety days and he re- 
quires two pages of advertisements to tell you about it — 
one devoted to Mr. Liederman au naturel and the other to 
his announcement. When Mr. Liederman is through with 
you, you are a real man, he says. He tells you about your 
deep, full chest, your huge, square shoulders, your massive, 
muscular arms, the flash to your eye, and the pep to your 
step. 

All you have to do is to send for his booklet “Muscular 
Development.” It contains, as by this time you will have 
come to expect, forty-three full page photographs of himself 
and his pupils. There are the bare torso photographs in 
every conceivable posture, and there are six bare torso 
pupils. Then, at last, there is a letter asking $28 in cash or 
on time. It is the same old postal money-order blank, the 
same old imitation personal letter, the same old questions 
and the same old mention of the necessary apparatus. And, 
if you fail to bite, finally there come to you week by week 
the same old follow-up letters. 

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CHARLES MACMAHON 

You have been told that Charles MacMahon outstrips 
them all — at least so far as shown by the pictures in his 
little booklet. As you riiight easily have anticipated he has a 
little booklet. All the mail order Herculeses have little book- 
lets. If you sent for Charles MacMahon’s little booklet, it 
was probably in response to the “ad” in which he cautions 
you not to be a “flat tire.” 

All of the emphasis in the “ad” is on flatness. If you have 
a flat chest, he offers to puff you up; if you have flat feet, if 
you have a flat pocketbook — but no, it seems he doesn’t fix 
flat pocketbooks. He merely says that ill health means a flat 
pocketbook and he is going to save you all the expense that 
ill health entails by putting you in A-i physical condition. 
Indeed, flatness appears to be an obsession with Charles 
MacMahon: “I Flatly Refuse to Let You Pay One Cent,” 
he says in big type, but he continues in little type “either on 
my booklet, my pamphlet, or toward defraying my expenses 
of wrapping, postage and the labor of getting them to you.” 
But when you do get them, then comes your opportunity to 
spend money. 

First, there comes the page of bare torsoed gentlemen 
who — we are asked to believe — have taken the MacMahon 
course; also the testimonials of these Samsons. Next there 
is the little booklet entitled “The Royal Road to Health and 
Strength” by Charles MacMahon. Here and there among the 
many photos of Mr. MacMahon which illuminate every 
other page, one finds remarkable statements. For instance on 
page 6, the text reads: 

A man with a squarely built, well muscled waist rarely 
suffers from disease of the digestive and dissimilative organs. 

We have been trying to find out what a dissimilative organ 
is; the word intrigues us. 

Charles MacMahon learned his technic from the Hindu 
wrestlers, so he says, and he specializes on the legs and the 
waist. This is Charles MacMahon’s “system.” All the bare 

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torso gentlemen have “systems* * in every sense of that un- 
usual word. He also has an apparatus, although not a rubber 
or a spring apparatus. You may have noted that these expo- 
nents of the science of physical culture have been unable 
to agree on the desirability of apparatus or on any one ap- 
paratus. Indeed, no two of them have agreed. Every bare 
torso king has an apparatus all his own. 

Mr. MacMahon offers you nine separate lessons at inter- 
vals of ten days. With each lesson you get a set of separate 
pictures. The price is $30 and includes the necessary appara- 
tus. If you pay $24 cash, you get the new $30 tumbling and 
hand-balancing course free. Suppose you don’t accept right 
away. Let us tip you off. It will be to your advantage. Wait 
for the second, or third, or fourth, or fifth offer. If you wait 
long enough Mr. MacMahon throws in more courses, per- 
sonal service, and a magazine subscription. 

Finally, may we point out that the MacMahon question 
blank asks only for measurements and doesn’t even make a 
pretence of finding out if the applicant ought to be indulging 
in strenuous exercises? Perhaps it is quite suitable for Mr. 
MacMahon to lift up the columns of buildings and to toss 
around 200 pound weights. But how about the man with 
high blood pressure, arteriosclerosis, or disease of the heart? 
Does Mr. MacMahon care? Or does he take the attitude that 
the fellow who wants to spend $30 and take a chance at rup- 
turing a blood vessel or~overstraining his heart should have 
that privilege? 


MICHAEL MCFADDEN 

This gentleman modestly admits that he is the “Champion 
of Champions.” His name is McFadden. For $8 he sells you 
the McFadden Patented 10 Cable Progressive Exerciser. He 
offers also the Patented Progressive Handles, the Patented 
Progressive Stirrup, the Patented Progressive Head Gear, 
twelve weeks’ Home Instruction Course, “most wonderful 
ever written — the kind you cannot get elsewhere” — more 
secrets, you see! — and finally the Michael McFadden En- 
cyclopedia. 

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All of this, which he alleges is worth $30, he offers for a 
trivial $8, and he guarantees to increase your biceps one full 
inch in from thirty to ninety days and all other parts of 
your body in proportion. What! All parts? What, hoi His 
guarantee, he says, is backed by a $10,000 challenge. Further 
than this deponent sayeth not! 

His saffron colored circular shows some fourteen bare 
torso gentlemen in various stages of bareness, presumably 
all brought into muscular beatitude by exercising regularly 
with the McFadden Patent High Tension 10 Cable Progres- 
sive Exerciser, with a resistance of 10 to 200 pounds. One 
thing about Mr. Michael McFadden— if you don’t answer 
him right away he apparently is willing to let you suffer. 
You will not have your mail box cluttered up by the weekly 
or semiweekly follow-up letters. Mr. McFadden lays little 
stress on his course; his stock in trade seems to be chiefly 
the name that one conjures with in the mail-order physical 
culture world and the Patented High Tension 10 Cable 
Progressive Exerciser and other “Progressive” things. 

INTRODUCING LIONEL 

Of all the mail-order strong men Lionel Strongfort most 
merits discussion in matters of health, for he appeals to the 
fears of the sick and the neurasthenic to a greater extent than 
do any of the others. The literature that he circulates and 
his follow-up letters emphasize sexual weakness to the point 
of nausea. It would be unsuitable to reprint them even for 
the sake of proof. Letter after letter in his series emphasizes 
sex and virility and lost manhood. Evidently the promoters 
of “Strongfortism” have found that there are a sufficient 
number of psychasthenics with fears as to their sexual powers 
to make the appeal a drawing one. 

The Strongfort course is built around his resistance in- 
creasing dumb-bell, “a triumph in athletic apparatus.” 
“The Strongfort is without doubt the handsomest dumb- 
bell on the market,” urge the circulars. 

The Strongfort question blank is about like the others, 

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except for this question, masterly in its barefaced, impudent 
departure from the facts: 

Any white spots under your finger nails? 

(Indicating Uric Acid in the system) 

There is an attempt to play upon the old uric acid buga- 
boo by frightening everyone who has white spots on his 
finger nails. And who doesn’t have them at one time or an- 
other? The fact that the white spots have no more to do with 
uric acid than with carbolic acid doesn’t worry Strongfort. 

Besides, the Strongfort blank again and again emphasizes 
“secret habits,” “virility,” “night losses,” and other sexual 
matters. 

The Strongfort booklet — he has a booklet — is a remark- 
able concoction of mendacity, attacking well-nigh every- 
thing except Strongfortism so far as relates to health and the 
control of disease. It is illustrated by the usual bare torso 
photographs, the oak leaf serving the demands of modesty 
furnished in the other bare torso booklets by the surcingle, 
leopard skin, or air brush of the photoengraver. The key- 
note of Strongfortism, aside from the “Resistance Increasing 
Dumb-bells,” is “internal and external muscular harmony.” 
Once everyone has achieved this desideratum by the course 
and the dumb-bells, the millennium will be reached. Follow- 
ing are a few modest Strongfortisms: 

Strongfortism is a panacea for all habits that arise from 
physical weakness , as all bad habits do, because Strongfort- 
ism builds up Strength that resists such habits . There would 
be no need for Prohibition laws on liquor or any other vices 
if everybody practiced Strongfortism. 

Strongfortism is the key which unlocks Nature’s store- 
house of vital energy. It reaches and develops the inner 
muscles which control the vital organs, generating the Life 
Forces. 

The weakling is developed and inspired with the mastery 
of mental power and physical perfection — the glorious crown 
of MANHOOD. The dyspeptic and neurotic, whose system 
is racked by disease, finds rebirth in the quickening pulse of 
a revitalized body, vibrant with health and energy. 

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A person who is rendered immune through a course in 
Strongfortism is safe against colds, epidemics, and all kinds 
of diseases, whether catching or otherwise, simply because 
his internal system is in harmony with the external — every 
set of muscles works one with the other — every organ is 
regular and this rhythmical kinetical action gives a volume 
of vital force which repels every kind of disease. It is the 
man in ill health or whose vitality is low that is susceptible 
to catarrh and all kinds of diseases. 

Of all the preposterous medical hokum we have ever read, 
nothing has crossed our vision to equal that appearing in 
the literature of Mr. Strongfort. If ever superlatives were 
justified they are justified in discussing his work in relation 
to that of the other bare torso gentlemen in this series. Ac- 
cording to our investigation: 

He puts the most stress on sex. 

He attacks the most other instructors. 

He sends the most follow-up letters. 

He makes the most medical claims. 

He makes the most extravagant promises. 

In only one way is he outstripped and that, as has been 
mentioned, by Mr. Charles MacMahon. 

PROF. H. W. TITUS 

Here we are at Professor Titus, last of the series, and ready 
to confess that reading the claims of these physical culture 
mail order promoters has made us tired. We have apparently 
overexercised. We get no kick out of the literature of Pro- 
fessor Titus. 

The fact that he announces himself as “The Most Success- 
ful Director of Physical and Health Culture in America” 
does not seem to thrill us. When he asks, “Do you take pride 
in your personal appearance?” our flagging energy does not 
revive. His offer of a complete course of Lessons with the 
Progressive and Automatic Exerciser for $15 down, $5 in 
thirty days, and remaining $5 in sixty days does not strike 
our fancy. Even the yellow ten dollar reduction check that 
comes with the fourth or fifth follow-up letter makes no ap- 

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peal. Actually the literature and the claims of all of these 
bare torso gentlemen leave us in a muddle. 

One of them curses roundly all other courses that use 
apparatus; the spring apparatus proponents vilify the rubber 
band stretchers; the rubber band stretchers attack the spring 
benders; the dumb-bell workers roast the spring benders 
and the rubber stretchers; the roller dumb-bell advertiser 
says the standing dumb-bells are worthless, and the standing 
dumb-bell promoter announces vigorously that they won’t 
roll off the table. Mr. Strongfort tells us that anybody that 
bites chains in two is a fake; Mr. Breitbart shows how he 
bites the chains; Mr. MacMahon develops the waist muscles 
— that’s the secret — but Mr. Strongfort develops the internal 
muscles; then, too, you will remember Mr. MacMahon con- 
cerns himself with the “dissimilative” organs. 

If we are to indulge in these strenuous exercises and in- 
door sports, why not find out first through some sort of 
physical examination whether or not we are fitted to under- 
take the stunts of these physical culture professors? Mr. 
Thomas Rice of the Brooklyn Eagle has recently looked into 
the control of these mail order physical culture courses and 
the muscle-exploiting gymnasiums. He says: 

Under present conditions , anybody may set himself up as 
a physical culturist. Not only that , he may advise his clients, 
or whatever he may choose to call them, to pursue a course 
that must inevitably shorten their lives, and no check at all 
may be placed upon him . 

Any boxer , wrestler, football player, runner, shotputter, 
etc., who has passed out of competition is privileged to open 
a gymnasium and tell the world that he is capable of giving 
fit instruction to all comers, regardless of their present appar- 
ent health or their past history. . . . 

What may be excellent for the athletes in their prime 
may be dangerous for the immature boys , and may be abso- 
lutely fatal for the middle-aged and elderly, but hundreds, 
if not thousands, of the “professors” do not know that, and 
many would not care a hoot if they did, so long as young, 
middle-aged, and elderly paid their fees promptly. 

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THE BIG MUSCLE BOYS 


Mr. Rice is evidently an astute gentleman; he has noted 
that the matter of paying the “fees promptly” has a great 
deal to do with the work of the big muscle boys. 

Ah, well! Enough of this! The great outdoors beckons; 
the golf links, the swimming pool, the baseball diamond, the 
tennis court, and the cinder path call us. The sand dunes 
and the woods make their bid for our patronage. What price 
then these rusty springs, these roller dumb-bells, these rub- 
ber bands? 


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XIII 


THE ANTIVIVISECTIONIST 
AND ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION 


" Let us not , / beseech you, sir, deceive ourselves longer ” — Patrick Henry. 


G eorge Jean Nathan, in that immortal document, “Pis- 
tols for Two,” in which he and Mons. Mencken, using 
the cognomen Maj. Owen Hatteras, gave to an unsuspecting 
world an insight into their personal characters and charac- 
teristics, tells us which of his aphorisms delights him most. 
Of all the soul-searching mots perpetrated by this astute 
coiner of phrases, the one he selected is likewise the one 
that gives me most joy. “An antivivisectionist,” said Dr. 
Nathan, “is a woman who strains at a guinea pig and swal- 
lows a baby.” There it is in a nutshell! A Freudian might 
claim that the term “nutshell” was prominent in my mind 
because I was discussing the antivivisectionist. 

At a period when the whole world begins to turn to sci- 
ence as the real goal of mankind; when intelligent human 
beings begin to discard pseudosentiment for fact, the fol- 
lowers of what is essentially merely an illogical, fanatical 
cult continue to oppose progress if it is to involve in any way 
what they conceive to be abuse of the lower animals for pur- 
poses of study. This opposition seems to rest invariably on a 
lack of actual knowledge of what animal experimentation 
has accomplished for mankind, of what it has contributed to 
the life and comfort of the animal, of the extent to which 
the animal may suffer in the cause of experimentation, and 

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of the very rules which the scientists themselves have elabo- 
rated to safeguard their work with animals. 

It is impossible in the scope of a brief article even to 
enumerate all that has been learned by animal experimenta- 
tion. Without the aid of this method Pasteur could not have 
founded the science of bacteriology; such diseases as hydro- 
phobia, tuberculosis, yellow fever, plague, scarlet fever, diph- 
theria, and diabetes would not have passed under the control 
of scientific medicine but would have continued to take 
their immense toll of life and to cause immeasurable eco- 
nomic loss through illness. Indeed, to calculate the sums 
saved and earned through preventing illness, through open- 
ing up countries constantly menaced by disease, through the 
building of the Panama Canal, and through the saving of 
workers in industry would produce a figure so vast as to be 
almost incredible. 


BIOLOGIC ASSAY 

In the course of the great campaign for the use of experi- 
ments on animals to control human diseases, little attention 
has been given in general to the great problems of what 
scientists know as biologic assay. Almost everyone realizes 
the part played by animal experimentation in the provision 
of information. relative to the functions of living bodies. Ex- 
periments made on animals have helped scientists to know 
how the heart is controlled by the nervous system, how the 
blood pressure is maintained, and how the nerves send forth 
stimuli and bring back sensation. These facts once learned, 
it is not necessary to repeat the experiments on innumerable 
animals, and scientists do not engage in wanton dissections 
for such purposes. 

Equally important, however, from the point of view of 
the human being, is the constant use of experimental ani- 
mals to determine the potency of drug preparations, to test 
the value of vaccines and serums, and to establish the safety 
of other life-giving substances used for the control of disease 
in the human body. All these things are involved in the proc- 
ess known as standardization; thus, exceedingly important 

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remedies for diseases of the heart known as digitalis, stroph- 
anthus, and squill must be standardized by methods known 
as the frog, cat, and guinea pig methods, in which definite 
doses of the drug preparations are injected into such animals. 

The substance known as pituitary extract, which has 
saved millions of hours of suffering for women in childbirth, 
must be tested on the organs of guinea pigs or cats before 
its powers to produce certain definite effects are definitely 
known. Insulin, the substance used to aid the diabetic in the 
digestion of sugar, is standardized by use in rats and rabbits. 
Salvarsan and similar drugs used in the control of syphilis 
and African sleeping sickness must be tested on mice and 
rats before it can be distributed for the control of these dis- 
eases in human beings. Even ergot, known for centuries to 
have value in aiding the control of hemorrhage after the 
birth of a child, is now thoroughly tested as to its various 
and possibly poisonous qualities on animals before it is sold 
for use on human beings. 

The preparation of diphtheria toxin and antitoxin could 
not be carried on without the use of the rabbit; the use of 
smallpox vaccine is dependent on the use of the calf and 
the pig, and, indeed, every preparation made to combat in- 
fections by germs must be standardized in some manner on 
living tissue before the physician could consider for a mo- 
ment the use of such a preparation on a human being. 

Shall the poisonous doses of potent drugs be learned by 
tests made on the white rat or the guinea pig or on man; or 
worse still, shall we permit men to die or suffer mutilation 
to spare the feelings of the white mouse? Isn’t it after all a 
question of sparing the hyperesthetic sensibilities of some 
idle woman rather than the duller sensibilities of some lower 
animal? One by one the infectious diseases that attack man 
are being brought under control. There still remain those 
incurable diseases such as cancer, those conditions such as 
Bright’s disease, high blood pressure, heart disease and dia- 
betes, which may be alleviated but have not been completely 
conquered. Shall the methods that have brought success in 
the control of some diseases be discarded at the whim of 

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misguided and unreasoning followers of this cult opposed to 
human progress? 

The warfare between man and disease is a never-ending 
conflict. The triumphs of hygiene and sanitation in the past 
have permitted the building of great cities and the turning 
of man’s inventive genius from a struggle against the ele- 
ments and Nature to constructive achievements in industry 
and transportation. If the campaign of the sentimentally 
minded emotionalist against the use of animals were to suc- 
ceed with the great legislative bodies of our nation, the 
progress of civilization would be inhibited to a far greater 
extent than the average man even begins to realize. 

THE VALUE OF SERUMS AND VACCINES 

Anyone who has seen a child succumbing to the gradual 
encroachment of the diphtheria membrane in its throat sud- 
denly respond to the marvelous effects of diphtheria anti- 
toxin will oppose to the utmost any attempt to deprive that 
child of the remedy. In preparing antitoxin, the horse is re- 
quired for the production of the serum, and the guinea pig 
for standardization. I have seen the horses used for such 
service. Their paths are spread in pleasant places. They toil 
not at all, they are kept clean, they frolic in the open air 
except when the weather may be inclement. They are well 
fed and given the best of attention. I have seen the serum 
withdrawn and seen the horse make no more visible sign of 
protest than is made by the average man when he sticks his 
finger on a pin in the back of his wife’s dress. I have seen 
guinea pigs by the thousands utilized for this work. If I am 
any judge of guinea pig emotions they do not suffer unduly 
in the process. I have never seen a guinea pig suffer as much 
as a hysterical antivivisectionist suffers at a dog and pony 
show or a circus. 

Before the discovery of the serum for epidemic meningitis, 
from fifty to seventy-five per cent of all who were afflicted 
died. When the serum is given the mortality is below twenty- 
five per cent of those affected, and this says nothing of the 
saving in illness and in permanently disabling after effects. 

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In the investigation which led to this discovery rabbits, 
guinea pigs, horses, and monkeys were employed. In a war, 
nations sacrifice the lives of hundreds of thousands of their 
finest young men; the people are told that the sacrifice is 
made so that women and children may have a safe place in 
which to live. Shall the lives of rabbits and guinea pigs be 
weighed against the lives of the same children threatened 
by far greater dangers than those of war: the dangers of in- 
fectious disease? Puerperal infection which killed the woman 
in childbirth was controlled through animal experimenta- 
tion. What about saving women from that menace? 

THE SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF DRUGS 

It is not alone the so-called biological remedies such as 
antitoxins, vaccines, and serums that are dependent on ani- 
mal experimentation. Most of the potent drug remedies 
used today for the alleviation and cure of disease must be 
tested and standardized by the use of animals. Most of our 
important synthetic drugs were first evolved only by the use 
of animals. The anesthetics such as ether, chloroform, ethyl- 
ene, and nitrous oxides have the same effects on animals 
that they have on man. Was it not right that they should be 
tested first on animals? Such drugs as digitalis which makes 
the lives of many persons suffering from heart disease en- 
durable, have to be standardized by animal tests. 

Of course, animal experimentation never will be dis- 
carded. After all, the progress of scientific medicine is a 
powerful movement sweeping on and on with ever increas- 
ing impetus. The “fly on the chariot wheel” cannot halt it; 
but there is danger that the swarm of flies may impede its 
movement. 

ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION BENEFITS ANIMALS 

Strangely enough, the lower animals have benefited as 
much as has man himself through the progress made by ani- 
mal experimentation. Hog cholera serum, the tuberculin test 
for cattle, the control of hoof and mouth disease, puerperal 
sepsis in cattle, hydrophobia, fowl plague, and the many 

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worm diseases that afflict animals depend for their control 
on the same type of experimentation that yielded results for 
the diseases of man. 

There is another side of the question that has its humor- 
ous aspects. It is necessary to kill hundreds of thousands of 
stray dogs and cats in our large cities to keep them from over- 
running the human inhabitants. It has been estimated that 
a single pair of rats, if permitted to breed unchecked might 
produce within three years a number of progeny running 
into eighteen or twenty-four figures. Everyone knows about 
the prolificity of guinea pigs and rabbits which multiply in- 
ordinately. Who shall say that the uses of science are not as 
kind a fate, as satisfactory an existence, as is the hunting 
down of the surplus by the hunter, the trapper, the poisoner, 
or the poundmaster? As we have shown, the horse used for 
the production of serum has a far happier life than the 
drawer of burdens in the ownership of some unthinking 
careless human being. 

THE HISTORY OF ANTIVIVISECTION 

It is hard for a person with a logical mind to see why 
this argument should be necessary. The average sensible 
American business man or farmer is likely to feel that we 
are agitating a cause in which the side of reason is so obvious 
that its elucidation is wasted effort. But there is a reason! 
Scientific experimentation on animals began to attract pub- 
lic notice about 1875, when the accomplishments of research 
into the normal functions of the human body had already 
yielded notable results. In Great Britain agitation resulted 
in the appointment of a Royal Commission which made an 
investigation and recommended that the work be continued 
under suitable control. 

Since that date efforts have been made by little groups of 
illogical thinkers to secure legislation both in Great Britain 
and in almost every state in our own country to inhibit or to 
prevent completely experiments involving the use of ani- 
mals. In 1896 a great crowd of ladies and lawyers appeared 
before the Committee of the Massachusetts Legislature. 

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Pamphlets were issued, leaflets were circulated, speakers vo- 
ciferated abusively, mendaciously, and piteously year after 
year. Worst of all, a few shortsighted possessors of great 
wealth, animated by no one knows what reasons, left funds 
in perpetuity for the uses of promotion of such organiza- 
tions. Where there are funds, there are jobs for secretaries 
whose duty it is to promote regardless of the advances of 
progress. Year by year the same little lobbies pop up before 
the legislators. The same windy breed of legislators — the 
sob sisters of the legislative halls — produce the same bills 
and defend them with floods of crocodile tears. The same 
cohorts of university presidents, professors, physicians, and 
representatives of industries vitally affected must be mobi- 
lized to present the facts in order to overcome this deluge of 
misguided sentiment. Year after year each legislator receives 
in his mail, if he is an American, a periodical called Our 
Dumb Animals , and if he is a Britisher, one called The 
Abolitionist . And the rationally minded sober citizen looks 
on aghast and murmurs, “How long, O Lord, how long!” 
The antivivisectionist is likely to attack the scientist who 
uses animals in his experiments on the ground that the lat- 
ter is obsessed by sadistic impulses and that he takes a pecu- 
liar physical and psychologic delight in cruelty to animals. 
Of course, nothing could be further from the truth. There 
have always been lovers of animals among scientists; indeed, 
many have devoted much of their time to the protection of 
the interests of animals. There are, moreover, among them 
men and women whose whole lives are devoted to the protec- 
tion of the weak and of the unfortunate. Among the terms 
used by the antivivisectionist are such words as “master 
demon,” “archfiend,” “human monster,” “human devil,” 
“devil incarnate,” and “fiend incarnate.” Moreover, the 
places of research have been called “scientific hells,” 
“temples of torment,” and “halls of agony,” and the work 
characterized as “scientific assassination,” “torture of the in- 
nocent,” “the black art of vivisection,” and “the orgy o r 
cruelty.” From such terms, one may realize the attitude o i 
mind with which the antivivisectionist approaches his investi- 

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gation into the scientific aspects of this subject. Indeed, it is 
more reasonable to say that the character of the antivivisec- 
tionist is intemperate and biased, and that his propaganda 
leads him into frenzy, than it is to believe that the scientist, 
who works with a logical series of experiments that will lead 
to the cure of human disease, does so animated by fanatic or 
orgiastic motives. 


OLD DOCTOR HADWEN 

One finds among the propagandists against animal experi- 
mentation the type of character that partakes of the ecstasy 
and the almost evangelistic enthusiasm that one sees in the 
leaders of cults of any type. In 1924, one Doctor Hadwen of 
England toured the United States for the promotion of the 
interests of this peculiar group. His lectures overflowed with 
unbridled exaggeration; he used all of the oratorical tricks 
and showmanship that evangelists have made familiar to us. 
On returning to England, however, he was called to treat a 
child dying of diphtheria and with the characteristic blind 
cruelty of the antivivisectionist, he overlooked all of the ex- 
perimental evidence that establishes the diphtheria bacillus 
as the cause of this disease, and all of the evidences that prove 
that diphtheria antitoxin will cure it. The child was per- 
mitted to die under the gentle ministrations of this mis- 
guided enthusiast. True, Hadwen was acquitted by the Brit- 
ish court, because those who are licensed to practice medi- 
cine are permitted by the law to use such knowledge as they 
possess and such individual methods as their peculiar school 
of teaching may cause them to believe are satisfactory. The 
burden is thus put upon the layman in the selection of his 
physician, and the parent who called Doctor Hadwen had no 
recourse. When delusions persist to such lengths, is it not 
time that an intelligent government concern itself seriously 
with the matter? 

ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION AND EXECUTIVE SECRETARIES 

The misguided notions of persons of great wealth who 
have bequeathed vast sums of money to promote opposition 

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to animal experimentation have stimulated new activity by 
those whose occupations demand that they urge this cause on 
legislators and on the public. The sudden awakening of 
these agitators after a long period of comparative quiet is, 
no doubt, due to the fuel added to their resources by these 
new bequests. A human being, about to pass into the Be- 
yond, is an easy subject to sentimental appeals by fanatical 
and unreasoning opponents of scientific medicine. 

Not long ago, Mr. H. L. Mencken wrote an expose of the 
life and work of the executive secretaries employed by these 
bodies — sometimes themselves the originators and directors 
of organizations which seem to be established principally to 
give the executive secretary a job. In a hearing recently held 
before the United States Senate Committee charged with 
legislation on this subject, evidence was brought forth in- 
dicating that one of the organizations now opposing animal 
experimentation is definitely of this character. 

An indication of the way in which these antisocial propa- 
gandists attempt to discredit scientific medicine is a ques- 
tionnaire circulated to the physicians of this country by a 
so-called National Anti vivisection Society. The questions in 
this inquiry were so phrased as to permit easy misuse of the 
answers by the group issuing the questionnaire. The very 
premises on which the whole argument was based were such 
that mere acquiescence to the premises committed a physi- 
cian to opposition to animal experimentation. Moreover, 
physicians were asked to guarantee that all biologic methods, 
such as the use of diphtheria toxin-antitoxin and toxoid, and 
the use of vaccination against smallpox and other diseases 
would be absolutely free from harm in every case. Because 
of the physiology of the human being and because of his 
body chemistry, and because no two human beings are ex- 
actly alike in their constitution and in their structure, it is 
impossible to guarantee anything in relation to the human 
body. It is possible to show that more than a million chil- 
dren have been given toxin-antitoxin in New York City 
without a single harmful result. It is possible to show that 
many millions of persons have been vaccinated against small- 

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ANTIVIVISECTION 1ST AND ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION 

pox with vast benefit to the control of this disease, and with 
rare instances of harm through secondary infection. It is 
possible to prove absolutely that the world has been made 
safer and more healthful not only for human beings but also 
for the animals themselves through the use of animal ex- 
perimentation. However, the antivivisectionist does not care 
for such evidence. He seeks only the rare accident that will 
make it possible for him to interfere with the progress of 
science and to extract still more shekels from the sentimen- 
tally minded patrons who support him. 

Students of the propaganda put forth by the antivivisec- 
tionists, the antivaccinationists, and all those who oppose 
modern science are able to produce incident after incident 
in which scientific literature has been misquoted, partially 
quoted or misinterpreted to promote the antis’ cause. It is 
the pride of the medical profession that it invariably cleans 
its own house. It is the pride of science that it publishes facts 
in order that investigators and practitioners may have accu- 
rate judgment as to the value of any procedure. It is the 
habit of propagandists for antiscientific organizations, how- 
ever, to pervert statistics, to eliminate statements unfavor- 
able to their cause, and even to misquote when that seems 
desirable for the ends they seek. 

For more than a quarter of a century, leading educators 
and statesmen have recognized the value of animal experi- 
mentation for the good of all living beings and have de- 
spaired because so many human beings seem to be swayed 
by false propaganda. Year after year, physicians, chemists, 
biologists, sociologists, economists, and statesmen have had 
to give freely of their time and their funds in order to meet 
the attacks of these propagandists before legislative bodies. 
If the sums necessary for this defense of science could have 
been applied still further to the saving of life, who knows 
what vast good might not have been accomplished. 

HOW SCIENCE ITSELF CONTROLS EXPERIMENTATION 

Medical scientists have not waited for government or 
other supervision to establish control over animal experi- 

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mentation that will make it as nearly perfect as possible in 
preventing unnecessary pain and in providing animals with 
the best of care. A committee of the American Medical As- 
sociation regularly functions for no other purpose. Under 
the control of this committee each laboratory binds itself 
to observe the rules laid down and to post those rules regu- 
larly in each department. The rules require the animals 
be held at least as long as they are held at the city pound; 
that they receive every consideration for their bodily com- 
fort; that no operations be made, except with the sanction of 
the director of the laboratory; that animals be anesthetized 
and rendered incapable of receiving pain in all operations, 
except in those in which anesthesia would defeat the object 
of the experiment, and finally that animals be killed pain- 
lessly at the conclusion of the experiment. These rules are 
most rigidly enforced and laboratories throughout the coun- 
try are open to inspection by anyone interested from a scien- 
tific point of view, or from the point of view of control of 
this work. 

If it be true, as has been said again and again, that science 
is the hope of the future for the progress of humanity, those 
who obstruct this progress by needless and unwarranted fol- 
lies should be considered as subjects for mental investiga- 
tion, or else as misguided sentimentalists whom one con- 
dones, but whom one does not take too seriously. 


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XIV 


FADS IN HEALTH LEGISLATION 


"The life of the law has not been logic; it has been experience. The 
felt necessities of the time ; the prevalent moral and political theories; 
institutions of public policy , even the prejudices which judges share 
with their fellow men y have had a good deal more to do than the 
syllogism in determining the rule by which men should be gov- 
erned .** — Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes: " The Common Law.** 

"It is absurd that the administration of a modern State should be left 
to men ignorant of science and of its human consequences.** 

— Frederick Soddy: "Science and Life.** 


N ot long ago a group of physicians was returning from a 
medical convention. They were seated in the smoking 
compartment of the Pullman, discussing the newest restric- 
tions which a beneficent democracy had decided to place on 
the practice of medicine, and time passed so rapidly that 
they failed to take notice of the fact that they were rapidly 
nearing their destination. The porter, whose vision of fifty- 
cent tips was fading, finally mustered up the courage to 
make a direct attack. He tapped one of the gossiping medi- 
cos on the shoulder and inquired: “Brush you off, sah?” 
“No, indeed,’* said the doctor, unwilling to be disturbed, 
“I don*t want to fill all this air with bacteria.** 

“Don’t be afraid, sah,’’ said the porter, “the brushin* that 
I do ain’ gwine disturb no bacteria none.*’ 

In 1920 the Board of Health of Florida established the 
following regulation, among others, for the conduct of com- 
mon carriers: 

The brushing of passengers 9 clothing in the body of the 
car in transit is prohibited. 

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Between the porter's skepticism and the fears of the au- 
thor of that ordinance what a wide range of opinion! But 
how much of our health legislation is actually as ineffective 
as the porter’s brush? In no field of human activity do the 
laws present such a bewildering maze of fact and fallacy, of 
the unenforcable and the unobeyable, as in that of public 
health. In many instances they seem to represent the transi- 
ent enthusiasms of the day translated into the rigid legisla- 
tion of a generation; in other cases, they ramble limpingly 
along miles behind the science with whose progress they 
pretend to keep pace. 

Far back in the last century an epidemic of cholera broke 
upon the world, and with no knowledge of bacteriology the 
authorities of the time were confronted with a demand for 
protection by a panic-stricken public. On August 16, 1832, 
the Board of Health of Washington issued the following 
pronunciamen to : 

The Board of Health , after mature deliberations, have 
Resolved, and they do now declare, that the following 
articles are, in their opinion, highly prejudicial to health 
at the present season . Believing them, therefore, in the light 
of nuisances, they hereby direct that the sale of them, or 
their introduction within the limits of this city, be prohib- 
ited from and after the 22nd instant, for the space of ninety 
days: 

Cabbage, green corn, cucumbers, peas, beans, parsnips, 
carrots, egg plants, cimblings or squashes, pumpkins, tur- 
nips, watermelons, cantaloupes, muskmelons, apples . pears, 
peaches, plums, damsons, cherries, apricots, pineapples, 
oranges, lemons, limes, cocoanuts, ice-creams, fish, crabs , 
oysters, clams, lobsters, and crawfish . 

The following articles the Board have not considered it 
necessary to prohibit the sale of, but even these they would 
admonish the community to be moderate in using: 

Potatoes, beets, tomatoes and onions. 

Having thus cut off entirely the supply of fresh vege- 
tables, with the exception of four on which they cast dis- 
credit, the board recommended that all theatrical perform- 

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ances or other exhibitions which might be calculated to 
bring together large collections of persons be suspended for 
ninety days, and then followed with a still more remarkable 
resolution: 

Resolved, That it is the opinion of the Board of Health 
of this city that quarantine regulations interdicting the com- 
mercial intercourse of our country are wholly ineffectual in 
preventing the introduction and spread of Asiatic cholera , 
as well as vexatious and embarrassing to the community , and 
that they are injurious by creating a false confidence in such 
provisions , to the neglect of the more important preserva- 
tives from the disease . The Board , therefore, earnestly desires 
that the city authorities will not enact any prohibitory regu- 
lations upon this subject . 

So early entered the commercial considerations with which 
health regulations are still so frequently at war! In this day, 
when we know that cholera is caused by a definite bacterial 
organism, first described by Robert Koch in 1883; when we 
know that it is spread like typhoid, through contact with a 
patient, or through contamination of milk or water by his 
excreta; when we know that it can be and has been kept out 
by an adequate system of quarantine, the resolutions of the 
Washington Board seem asinine and ridiculous. Our knowl- 
edge of infectious disease has developed more in the past 
forty years than in all the previous centuries. Our sanitary 
authorities no longer work in the dark; they are able to 
recommend safe and sound legislation for the control of dis- 
ease. But only too often, alas, legislators contrive to yield to 
expediency, to fanatical enthusiasm, or to the unweighed 
superficial evidence of the hour. The results are always ludi- 
crous and sometimes they are disastrous. 

MODERN MISTAKES OF THE LEGISLATORS 

The United States Public Health Service, at definite in- 
tervals, compiles in handy volumes the State laws and regu- 
lations pertaining to the public health. It would be impos- 
sible, in the scope of fhis article, to present a detailed anal- 
ysis of all of these laws. I shall, therefore, select a few at 

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random, choosing those which demonstrate how little the 
legislative mind has changed during a century. 

In 1916, the State of Colorado passed a measure regard- 
ing the hygienic arrangements of places in which food is 
prepared, manufactured, or distributed. Among other clauses 
appeared the following: 

Cuspidors for the use of operatives , employees, clerks, or 
other persons shall be provided whenever necessary, and 
each cuspidor shall be thoroughly emptied and washed out 
daily with a disinfectant solution . 

Thus, Colorado, the mecca of the tuberculous, instead of 
attempting to educate its public to the menace of expectorat- 
ing where food is lying about, promotes the habit by supply- 
ing facilities for it! What, indeed, is the presence of the 
spittoon but a psychological encouragement to spitting? 

That gaudy institution, the American barbershop, in 
which Babbitt receives elegantly the simultaneous ministra- 
tions of barber, manicurist, and bootblack, is naturally sub- 
ject to numerous abuses from the health point of view. 
Dermatologists have conferred the name of barbers itch 
on a form of infection often acquired there, and no doubt 
many a seeker of cosmetic embellishment has fetched away 
other and even worse blessings. These facts have become 
known, it appears, to legislators, and the result is a weird 
assemblage of regulations governing tonsorial activities, most 
of them utterly inadequate to prevent the dangers at which 
they are aimed, and all quite unenforceable without tre- 
mendous staffs of special barbershop hounds. Consider the 
following from the Colorado code: 

Soaps, bay rums, face lotions, hair tonics, and other toilet 
articles and all solutions must be pure and unadulterated . 

Let anyone explain what that means — and if it means 
what he probably thinks it means, how is it to be enforced? 
The State of Colorado also believes that its barbers should 
be physically above reproach. It therefore disregards a half- 

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dozen obvious facts that make the enforcement of the law 
impossible and salves its conscience with the following: 

Any barber who is affected with open tuberculosis , vene- 
real or other communicable disease must not practice the 
barber trade. Habitual drunkenness or the use of intoxi- 
cating liquor during business hours is strictly forbidden. 

Strange that Colorado should thus by insinuation attack 
the sobriety of one of the most erudite professions practiced 
in our midst! 

Alabama answers the roll call with a sanitary regulation 
concerning soda fountains: 

No patron or customer shall be supplied with a spoon for 
consumption of a drink or a confection except it has been 
sterilized since last used , or has never been used. 

Sterilization requires equipment which the soda fountains 
of Alabama certainly do not provide. Where, indeed, is the 
evidence that disease is carried by spoons that have been 
washed in running water? And how is the spoon, once steril- 
ized, to reach the customer in a still sterile condition? More- 
over, who knows how many bacteria may reside on a spoon 
that has never been used? 

Arizona provides a law regulating midwives with this 
provision: 

A midwife must endeavor to secure the assistance of a phy- 
sician if the child is not born after twenty-four hours of 
labor. 

It would be interesting to know what scientific opinion 
aided the lawmakers in determining that twenty-four hours 
should be the limit of difficulty. Why not twelve or eight- 
een? And if twenty-four is safe, why not thirty-six? 

Florida is particularly concerned with sanitary require- 
ments affecting common carriers. In common with many 
other states, it forbids the provision of comb and brush in 
Pullman cars, and so the passenger is compelled to tip the 
porter a quarter for producing a bootleg comb from the re- 

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ceptacle in which he has conveniently concealed it. It also 
requires the cleaning of telephone earpieces and mouth- 
pieces with soap and water at least once a week, although 
there is not the slightest scientific evidence that disease has 
ever been transmitted by these appliances; indeed, experi- 
ments recently conducted under government supervision in 
England show that the likelihood of infection from such 
sources is infinitesimally small. 

Following the last great epidemic of influenza Illinois and 
many other States adopted elaborate laws for the control of 
that disease. The Illinois regulations involve notification, 
placarding, quarantine, and terminal disinfection. On No- 
vember 3, 1918, the State of Washington issued a regulation 
requiring every person to wear a gauze mask of a specified 
character when in public during the duration of an epidemic 
of influenza, and other States have laws requiring the use 
of gauze masks by those in contact with a patient. All of 
these regulations are subject to criticism on the ground 
that the manner of spreading the disease is not definitely 
known and that there is no sharp dividing line between what 
is commonly called a severe cold during nonepidemic pe- 
riods and what is called a light attack of influenza during 
epidemic periods. It is known that the infecting substance 
of epidemic influenza is carried in the nose and throat, and 
so precautions should be observed during epidemics by those 
in contact with infected persons, but any regulation requir- 
ing notification and placarding for influenza during nonepi- 
demic periods is quite unwarranted in theory, and is cer- 
tainly never observed in practice. 

Next to the common carrier the hotel and the restaurant 
are the chief prey of the legislator interested in hygiene. 
North Dakota has a hotel inspection act that covers care- 
fully almost every imaginable sanitary contingency. Many 
years ago an elongated Texan entered a Texas hostelry and 
engaged sleeping accommodations for the night. The Texan 
was six feet eight inches in height and he retired to a bed 
in which the sheet was only six feet long. When he drew it 
up to his head his feet were uncovered and when he cov- 

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ered his feet his neck was unprotected. The result of his 
harrowing experience was the famous, and perhaps legen- 
dary, Texas bed sheet law which ordained that every hotel 
must provide sheets long enough to tuck under the mattress 
at either end. But North Dakota’s law is not directed so 
much to the matter of comfort as to that of hygiene. It 
provides that hotels charging fifty cents a night or more 
shall always change sheets and pillow slips after a guest 
departs. Obviously, the guest who pays less than fifty cents 
a night is likely to be less cleanly and to leave more for 
the next occupant than is the one who is able to pay more, 
but no doubt economy as well as hygiene swayed the legis- 
lators in their deliberations! 

VITAL STATISTICS 

From the point of view of vital statistics no law is so im- 
portant as that requiring the registration of births. The 
United States has been particularly backward in this respect 
and there are many States not yet in the registration area. 
Moreover, both physicians and the public are frequently lax 
in carrying out the duties imposed upon them by law. Fur- 
thermore, while legislators are quite willing to pass all sorts 
of statutes for the benefit of the public health they usually 
hesitate to provide the necessary funds for administering 
the acts that are passed. The result is sometimes ludicrous. 
But it is a question if folly in this department has ever at- 
tained elsewhere the heights revealed in a circular issued by 
the State Registrar of Virginia on March 20, 1921. I quote 
in part: 

Senate Bill No. 219, to preserve racial integrity , passed the 
House March 8, 1924, and is now a law of this State. 

This bill aims at correcting a condition which only the 
more thoughtful people of Virginia know the experience of. 

It is estimated that there are in the State from 10,000 to 
20,000, possibly more, near-white people, who are known to 
possess an intermixture of colored blood, in some cases to a 
slight extent, it is true, but still enough to prevent them 
from being white. 

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In the past it has been possible for these people to declare 
themselves white or even to have the Court so declare them. 
Then they have demanded the admittance of their children 
into the white schools, and in not a few cases have inter - 
married with white people. 

In many counties they exist as distinct colonies holding 
themselves aloof from Negroes, but not being admitted by 
the white people as of their race. 

In any large gathering or school of colored people, espe- 
cially in the cities, many will be observed who are scarcely 
distinguishable as colored. 

These persons, however, are not white in reality, nor by 
the new definition of this law, that a white person is one 
with no trace of the blood of another race, except that a 
person with one-sixteenth of the American Indian, if there 
is no other race mixture, may be classed as white. 

Their children are likely to revert to the distinctly Negro 
type even when all apparent evidence of mixture has dis- 
appeared 

Our Bureau has kept a watchful eye upon the situation, 
and has guarded the welfare of the State as far as possible 
with inadequate law and power. The condition has gone on, 
however, and is rapidly increasing in importance. 

Unless radical measures are used to prevent it, Virginia 
and other parts of the nation must surely in time go the way 
of all other countries in which people of two or more races 
have lived in close contact. With the exception of the 
Hebrew race, complete intermixture or amalgamation has 
been the inevitable result. 

To succeed, the intermarriage of the white race with 
mixed stock must be made impossible. But that is not suf- 
ficient. Public sentiment must be so aroused that intermix- 
ture out of wedlock will cease. 

The public must be led to look with scorn and contempt 
upon the man who will degrade himself, and do harm to 
society, by such abhorrent deeds. 

The registrar obviously recognizes the frequency in the 
South of amourettes between white men and Negro girls 
and apparently plans to prevent more of them by arousing 
public opinion. He recognizes also that at least 20,000 per- 

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sons in the State have Negro elements in their white blood 
and that on occasion the result of a marriage between two 
such ostensibly white persons may be a somewhat dusky 
progeny. What he does not know, and what no one else 
knows for that matter, is any certain method of determin- 
ing when Negro blood is present in a person, or how to 
determine just when the prospective infant of such a person 
will show it. Nevertheless, he is bold in attacking the prob- 
lem, perhaps because his solution offers a means of provid- 
ing funds for extending the work of his department. Here 
is his solution: 

The task of the Bureau of Vital Statistics is a great one , 
with not a cent of appropriation to accomplish it with . 

There is a plan, however, by which it may be financed if 
the public will lend its aid. 

Thousands have applied for the registration of births that 
occurred before June 14, 1921, the date when the old law 
went into effect. 

The new law further provides for the registration of all 
persons who desire it, and who will make application for 
such registration of color and birth, remitting at the same 
time the fee of twenty-five cents for each applicant . Do not 
send stamps. The births will be permanently recorded and 
preserved for all time and will be of great value for many 
purposes, such as to prove American citizenship when apply- 
ing for passports to go abroad, and for establishing and pre- 
serving the family tree for future generations. 

We will even admit for registration persons living in Vir- 
ginia but born elsewhere. A family may complete its family 
tree by recording deceased ancestors or relatives. Each per- 
son will thus obtain full value received for the small fee. 
Virginians now living elsewhere may also register. 

If ten or twenty thousand or more will register within the 
next few weeks, we will be able to provide printed forms, 
filing cases , desks, typewriters, postage and clerk hire, to 
begin a vigorous State-wide educational propaganda. 

As has been said, there is no known method by which the 
admixture of Negro blood with white in the human being 
may be certainly detected. It thus becomes possible for any 

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person in the State of Virginia to obtain from the State 
Registrar, for the small sum of twenty-five cents, a card cer- 
tifying that he is white! Certainly, if the funds at the dispo- 
sal of the Registrar are as limited as he himself admits, he 
will have little opportunity to verify the statements made 
on the applications sent to him. And even if the matter 
came to a formal test, science would be quite unable to aid 
him in detecting the presence of a Negro strain that was 
not obvious to the naked eye. 

REGULATING THE PRACTICE OF MEDICINE 

With our forty-eight States and the District of Columbia 
we have an equal number of laws regulating the practice 
of medicine. They are practically without uniformity, and 
in many states there are four or five discordant laws cover- 
ing the various new cults. Following is an excerpt from an 
act passed by the legislature of Connecticut — a State famous 
for lately licensing almost a hundred men with stolen, pur- 
chased, or otherwise misgotten medical diplomas. This law 
is entitled 4 ‘An Act Concerning the Practice of Natureop- 
athy”: 

For the purpose of this act, the practice of natureopathy 
shall be held to mean the practice of the psychological, 
mechanical and material sciences, as follows: The psycho- 
logical sciences such as psychotherapy; the mechanical sci- 
ences, such as mechanotherapy , articular manipulation, mas- 
sage, corrective and orthopedic gymnastics, neurotherapy, 
physiotherapy, hydrotherapy, electrotherapy, thermo therapy, 
phototherapy, chromotherapy , vibriotherapy, concussion, 
pneumatotherapy and zonotherapy; and the material sciences, 
such as dietetics, histolo therapy and external applications; 
but shall not be held to mean internal medication . 

Here is legal power inflicting on the people of the State 
all the fantastic forms of assault upon the exterior of the 
ailing human that have been devised by the paranoiac brains 
of a hundred cultist prophets! By the act the State gives 
legal recognition to the disciples of the late — but not too 
late — Albert Abrams, who was responsible for vibration 

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therapy and for concussion; of Fitzgerald, who evolved 
zonotherapy, with its tenet that squeezing the big toe will 
cure a pain in a tooth; of Col. Dinshah Ghadali and his 
spec trochrome- therapy; of George Starr White and his bio- 
dynamo-chromatictherapy of Still, the osteopath; Palmer, 
the chiropractor, and heaven knows how many more gro- 
tesque evangelists. 

Connecticut thus provides amiably for all the cultists; 
most other States, perhaps a little more wary, provide only 
for the groups with effective lobbies. 

In 1931, attempts were made in Arizona to create a naprap- 
athy board, in Pennsylvania to create a special board con- 
sisting of naturopaths, chiropractors, and neuropaths to 
regulate drugless healing, and in nine other states bills were 
killed introduced in favor of naturopathy. Utah, however, 
marred an otherwise perfect record by passing a bill which 
provided that practitioners of naturopathy might be exam- 
ined by a committee of naturopaths exclusively instead of 
by a committee which included physicians. The bills regard- 
ing naturopathy in other states are just about as complicated 
and peculiar as the one which controls the practitioners of 
this remarkable cult in Connecticut. In practically all states 
the naturopathic bills propose to authorize the licentiates to 
use the title “doctor” with their names provided the word 
naturopath follows the name of the healer. In several states 
where there are basic science laws, attempts have been made 
to exempt naturopaths. Wyoming in 1931, exempted from 
its Medical Practice Act all persons who treat human ail- 
ments by prayer or spiritual means, and in California — good 
old California — it was proposed to create a Board of Chris- 
tian Healing and to regulate the practice of treatment by 
Christian healing and imposition of hands or annointment 
with oil, and prayer. There were no educational qualifica- 
tions for Christian healers. 

Bills failed in Massachusetts in favor of magnetic healing, 
in California in favor of masseurology — whatever that is — 
in Illinois in favor of naturopathy, in Pennsylvania in favor 

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of neuropathy, and in Washington in favor of sanipractic, 
and in Iowa in favor of suggestive therapeutics. 

The record for 1931 is typical of the year by year battles 
in various States fought by the medical profession in behalf 
of the people to prevent the licensing of ignorant healers 
to practice their performances on the human body. Iowa, 
birthplace of chiropractic, permits osteopaths to use the pre- 
fix “doctor” if followed by the letters D . O and chiroprac- 
tors to use the prefix if followed by the letters D. C. Even 
optometrists can call themselves “doctors” if they put Opt . 
after their names. In America doctors of this kind are almost 
as profuse as professors. 

Quite frequently State legislatures endeavor to regulate 
the practice of surgery. Wisconsin once tried to cause every 
doctor to submit removed appendixes to the State Legisla- 
ture and in Massachusetts in 1931, a bill was introduced to 
require the consent of a patient before a physician removed 
any organ of the body and to require the physician to ex- 
plain to the patient before the operation the necessity for 
such removal. Moreover, the bill proposed to cause physi- 
cians who anticipated some pain from their handling of the 
patient to explain to the patient first that pain would result 
and to obtain the patient’s permission. Good old American 
legislators never hesitate to practice law, medicine, dentistry, 
or any other learned profession or science. A constant battle 
wages between the medical profession and the Congress of 
the United States because that Congress invariably embarks 
on regulation of medical practice. Recent efforts of legisla- 
tors to break into medical science have resulted in some ex- 
traordinary demonstrations. In Mississippi in 1930, a law 
was enacted providing that no marriage license shall be is- 
sued when it appears that the applicants, or either of them, 
is drunk, insane or an imbecile. It is quite a task for a mar- 
riage clerk to determine whether or not any couple antici- 
pating marriage is imbecilic. The New York State Legisla- 
ture in 1930 passed a bill to license persons, firms, or cor- 
porations engaged in procuring people to donate blood. 

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CONTROLLING DISEASE BY LAW 

The control of venereal disease is the despair of public 
health officers and legislators alike. The statute books of all 
the States bulge with measures that are hopelessly inefficient 
to accomplish what they purport to do. Many States and 
municipalities have laws requiring the reporting of cases of 
venereal disease by both name and address, by address alone, 
or with neither name nor address. None of these methods 
yields anything resembling an adequate index of the true 
venereal disease rate of the community. Some States also 
require druggists to record the names of those purchasing 
remedies believed to be for the treatment of venereal dis- 
ease, but I have seen nowhere any evidence that such laws 
are obeyed or that they have accomplished anything. Else- 
where, arrangements are made to quarantine and treat those 
suffering with venereal disease, particularly the prostitute 
who is the widest disseminator of these diseases; the first few 
hours after her release see her again at work, promptly in- 
fected again, if not still infectious, and as promptly infect- 
ing those who come in contact with her. The truth is that 
physicians who have watched the progress of venereal disease 
legislation over many years have become more and more con- 
vinced that their eradication is an educational and medical 
problem, not a legislative one. Eradication will depend on 
education in prophylaxis and on prompt and successful treat- 
ment. Certainly the burden of proof is on the legislators and 
their advisers that their restrictive and regulatory measures 
have accomplished anything. The only value of much of the 
legislation so far enacted lies in its dissemination of educa- 
tional matter. 

All in all, the study of legislation in the field of health and 
hygiene leads to a simple conclusion, and it is that of Mr. 
Justice Holmes: ‘‘The life of the law has not been logic” 
and “the prevalent moral and political theories . . . have 
had a good deal more to do than the syllogism in determin- 
ing the rule by which men should be governed.” Nebraska, 
Wisconsin, and many other States have laws which forbid 

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physicians to split fees, and a strong organization of sur- 
geons in this country requires each of its members to take 
an oath that he will not do so. But only an elementary 
knowledge of human nature is required to make it plain 
that the man who wants to split fees will not hesitate to 
violate a law that is easier to flout than the Volstead Act, 
or to break an oath of the nature of that required by the 
surgical organization. How many men, indeed, have ever 
been penalized for violating that law, and how many have 
been dropped from the surgical organization for forgetting 
their oath? 

PROTECTION OF MATERNITY AND INFANCY 

A typical disregard of logic by legislators appeared in the 
passage of the Sheppard-Towner Act providing for the “pub- 
lic protection of maternity and infancy.” This act was one 
of those, rather numerous during the Harding administra- 
tion, which arranged to give a certain amount of money to 
the individual State out of the national treasury, provided 
the State would appropriate an equal amount. As might 
have been expected, the law was heartily endorsed by the 
conference of State and territorial health officers, which 
meets annually in Washington. Similar measures were in- 
troduced for the development of physical training, for im- 
provements in education, for the treatment of venereal dis- 
eases, and for other projects. As soon as any such federal 
law is passed the proponents of it mobilize at the State 
legislatures and use it as an inducement to get large State 
appropriations. 

The American Medical Association through The Journal , 
and many other important medical organizations opposed 
the passage of the Sheppard-Towner Act. It was urged that 
the care of the mother and the child is a local — even a per- 
sonal — not a Federal function. It was pointed out that the 
encroachment of the State upon the personal relations be- 
tween the patient and his physician was becoming a menace. 
Compulsory health insurance and State medicine, indeed, 
are the ultimate and worst forms of paternalism; they hinder 

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medical progress by inhibiting individual initiative. Let me 
quote from Dr. Frank Billings, a leader of American medi- 
cine, on this point: 

There may be rational grounds for this policy in sparsely 
populated regions of the countiy which are not provided 
with a sufficient number of resident physicians to care prop- 
erly for the sick . With this exception there is no rational 
basis for this sort of paternalism on the part of the Federal 
or State government . State medicine is naturally and prop- 
erly concerned in the matter of public health: air, and water 
pollution, food contamination and adulteration , the preven- 
tion of the spread of communicable diseases, and the like . 
The State properly may standardize and enforce certain rules 
of procedure — notification , methods of disinfection, and the 
like — for the medical practitioner in the management of 
patients who suffer from communicable diseases; but the 
treatment must be left with the physician . . . . Experience 
shows that centralized administration, either federal or State, 
of activities dealing with the health or with the treatment of 
the sick and injured is likely to become bureaucratic and 
occasionally is subject to political debasement . 

It is significant that President Coolidge put himself defi- 
nitely on record as opposed in principle to all laws which in- 
volve Federal subsidies to individual States. But the reader 
who will look up the platforms of both the major political 
parties during 1920 will find planks in each of them prom- 
ising definitely to provide maternity-infancy legislation. 
These planks were inserted by experienced platform builders 
to attract the growing women’s vote. The legislation prom- 
ised was enacted, all but six States made the individual ap- 
propriations required — and yet the maternal death rate has 
not been appreciably affected. 

However, the greatest interest attaches in recent years to 
legislation which is concerned with Federal subsidies by the 
government to the States in order to aid prenatal care and 
maternal welfare and in attempts by the government to en- 
ter on the practice of medicine through the provision of 
complete medical care to veterans and their families. The 

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progress of the legislation initiated as the Sheppard-Towner 
legislation has been exceedingly interesting. When the bill 
was first introduced it provided for operation over a certain 
period. At the end of that period, a government bureau 
once having been established with a considerable number 
of employees, new legislation was agitated to make the ex- 
periment an indefinite one. Other legislation proposed to 
continue the measures for but five years. The new bills 
finally were organized into what was known as the Jones- 
Cooper Bill. The functioning of the Sheppard-Towner Act 
failed to effect any discoverable reduction in maternal and 
infant mortality rates. No statistics could be obtained which 
indicated that the operation of this measure had in any way 
decreased the incidence of deaths of either mothers or babies. 
No evidence was produced to show that any of the numer- 
ous child health conferences appreciably affected the infant 
or maternal mortality rates. The original Sheppard-Towner 
Act became a law November 23, 1921. At the end of its 
service, legislation was passed to continue it for another 
brief period. On June 30, 1929, however, the act died. Dur- 
ing the seven and a half years that it was in effect it cost the 
people of this country about eleven millions of dollars. Dur- 
ing that time it did not apparently develop a single new idea 
in the field of maternal and infant hygiene, nor did it ac- 
celerate the rate of decline in either maternal or infant 
death rates. Much of the money devoted to the States through 
the Sheppard-Towner Act was spent on health projects in no 
way related to the prevention of maternal and infant mor- 
tality, but projects which seemed to the State health officers 
excellent ways in which to spend the Sheppard-Towner 
money. 

The beginning of 1932 finds new legislation proposed for 
the continuance of these appropriations, now known as the 
Jones-Bankhead Bill, held incommunicado in a Senate com- 
mittee. In these days when budgets are difficult to balance 
and when there is wailing and anxiety over Federal expendi- 
tures, Federal subsidies to the States are likely to be seri- 
ously curtailed. It would seem that the processes of Nature, 

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as revealed in national economics, have taken care of what 
seemed to be an impossible situation from the point of view 
of governmental control of health activity within the indh 
vidual states. 


THE CARE OF THE VETERAN 

Following the World War, our government, like all others, 
undertook to provide suitably for disability sustained by 
veterans as a result of their war service. The record of our 
government in the care of its veterans surpasses in lavishness 
that of any other nation in the world. At a time when strin- 
gent economies in expenditure are necessary this fact must 
be emphasized. Immediately after the World War, plans 
were made to provide hospitalization for every veteran who 
might be suffering from a disability incurred during the war, 
or a disability that might be remotely related to his war 
service. Then in 1924 it was revealed that numerous beds 
in government hospitals were unoccupied. Legislation was 
introduced to provide also for the hospitalization of veterans 
with disabilities not of service origin, with the understand- 
ing that indigent veterans were to get first choice. The beds 
available have multiplied enormously. Even now, however, 
plans are proposed for increasing the number still further, 
notwithstanding that a survey recently made indicated that 
more than 200,000 beds in civilian hospitals are unoccupied 
arid that many civilian institutions face ruin for this reason. 

The mathematics of the situation is simple. There are at 
present some fifty-three veterans’ hospitals with approxi- 
mately 26,000 beds. Because of the policy of taking care of 
veterans for all disabilities regardless of their service origin, 
the Veterans’ Bureau estimates that 130,000 beds will be re- 
quired. The average cost of construction of a hospital is 
from $3,000 to $3,400 a bed; the mere cost of construction 
will therefore approximate $300,000,000. The cost of main- 
tenance will be well over $200,000,000 a year, not including 
the cost of maintenance of the staff, which would be approxi- 
mately $20,000,000 a year more. What a prospect for a period 
of financial depression! With these institutions once created 

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and operating, the government is confronted with two alter- 
natives: It may continue indefinitely to give free medical 
care, enlarging the group cared for, thereby keeping beds 
occupied and the Veterans’ Bureau intact, or it may look 
forward ultimately to disbanding the Veterans’ Bureau and 
to scrapping the million dollar institutions it proposes to 
construct. 

The psychology of the situation is again simple. A bureau 
once established begins to expand, to grow, and to forestall 
dissolution. The Veterans* Bureau, if it wishes to continue 
as a thriving and growing organization, naturally will sup- 
port plans for extending its hospital facilities and its per- 
sonnel. 

There are many reasons why the people of the United 
States must oppose unreasoning expansion of the Veterans’ 
Bureau and why they should consider alternative plans such 
as that providing cash benefits to disabled veterans. These 
reasons are so logical and so inherently sound that they must 
appeal to every thinking person. The continued building of 
veterans’ hospitals and the enlargement of the Veterans’ 
Bureau constitute an insidious approach to State medicine. 
The actual needs of veterans will gradually be exceeded by 
the medical provisions available. Then socialistically and 
communistically minded demagogues will demand that the 
State administer care to all individuals, as it has attempted 
to care for veterans. Such a procedure would strike at the 
fundamental principles of the democracy under which we 
live and for which our veterans fought. It would impair 
greatly the progress of medical science; it would destroy in- 
terest in medicine as a career. It would lead to the poor 
type of medical service given to people under similar sys- 
tems abroad. 

The veteran today must go to a veterans’ hospital selected 
for him by the Veterans’ Bureau, even though it is some 
distance from his home. Thus he is removed from his fam- 
ily to become a ward of the state. Government employees, 
whose primary allegiance must be to the government which 
employs them rather than to the veteran who is served, ex- 

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amine and diagnose his case. Free choice of physician and 
responsibility to the patient rather than to any other em- 
ployer is so fundamental in first-rate medical practice that 
it has been recognized even by governments that are ex- 
perimenting with state medical care. Government bureaus 
do not provide for this type of practice. 

It has been argued that veterans, permitted to choose 
their own physicians, will succumb to quackery. The argu- 
ment is not warranted by the experience of state insurance 
systems that permit free choice of physicians. Our veterans 
as a group are certainly as intelligent as the rest of the pub- 
lic. It is unlikely that they will choose quackery any more 
than the rest of the people choose quackery in times of 
illness. 

American soldiers who fought in Europe and who served 
in this country were inspired by the ideal of maintaining 
the great American democracy. Our system of government 
gives the individual free choice of his method of life; it 
gives him a voice in selecting his government and the laws 
by which he will be governed. The present plan of hospitali- 
zation for the disabled and the possible extension of this 
hospitalization to the care of all veterans, to the families of 
veterans, and, indeed, to other persons in the government 
service is a threat at the very foundation of our government. 
It will, no doubt, arouse chortles of joy among socialistic 
and communistic leaders. 

Yes! Mr. Justice Holmes was right: “the institutions of 
public policy” have a great deal to do with shaping our laws; 
certainly much more than sound logic or the established 
facts of science! 


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THE CULT OF BEAUTY 


"Remember that the most beautiful things in the world are the most 
useless ; Peacocks and lilies , for instance .** — Ruskin. 

" Beauty provoketh thieves sooner than gold** 

— i Shakespeare , "As You Like It.** 


I n the classified telephone directory of any large American 
city one comes casually on the heading Barber Colleges, 
and proceeds then through Barbers, Baths and Beauty Cul- 
ture Schools, to Beauty Parlors. Then one advances to Cor- 
sets and Accessories, to Cosmeticians and to Dermatologists 
— and begins to realize at last what a vast trade has grown 
out of the desires of Mr. Babbitt and his wife and daughters 
to enhance the physiognomies and figures with which a none 
too beneficent Providence endowed them. If one resides in 
a town in which the trade is backward, the promoters of 
comeliness may still be found under such old-fashioned head- 
ings as Hairdressers, but where the cult of beauty has many 
shrines they hold forth in all the gaudy glory of Beauticians 
and Cosmetologists. And the barbers are Tonsorialists. 

As with classifications, so with names. In all of the cities 
in which the beauty shops flourish, their sign-boards display 
an extraordinary similarity. Consider these samples plucked 
from several lists: 

Annie Laurie Beauty Parlor 
Bellcano Beauty College 
Bertha Betty Beauty-Spot Shop 
Betty Jane Beauty Shoppe 
Bonita Beauty Salon 

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Fountain-o' -Youth 

Hollyd Obesity Salon ( The first word is a contraction of 
Hollywood) 

Babe's Beauty Shoppe 
Beau Ideal Shoppe 
Brush-Up Shop 
Brownatone Shop 
Char-Ming Beauty Shoppe 
Colton's Permanent Wave Shop 
The Fairest Marcel Shop 
Franco- American Beauty Shop 
Gotthart's Vienna Beauty Shop 
Hindu Rose Beauty Parlor 
Jean's System of Beauty 
La- Ann Beauty Shop 
La-Blanche Beauty Salon 
Ladifair Shop 
Maison Gustav 
Maison de Sadie 
Miladi Beauty Shop 
Mi-Lady's Beauty Shop 
Mitzi Beauty Shoppe 
Paradise Beauty Shop 
Madam Pauline 
Peacock Beauty Shoppes 
Poudre Box Beauty Shoppe 
Premier Epilation Salon 
Sanitary Beauty Parlor 
Venus Beauty Parlor 
Your Style Beauty Shop 

Here are parlors, colleges, shops, shoppes and salons, all 
conjuring with the magic word beauty and conducted by 
damsels variously yclept, whose names have undergone 
strange metamorphoses in accordance with the nature of 
their art. Here are Eva May, Emmie Lou, Frances Jeune, 
Helen Janice, Kathryn Ann, Beatrix, Elza, Cecile, Cecille, 
Ethyle Clair, Sadye, Ada Dolores, Estelle, Mae, Gladys, 
Gloria, Hazelle, Helyn, Hannette, Myrtle, Jean Jonnie, 
Georgette, Arline, Kathlyn, Adoline, Marjorine, and Neoma. 
Proceeding through the telephone book, one reaches the 

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heading Plastic Surgery, and comes upon the names of five 
or six medicos who, it seems, devote themselves to the re- 
moval of the redundant wrinkle, to restoring the aquilinity 
of misshaped proboscides, to the disposal of the fat resultant 
from too many calories, and to the miscellaneous alteration 
of countenances which, for one reason or another, seem to 
their possessors to be not what they ought to be. These 
learned gentry are obviously not to be listed with the ladies 
above mentioned, except in so far as they are also concerned 
with the glorification of American womanhood and woman- 
like manhood. Of their arts and their deceits more will be 
said later. 

Estimates place the number of beauty shops in Manhattan 
at between fifteen hundred to two thousand. There are at 
least a thousand in Los Angeles, not counting Hollywood. 
The number in Florida for a while increased with every 
incoming train, for the beauty shop, like the fur store, the 
jewelry store, the dance hall, and the homes of “ladies of 
leisure/* is among the first to profit when money is loose, 
profits are large, and the turnover rapid. Of late, the de- 
pression or predicament has turned many a damsel to beau- 
tification at home. Only the permanent wave continues to 
flourish. The high potentate of one college for cosmeticians 
informs me that nine thousand emporiums are devoted ex- 
clusively to the sale and application of her wares, and that 
an average of ten more or less sightly young women dispense 
beauty and its accessories at each of them. The casual trade 
in powders, soaps, creams, lotions, beauty masks, nose- 
shapers, chin-lifters, ear-pressers, hair-restorers, hair-re- 
movers, hair-straighteners, and hair-tonics is a matter of 
millions. 

Indeed, it is largely on their sale — they are endowed with 
names as fanciful as those of the ladies who promote them 
— that the beauty shop industry has arisen. All the rest of 
the hocus-pocus — the “colleges’* for the training of appren- 
tices, the various mysterious technics and maneuvers, and 
the trade associations and their carefully planned publicity 
— are intended mainly to promote the traffic in toilet prepa- 

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rations. If one turns from that section in the telephone book 
devoted to beauty parlors and hairdressers to that headed 
Cosmetics or Toilet Preparations, certain names will be 
found recurring with the significant words “manufacturing 
company” behind them. The company with the nine thou- 
sand dispensatories of cosmetic art manufactures one hun- 
dred and thirty-seven preparations. Corresponding to the 
Beau Ideal Shop we have the Beau Ideal Preparations, to 
the Boncilla Shops the Boncilla Laboratories, Inc., to the 
Cara Mia Shops the Cara Mia, Inc., to the Charm of Youth 
Shops the Charm of Youth Corporation, to the Marinello 
Shops the Marinello Company. There are Helena Rubin- 
stein and Elizabeth Arden also. And so on through the list, 
with the independent ladies who conduct individual shops 
or parlors, perhaps in their own homes, supplied by manu- 
facturers who deal in the various preparations in bulk. The 
business increases by leaps and bounds, and is acquiring a 
legal status. Let us cease for a moment these generalizations 
and gaze upon some concrete facts. 

THE LAW AND THE BEAUTY SHOP 

Many of our States are already in the fold with State 
licenses for beauticians, and the way is open in most of the 
others. 

In Illinois one cannot practice beauty culture without a 
certificate of registration as a beauty culturist. “Any one or 
any combination of the following practices constitutes the 
practice of beauty culture when done for cosmetic or beau- 
tifying purposes and not for the treatment of disease or of 
muscular or nervous disorder,” says the law. Here, indeed, 
is a fine distinction, and the specifications go on to convey 
suggestions titillating to an active imagination. Beauty cul- 
ture, according to the act, is “the application of cosmetic 
preparations to the human body by massaging, stroking, 
kneading, slapping, tapping, stimulating, manipulating, ex- 
ercising, cleansing, beautifying, or by means of devices, ap- 
paratus or appliances, arranging, dressing, marcelling, curl- 
ing, waving, cleansing, singeing, bleaching, coloring, dyeing, 

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tinting, or otherwise treating by any means the hair of any 
person.” I have seen a photograph of the governor of this 
proud State as he signed the law, his cranium, quite devoid 
of hirsutage, glowing beneath the countenance of an in- 
spired cosmetician, who breathlessly awaits the application 
to the paper of the tintorial fluid that is to legalize her noble 
profession. But waitl Another great profession also pleads 
for protection! “However,” says the act, “provisions of this 
act shall not authorize any registered beauty culturist to cut 
or clip the hair of any person unless he has first obtained a 
certificate of registration as a barber .” 

The law specifies who may be a registered apprentice in 
the art and limits the certificate of cosmetician to those who 
are at least sixteen years of age, of good moral character and 
temperate habits, and who have graduated from an eighth- 
grade elementary school or completed an equivalent course, 
and finally, who have either studied beauty culture for one 
year as registered apprentices or graduated from an ap- 
proved school. Naturally, the legislators provided for admit- 
ting into the fold, pronto and without examination, all those 
who were practicing one year before the law was passed. Also 
they provided for the revocation of licenses for immorality, 
habitual drunkenness, gross malpractice, incompetency, con- 
tinued practice by persons having contagious diseases, drug 
addiction, and unprofessional conduct. 

The Arkansas bill specifically mentions the removal of 
superfluous hair as a part of the cosmetic therapist’s art. The 
Missouri law speaks of hairdressers, cosmeticians, or cos- 
metologists as well as of beauty culturists. It also employs 
the words “cosmetology” and “cosmetological establish- 
ment.” In its definition of the practices concerned, it men- 
tions particularly the removal of superfluous hair by elec- 
tricity and speaks of the “limited practice of cosmetology” as 
the “occupation of manicurists and electrologists.” The Mis- 
souri law requires the registration of each cosmetological 
establishment for purposes of sanitary control and bars the 
use of its rooms at any time for sleeping or residential pur- 
poses. It carefully exempts from the law members of the fol- 

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lowing liberal professions: medicine, surgery, dentistry, os- 
teopathy, chiropody and barbering. 

In Oregon the law takes another turn; there cosmetic 
therapy includes “the application of the hands or of me- 
chanical or electric apparatus with or without cosmetic 
preparations, tonics, lotions, creams or clays, to massage, 
cleanse, stimulate, manipulate, exercise or otherwise improve 
or beautify the scalp, face, neck, shoulders, arms or upper 
part of the body, removing superfluous hair, manicuring the 
nails of any person, male or female, and to arrange, dress, 
curl, wave, cleanse, cut, singe, bleach, color or similarly 
treat the hair of any female” Here also the new profession 
has not been permitted to infringe upon the immemorial 
rights of the barber. 

Wisconsin found necessity for definitions of the terms 
bobbing, beauty parlor, managing cosmetician, operator, 
itinerant cosmetician, and school of cosmetic art. It carefully 
exempts chiropodists, masseurs, hospital attendants, nurses 
and student nurses, physicians, surgeons, and barbers from 
the operations of the act. It places all cosmetic establish- 
ments under the State board of health for examination and 
inspection. It regulates particularly the use of the electric 
needle. There must be no treatment of diseases of the skin 
or scalp except under the direct supervision of a physician. 
Towels may be used only once and instruments must be 
sterilized after each employment. 

In some of the States the licensing of cosmetic practi- 
tioners is controlled by a State board of registration, in some 
by the board of health, and in some by specially established 
boards. In New Mexico the board has five members, of 
whom at least two must be women beauty culturists and two 
male hairdressers. Nothing is said about the qualifications of 
the fifth member. Utah mentions specifically as included in 
the practice of the cosmetician the removing of superfluous 
hair, warts, or moles by the use of electricity or otherwise. 

To those familiar with legislative methods in America it 
will be clear at once that the passage of such legislation in so 
many States within a period of little more than a year repre- 

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sents an organized movement, with the submission of a so- 
called model bill, modified to meet the idiosyncrasies of the 
individual States. “These six laws were obtained,” says the 
official organ of the American Cosmeticians’ Society, “as a 
result of much self-sacrifice and hard work on the part of a 
small group of women in each of these States. They have 
behind them some fine organization work, personal enthu- 
siasm that could not be dampened by setbacks and misunder- 
standings, meetings without number, countless hours of 
telephoning, hundreds of personal interviews with legisla- 
tors, weeks given over to lobbying in the State capitals, days 
of anxiety and disappointment, and a generous amount of 
that necessary thing — cooperation.” 

In Missouri success was not difficult because the local 
branches of the American Cosmeticians’ Society and the 
National Hairdressers’ Association combined forces to push 
the bill through. But hearken to what happened in Oregon, 
as told by Miss Mary E. Newman, of the National School of 
Cosmeticians in Portland: 

When newspapers began to ridicule our movement, many 
of us who carried the most advertising stopped it immedi- 
ately, and made a personal appeal to the editors. They re- 
considered and gave us a splendid write-up. 

We hired no lobbyist — we did our own lobbying. We each 
tried to look our best and be ladylike , not bold or forward, 
and we were listened to with respect, though at first there 
was the usual attitude of ridicule. 

Our bill passed through Senate and House by a large ma- 
jority. But not until the governor had signed our bill did 
we lessen our vigilance. 

The report from New Mexico is almost romantic; thus the 
leading newspaper of Santa F£: 

When the bill regulating the beauty parlor operators was 
introduced, great hilarity ensued and the bill and all its 
works were greatly kidded. All that was needed for a laugh 
the first three weeks of the session was a casual reference to 
the beauty parlor bill. The earnest and good-natured young 
ladies who lobbied the bill to a triumphant finish dimpled 

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merrily at all the jokes , issued frequent invitations to 
luncheons and dinners, talked quietly . When the bill came 
up for passage it was regarded as seriously as any other 
measure in the House . 

Miss Evelyn Lazarus, a worker in the same sovereign State, 
contributes this record of her personal experience: 

Before our bill was presented I had no less than four con- 
ferences with the Barbers ’ Union here in Albuquerque. I 
can't remember ever having had to do so much fighting 
before. The argument waxed so hot about what our line of 
work included that it got into personalities. Then again poli- 
tics were played. . . . 

Then our real trouble was to start — in the House. Over 
50 per cent of the House is Spanish, and you just talk at 
them, not to them. We presented our case to every man 
there. Every place and any place we met them they were 
lobbied, (sic!) . A few had their wives with them, which was 
a great help to us. 

Miss Pinson has that go-get-it smile, and however discour- 
aged we were, she smiled — in spite of the mean things that 
were said to us. .. . 

What wonder, then, that the passionate legislators of New 
Mexico succumbed, and made cosmetology a licensed and 
learned profession! 

SCIENTIFIC PLASTIC SURGERY 

Following the experience acquired by our surgeons in the 
Great War, plastic surgery advanced rapidly. The need for 
restoring extensive segments of the skin, for rebuilding facial 
contours destroyed by explosives, and for repairing the 
ravages of burns by fire or chemicals gave birth to surgical 
methods with results nothing short of marvelous. Such 
specialists as the English surgeon Gillies and in our country 
Vilray P. Blair, J. Eastman Sheehan, and others, have pub- 
lished vast tomes recording the before and after aspects of 
hundreds of patients. A dissemination of the photographs 
marked “before” would make most potent propaganda for 
the pacifists. The “after” illustrations, revealing the accom- 

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plishments of the surgeons, aided by certain artists in the 
creation of artificial noses, ears, toupees, and what not, 
arouse gasps of astonishment and almost of unbelief. How- 
ever great the skepticism of the reader may be, the facts are 
nevertheless as depicted by Mr. Gillies. 

A few regularly licensed medical men in some of our large 
cities have built up tremendous practices in such reconstruc- 
tive surgery. Merely as an estimate, I should guess that there 
are today perhaps ten reputable surgeons in the United 
States who do any considerable amount of this work. In addi- 
tion, each of our large cities maintains from one to ten 
practitioners, all regularly licensed but beyond the best 
repute and wavering on the shadowy borderland of quackery, 
who likewise limit their practices to facial and body recon- 
struction. Finally, a considerable number of so-called general 
surgeons, of surgeons limiting their practice to the ear, nose, 
and throat, and of physicians specializing in diseases of the 
skin, undertake such procedures on occasion. 

THE BEAUTY QUACK 

It is not within the purview of this article to define the 
marks of the charlatan in plastic surgery. Gradually those 
marks are becoming apparent even to credulous Homo 
Americanus. Some of the “specialists” advertise openly in the 
newspapers, giving a list of the operations which they wish to 
undertake. An example follows: 

America’s leading 

FACE SPECIALIST 
AN ETHICAL SURGEON 
REGISTERED AND LICENSED 

OVER 22 YEARS IN 
CHICAGO, ILL. 

Many people do not realize that their facial appearance 
has so much to do with their success in business and society. 
It is true, your personality has much to do with your popu- 
larity, but even with a charming personality the entire effect 
is spoiled if you are embarrassed by a deformed nose of any 

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kind . Sagging Cheeks — Nose to Mouth Lines , Ruffly-Wrinkly 
Skin over and under the Eyes — Scars — Outstanding Ears — 
too large or too small a mouth , a loose, flabby neck or any 

other deformity or blemish . For 22 years Dr. has been 

a Licensed Surgeon in Chicago, 111. His knowledge gained 
from many years of study and his vast experience places him 
in a position to give you the soundest and most valuable 
advice just what can be done in your particular case. 

The corrections are done without loss of time from busi- 
ness or social affairs. No bandages are used and all the work 
is painless. Phone for appointment. Privacy is assured you 
at all times; separate entrance and exit. 

The appeal to secrecy is one of the mainstays of the trade. 
The successful results are broadcast by the patient himself 
and by the charlatan through the press and through his 
advertising literature, but the patient who has had an un- 
successful result is likely, if he lives, to hide his chagrin in 
silence. Occasionally, when the results are especially serious, 
they come to light through the medium of the courts. From 
several hundreds of instances that are available I select 
a few: 

Los Angeles, Cal. — Suit for $ 500,000 has been filed here 

against Drs. and , plastic surgeons , by Mrs. . 

In Her complaint, Mrs. states the defendants attempted 

to remove superfluous flesh from her ankles, but that it 
finally became necessary to amputate both legs. 

Chicago. — Dr. , plastic surgeon, . . . today is defend- 
ant in a damage suit for $7,000 ... In her bill Mrs. 

states that as a result of facial treatments a year ago her face 
was badly scarred and her eyes so badly crossed she was 
obliged to have them straightened by another surgeon “at 
great cost and suffering to herself.” 

Chicago. — Dr. is the defendant in a suit for $50,000, 

filed in the Superior Court yesterday ... The bill charges 

that on July 17, Dr. performed an operation to 

straighten ’s eyes. As a result of carelessness and unsani- 

tary conditions under which the operation was performed , 

according to the bill, ’s eyes became infected and it was 

later necessary for another surgeon to remove one of them. 

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A dignified, handsomely dressed woman walked into my 
office in Chicago in September, 1926. When she removed her 
hat and her veil her face revealed the wreckage of an 
encounter with one of the most widely advertised plastic 
surgeons in America. She had come to him only after Gillies, 
some French surgeons, and several in New York had told her 
to avoid plastic surgery. But when she was a girl she had 
been operated on for removal of some glands in the neck, 
and she considered the scar unsightly when she wore an 
evening gown. 

The Chicago surgeon consented to remove the scar from 
the neck, inveigled the lady into a face-peeling operation, 
and undertook to do his surgery in his office under a local 
anesthetic. The results were pitiful. The caustic acid used in 
the face peeling had produced scarring worse than the orig- 
inal condition. The original scar had been operated on twice 
and, as sometimes occurs in such cases, the new scars were 
far worse than the old. Portions of the eyebrows had been 
removed and the contraction of the scar had left an ex- 
tremely distorted appearance. Because of the prominence of 
her social position the woman could not go into court to 
seek financial reparations for the injury done to her body. 

One plastic surgeon who is reputed to be most successful 
— only, however, from the point of view of the size of his 
income — has for several years employed a publicity repre- 
sentative who is charged with the duties of securing patients 
of note, particularly in the theatrical profession, with the 
wide dissemination of news of successful results, with the 
suppression of newspaper statements about unsuccessful re- 
sults, and with the promotion of publicity concerning unsuc- 
cessful surgery by and damage suits against competitors. 

In many instances the records of these plastic surgeons are 
befogged by doubts as to whether or not they have ever had 
medical or surgical training sufficient to qualify them for 
undertaking the most simple of operations. Indeed, it is not 
clear in some cases that they have even graduated from 
reputable medical schools or obtained their licensure by 
proper examination. The aspirant for facial reconstruction 

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will do well to inquire carefully into these matters before 
submitting himself to the scalpel. 

The competent performer of plastic surgery gets his re- 
sults by the transplantation of flaps of tissue from one por- 
tion of the body to another. The manipulation is delicate, 
usually demanding the retention of the original blood supply 
of the part until a new blood supply develops at the spot to 
which the transfer is made. Obviously, here is a procedure to 
be carried out only in a good hospital and under the most 
aseptic conditions. The growth of such tissue may require 
weeks or months. Sometimes a portion of cartilage is trans- 
ferred also, say to build up the sunken bridge of a nose 
that gives the face a dished appearance. The procedure of 
the charlatan is to dill a syringe with melted paraffin and to 
inject this beneath the skin to fill out the cavity. The par- 
affin hardens and the patient is satisfied. But experience has 
shown that paraffin has the peculiar quality of stimulating 
the growth of the tissue cells, and numerous cases are now on 
record of the development of disfiguring tumors and even of 
cancers after its injection. 

On a hot day in July in 1924, there came into my editorial 
sanctum a young woman accompanied by a somewhat elderly 
man. 'Took at that nose,” she said, and with the words 
demonstrated how the organ referred to might be turned 
right, left, upward or downward according to the direction 

in which her fingers impelled it. "Dr. did that,” she 

said. "He promised me that he wouldn’t use paraffin, and 
then when he got me in the chair he injected it. We’ve 
already paid him $300 for taking the bags out from under 
Joe’s eyes, but this is terrible.” And Joe, whose eyes still 
bagged a little, interjected: "I held the umbrella over her 
all the way over here so that nose would stay up until we 
got here.” The lady had small chance of redress, for a com- 
plaisant State finds it difficult to interfere with the practi- 
tioners that it has once licensed, and the charlatans, antici- 
pating difficulties, are protected by insurance companies 
which agree to fight their damage suits. 

An especially rich field for the plastic surgery quack is the 

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child or adult suffering from cross-eye. The majority of the 
cases are caused by eye strain accompanying far-sightedness. 
Nowadays the eyes are first examined by a competent eye 
specialist, and corrective glasses are tried before any opera- 
tions are attempted. But the plastic surgery quack guaran- 
tees to cure by a simple operation, knowing that his guar- 
antee is worthless. In more severe cases due to a deficiency 
of the muscles of the eye, surgeons who have specialized in 
the work will shorten a muscle or change its place of inser- 
tion. Each case demands careful study and accurate measure- 
ments which the plastic surgery quack is not competent to 
make and he can never obtain a competent eye specialist to 
help him. In several instances after enough patients have 
suffered the loss of an eye, State officials have been able to 
secure cancellation of the license to practice. 

Cosmetic operations are most commonly sought by elderly 
women in love with young men, by aging actresses eager to 
continue profitably as ingenues , by women whose husbands 
have lost interest in them, by pugilists who have fought to 
financial success at the cost of facial continuity, and finally 
by foolish little salesgirls, stenographers, clerks, aspirants to 
the movies, sheiks, and what not. The most popular opera- 
tion, perhaps, is that for the reconstruction of the nose, the 
most unsatisfactory organ ever devised by an all-wise Creator. 
The perfect heroine for novelists stands waiting: She is the 
impossible young woman who is perfectly satisfied with the 
nose that she was born with. There comes then the correc- 
tion of outstanding ears, the reconstruction of cauliflower 
or tin ears, the removal of “bags” beneath the eyes, the so- 
called face-lifting for the elimination of wrinkles or of jowls 
that have sagged, the excision of double chins, and, finally, 
the removal of fat, principally from the thighs, the hips, the 
buttocks, the abdomen, and the breasts. 

THE RESULTS OF PLASTIC SURGERY 

When these operations are performed by competent sur- 
geons under the best of conditions the results are frequently 
successful — provided, however, (a) that there is no second- 

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ary infection, (b) that the tissues of the patient have 
sufficient recuperative power, (c) that the skin of the patient 
does not tend to the overgrowth of the scar tissue called 
“keloid,” (d) that the accumulation of fat is not due to some 
inherent disturbance of the bodily processes particularly in- 
volving the glands of internal secretion, and (e) that the 
surgeon is lucky. Unfortunately, there are records of hun- 
dreds of cases in which the surgeons were not lucky — indeed, 
so many that reputable surgeons hesitate to undertake such 
procedures unless the defects are flagrantly disfiguring or in- 
volve a serious disability. During and after the war the gov- 
ernment provided the wherewithal for stays of many months 
in hospitals for soldiers undergoing repeated reconstructive 
operations. In the great manufacturing industries patients 
are sometimes severely injured through inadvertent contact 
with Frankensteinian machines, and it becomes necessary to 
rebuild features or to replace scalps that have been torn 
away. Great hospitals and funds are available for carrying 
on such surgical procedures. But only a few really competent 
surgeons find time or inclination for the type of plastic 
surgery performed wholly for esthetic reasons. That is the 
field which has been invaded and which is largely controlled 
by charlatans. 


THE CARE OF THE HAIR 

Somewhere toward the end of those vaudeville acts in 
which a young gentleman and a young lady indulge in acri- 
monious remarks relative to the merits of the sexes, the lady 
is likely to remark: “Well, in one way a woman is smarter 
than a man, anyhow.” “What’s that?” asks the feeder. “Well, 
you take a bald-headed man, he buys hair-tonic; but a 
woman buys hair.” 

The truth in the jest is apparent. The promotion, reten- 
tion and replacement of the hirsutage which is a surviving 
vestige of Pithecanthropus erectus gives occupation to thou- 
sands of men and women. The changes of fashion in 
coiffures, the invention of electrical devices of Goldbergian 
intricacy for making curls and waves, the creams, lotions, 

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oils and pastes for washing and giving luster to the hair, 
require the services of thousands of experts. The current 
styles of bobbing, shingling or otherwise trimming what 
used to be called woman’s crowning glory have made the 
barber-shop a delicately scented boudoir without even a 
cuspidor. Finally, there are the diseases of the hair resulting 
from infection with parasites, bacteria, or fungi, which give 
concern to the medical specialist in dermatology. With the 
desirability or not of the current styles I am not here con- 
cerned, for I am inquiring more particularly into matters 
of fraud and deceit. 

Among all the fallacies attaching to the care of the hair 
none is so persistent as the belief in the virtues of the so- 
called singe, recommended to overcome splitting at the ends 
and to prevent the falling out of the hair. The tonsorial 
artist avers that the burning of the tip will close the pores 
and keep the fluid in the hair. Actually, singeing merely 
substitutes a charred blunt end of fused horn for one taper- 
ing to a point or cut clean across. In fact, splitting of the 
ends is more easily controlled by greasing the hair lightly 
and supplying it with the fat that is lacking. Singeing the 
hair ends in order to prevent the fluid from escaping is 
based on the misconception that the hair has a central cavity 
through which it is supplied with some sort of nourishing 
sap. The hair has no more sap than a buggy-whip; it is 
nourished only by the blood that reaches its root. Above the 
surface it is simply a spine of horn, which can be oiled from 
without. 

The removal of superfluous hair is one of the most deli- 
cate tasks that can confront the dermatologic specialist. The 
fact is recognized by those state laws which, as has been men- 
tioned, throw special safeguards around this procedure and 
define the specialty of “electrologist.” Most dermatologists 
are agreed that the one certain method for permanent de- 
pilation is the use of the electric needle. The procedure is 
time consuming, somewhat painful, and only from five to 
twelve hairs are removed in an ordinary treatment. There 

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exist numerous chemical depilatories containing caustic 
substances, but they irritate the skin at the same time that 
they remove the hair, and since they do not destroy the hair 
roots they do not remove the hair permanently. There exists 
also the possibility of removing superfluous hair by the use 
of the X-ray. This method is followed by numerous so- 
called “Tricho Institutes,” established throughout the 
country. But the X-ray is a two-edged sword, possessing 
great possibility for serious harm, as well as possibility for 
good when used by those familiar with its dangers. Already 
specialists in diseases of the skin are reporting the occurrence 
of hardening of the upper layers of the skin, or overgrowth 
of the cells, known scientifically as precancerous keratosis, 
in persons subjected to such treatments. In many of the 
colleges for the training of those who wish to devote them- 
selves to the beauticians’ art attempts are made to instruct 
in the uses of such apparatus, but the business itself is so 
new and the teachers themselves, in most instances, are so 
poorly informed concerning the actual anatomy, physiology 
and pathology of the skin that it may be said without fear 
of overstatement that the majority of persons now using 
these methods are not competent. 

The removal of moles, warts, and other excrescences upon 
the skin is another branch of “cosmetology” that presents 
dangerous possibilities. For years physicians have warned 
against interference, except by the most careful surgery, with 
moles of a deeply pigmented character. 

Numerous instances are reported in which cutting, burn- 
ing, or otherwise tampering with such moles has resulted in 
the appearance of cancerous tumors and their rapid dissem- 
ination throughout the body, resulting in death. The ability 
to distinguish between such defects as are benign and such 
as are dangerous comes only with extensive study. Obviously, 
that knowledge is not to be acquired either by a year’s ap- 
prenticeship in a beauty shop or by six months in a beauty 
“college.” 


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BEAUTY PREPARATIONS 

Since the profits of the beauty shop are dependent mainly 
upon the sale of lotions, creams, shampoos, ointments, de- 
pilatories, beauty clays, face packs, and similar preparations, 
the number of these increases daily. Preparations similar to 
most of the beauty clays, costing at retail from $2 to $10 a 
pound, may be made by mixing a pound of kaolin, or dried 
beauty clay, with the same weight of water. Such a prepara- 
tion costs 20 cents. Nevertheless, pages in most of the peri- 
odicals addressed primarily to women contain full page 
announcements of Terra-derma-lax, Boncilla, Domino Com- 
plexion Clay, Mineralava, and Forty-Minute Beauty Clay. 

Despite the advertisements, it is quite impossible to feed 
the skin by rubbing in fats or creams of any kind. Nor is 
cleanliness aided by plastering the surface of the skin with 
one type of cream after another and then being compelled 
to wash away the entire mess. There is no such thing as a 
skin food. The skin can be soothed, inflamed, or made tem- 
porarily more pliable by external applications, but it can- 
not be fed. Dozens of preparations for the control of pimples 
and blackheads are employed by adolescents, both male and 
female, but genuine specialists in diseases of the skin are 
likely to recommend simple washing, with the applications 
of antiseptic solutions that may be purchased for a few cents. 

Mixtures to be used in the bath for the reduction of 
weight commonly consist of baking soda or Epsom salts 
slightly perfumed, and are sold for twenty to fifty times their 
original cost. There is, in fact, hardly a single possibility in 
this field that has not been astutely exhausted by the manu- 
facturers of cosmetic nostrums. 

Physicians who conduct newspaper columns devoted to 
answering questions from readers find that at least half of 
their correspondence is concerned with the problem of 
entrancing the opposite sex by displays of healthy beauty. 
Warn as one will of the folly of dependence on the cos- 
metic nostrum, of its inertness and sophistication, hope 
springs eternal and the sales go on. There is no limit to the 

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field that the cosmetician approaches. The very acme is 
reached in the following quotation: 

The warm , pink glow of a perfectly rounded elbow is a 
joy unconfined to the exacting woman whose social obliga- 
tions are insistent and many . Harriet I. Nash has made a 
Perfect Elbow possible to all by her elbow beautifier. The 
wrinkles and dullness common to many elbows are no longer 
embarrassments to be endured. 

As for the results, one need not have an eye that is un- 
usually discriminating to see that the building up of this 
vast trade has not resulted, on the whole, in lending a more 
comely appearance to the current American scene. 


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"People expect old men to die 
They do not really mourn old men, 

Old men are different. People look 
At them with eyes that wondex when . . . 
People watch with unshocked eyes . . . 
hut the old men know when an old man dies." 

— Ogden Nash. 


T here is no fool like an old fool — particularly in matters 
of rejuvenation. For the senile, tottering old men, leer- 
ing passion and desire, the world has only the pity that it 
confers on a Faust, who bartered his soul for a few years of 
youthfulness; the ridicule that it darts upon a Don Quixote; 
the mild amusement with which it listens to the tale of 
Ponce de Leon; or the savagery with which it attacks the 
decrepit prey of physical lusts inspired by inflamed tissues, 
who slakes his inordinate appetites with the inveiglement of 
young girls. Behind all of these legends and observations lie 
the insights of historians who have seen fundamental biologic 
instincts expressing unsatisfied and hopeless desires. Here 
psychologists observe the last expression of the law of self- 
preservation, the reaction of the living toward approaching 
death, the feeble call on unresponsive nerves and muscles 
for power that they cannot give. Today the public is told 
again and again in sensation mongering newspapers and 
periodicals that the secret of restoring youthful vigor to 
worn-out tissues has been solved. Alas! medical scientists 
who like to be shown before they are convinced, mistrust 
the evidence. They grant readily that the senescent gray- 

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beard with the will-to-believe may be instilled with young 
ideas, but they have yet to admit that any surgical operation, 
any transplantation of glands, any decoction of plant, organ, 
or mineral remedies will confer on the withered form the 
machinery to put those ideas into action. Of the mechanical 
contrivances, the glandular extracts, and the other forms of 
hocus-pocus sold with claims for their ability to rejuvenate 
more will be said later. Now and here the disciples of the 
scalpel who are reaping somewhat of a harvest in the field 
of surgical rejuvenation will receive attention. 

Man’s search for the elixir of eternal youth was never a 
scientific one previous to the period of Brown-Sequard. Long 
before Brown-Sequard, however, anatomists and physiologists 
had been studying the nature and the functions of the male 
sex glands. It had been shown that the ability to reproduce 
was coordinate with certain changes in the body of the child 
that are known as the secondary sex characteristics. The 
voice of the boy depends, causing great embarrassment 
when a fine soprano statement suddenly changes to a basso 
growl. The first inklings of mustache and beard send him 
to his mirror for hours of painstaking scrutiny. He begins to 
take a more serious interest in the female of the species. 
And it was taken for granted that the development of these 
sex characteristics was the result of a special or internal secre- 
tion poured into the blood by the sex glands. In science, 
however, it is not well to take anything for granted. 

In 1889, the famous French physiologist thought that he 
had discovered the potent substance in the extracts of male 
sex glands. One need not be a Freudian to realize that the 
terms vim, vigor, virility, or vitality are almost invariably 
associated with sexual power and the ability to engage in 
the act of reproduction. It was not strange, therefore, that 
attention should be turned to these organs in the search 
for the important substance. Indeed, the most primitive 
savages of cannibalistic nature were wont themselves to brew 
essences of the organs of the enemies whom they slew in 
battle, believing that the ingestion of the tissues was 
sufficient to confer upon them the prowess of their van- 

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quished foes. Nor is it surprising that Brown-Sequard, having 
inoculated himself with extracts of sex organs, developed a 
sort of similitude of youthfulness. He reported that he could 
now climb a flight of steps with greater rapidity and ease 
than before his inoculation. Nevertheless, at the appointed 
time, the body of Brown-Sequard went the way of all flesh. 
And the skeptical scientists who repeated his experiments, 
checking them with numerous cases and controlling them 
with injections of plain water instead of the extracts, shook 
their heads in dismay. The great scientist — for Brown- 
Sequard was all of that — had yielded science to enthusiasm, 
and his conclusions could not be sustained. 

steinach’s theory 

About 1903 two French biologists claimed that the secre- 
tion responsible for maleness was developed by a certain part 
of the male sex gland. They asserted that this portion of the 
gland developed particularly if the tubes leading from the 
gland were tied off so that the portion responsible for pro- 
ducing the male cells of reproduction would degenerate. 
And Steinach claimed that he had confirmed their experi- 
ments, and that the performance of this operation on 
senescent animals resulted in rejuvenation. 

Now the finding of a substance or a system of rejuvenation 
is much like the finding of gold. Whether it is there or not, 
all of the unsuccessful, romantic, and adventurous experi- 
menters rush in on the trail, and all of the aged and worn 
out capitalists come in as soon as convenient to take advan- 
tage of the discovery. The cry of “gold, gold,” was taken up 
quickly by a number of young and enthusiastic investigators, 
who followed Steinach. Some famous actors, physicians, and 
financiers, who saw the waning of their power and note and 
of their ability to enjoy to the utmost the lives that had given 
them so much, became subjects of the experiment. Where 
there are actors, authors, and financiers, there is also always, 
in these modern times, good newspaper publicity. And where 
there is newspaper publicity not too careful as to the facts, 

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there are soon more applicants for operations. This, in 
medical science, is known as a vicious circle. 

The careful experimenters who have followed the work of 
Steinach, checking all his results carefully on experimental 
animals, have demolished his claims bit by bit. Oslund of 
the Vanderbilt Medical School showed diat the Steinach 
adherents had been deceived because of the type of experi- 
mental animal used. Since the theory of rejuvenescence is 
based on an overdevelopment of the cells within the sex 
gland that does not actually occur, it can be taken for granted 
that cutting of the ducts with the idea of producing such 
overdevelopment cannot cause rejuvenescence. And the work 
of Oslund has been confirmed by Moore and many others. 

In a recent consideration of the topic of rejuvenation, Dr. 
William T. Belfield demolishes the belief that the sex glands 
are responsible for the development of the secondary sex 
characteristics in two succinct statements: The complete sex 
features of mind and body, including the external sex organs, 
have been found in persons in whom the so-called sex glands 
were absent from birth, as proved by complete postmortem 
examination. Furthermore, all of the sex features of the male 
sex, including the external organs, have been found in per- 
sons in whom the sex glands were absent from birth, but 
who had within the body a complete set of female sex glands. 
There is a great deal of much more technical evidence to 
support the view that the sex glands are not the only tissues 
concerned with establishing maleness or femaleness of any 
individual. Perhaps the best of it developed in experiments 
on hens and roosters, revealing hens possessing the comb and 
wattles and even the feathers of the rooster, yet living a hen’s 
life, laying eggs and hatching them outl But what, you ask, 
has all of this to do with Steinach’s theory of rejuvenation? 

The elderly gentleman who prefers blondes is hardly likely 
to be deterred, by the details of technical experiments on 
mice, rabbits, chickens or dogs. For him, therefore, one 
presents the facts regarding man. For many years the opera- 
tion now called the Steinach rejuvenation operation was 
performed on old men who suffered from enlargement of 

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another organ closely associated with the sexual tissues. This 
gland — the prostate — first received newspaper respectability 
when its enlargement in the case of a noted holder of public 
office gave it great diplomatic importance. But in not one 
of the hundreds of cases of cutting of the ducts reported 
previous to the time of Steinach did any of the meticulous 
surgeons who reported the cases mention any restoration of 
youthful vigor or anything resembling rejuvenation. This 
fact has been called to the attention of Steinach and of all 
his followers again and again in reputable medical publica- 
tions. 

To the proof of the scientific laboratory investigators that 
the Steinach method is founded on fallacy, the Steinach 
adherents and the surgeons who perform the Steinach opera- 
tion reply with the sort of cynical shrug of the shoulders that 
such practical men use in answering laboratory evidence. 
They point with none too reluctant pride to their records of 
cases operated on and to the letters of testimony. Here is a 
simple gesture but hardly the sort of thing one expects from 
a scientist. The same testimonials — in fact much stronger 
ones — can be found for all of the nostrums and contrivances 
that have invaded this fertile field. 

Opposed to the enthusiastic statement of Adolph Lorenz, 
to whom personal newspaper exploitation is no novelty, is 
that of Professor M. Zeissl of Vienna, that the only change 
he noted after his operation was less frequent sex desire 
than previously. There are some records of senile men who 
put upon their degenerated tissues far more of stress than 
they could tolerate. Here the illusion of vigor produced an 
earlier death than might reasonably have occurred without 
the operation and in the absence of illusion. It is in connec- 
tion with this phase of the matter that the feline comes leap- 
ing forth from the enveloping sack in which it has heretofore 
been somewhat cautiously concealed. 

In the earlier publications of the followers of Steinach, 
one finds no mention of any possible mental effects asso- 
ciated with the surgical procedure. But quite recently they 
mutter vaguely concerning the importance of coincident psy- 

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choanalysis. Apparently the patient must believe thoroughly 
that the operation will give him vim, vigor, and vitality, or 
he doesn’t get it. For many years, physicians who have 
specialized in the diseases of the sex organs have emphasized 
again and again the great part played by the mind in con- 
trolling their functions. The records of the surgeons who do 
the Steinach operations are without scientific controls. To 
what extent have they checked their work by cases on whom 
the operation was not done, but who otherwise were put 
through the same procedure? Obviously such controlling of 
cases would be a most elementary and simple procedure, but 
records of such control in the publications of the promoters 
are sadly lacking. 

Indeed, these exponents of surgical art would seem to be 
providing for the future in their claim that the operation 
may be repeated with good effect and a second revival of 
powers bestowed on the waning patient. Here is a biologic 
revolution that bewilders the imagination! The young men, 
handicapped in competition because of lack of experience 
and of the world’s goods, will be compelled to struggle 
against their rejuvenated fathers and grandfathers, while the 
latter, by repeated operations, maintain a permanent lead. 
It’s a sad, sad outlook; but fortunately it isn’t true. 

THE VORONOFF CONCEPTION 

The contention of Voronoff, like that of Steinach, has to 
do with the use of sex gland material for purposes of re- 
juvenation. He does not, however, depend on any change in 
the tissues brought about by tying off ducts. He actually 
transplants the entire glands, and since the human material 
is not easily and generally available, attempts to supply the 
deficiency with glands derived from the anthropoid apes. In 
this instance also a vast amount of experimental evidence 
from the past and from other workers of the present is avail- 
able to disprove the contention that either virility or vigor 
depend primarily on secretion from the sex glands. True, 
there are instances in which there is obvious deficiency of 
the sex glands and in which the transplantation of such 

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material results in conserving useful existence, but the 
records again are not such as will convince any scientific 
reader of the merit of the operation. In the first place there 
is not in any sense of the word actual prolongation of life, 
since none of those on whom the transplants have been done 
seem to live beyond the normal period. In the second place, 
one reads such conclusions as the following: “The pessi- 
mistic attitude of the patient and constant brooding over his 
inability have marred the results of the treatment.” Here, 
again, the part played by the will-to-believe seems para- 
mount. When all of the evidence is assembled and con- 
sidered en masse , it becomes apparent that there is not as 
yet any actual proof that rejuvenation has been accomplished 
in a single individual, or any basis for the belief that it ever 
will be accomplished. There is, on the other hand, much 
evidence that a few surgeons, whose names are seen more 
often in the newspapers than in scientific periodicals, have 
found rejuvenation operations most valuable in their prac- 
tice. Valuable to whom? 

MECHANICAL REJUVENATION 

The astute purveyors of mechanical devices, pills, lotions, 
and systems of physical culture sold by the mail-order plan 
have been quick to realize the wonderful “come-on” possi- 
bilities inherent in the word. The result has been the in- 
terminable repetition of the claim for renewed youth 
achieved through hundreds of substances and appliances. 
The post-office department itself is hardly able to keep pace 
with the new developments in the field, and its fraud orders 
are issued usually after the promoters have reaped a fine 
harvest. 

The senescent man or the youthful individual who finds 
himself suddenly lacking in sexual vigor is a ready prey for 
the exploiters of mechanical devices which are urged because 
of their ability to encourage a physical development that 
seems to be lacking. The average man in this land of unen- 
lightenment regarding the physical constitution has but 
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affairs, either as to physical development or functional 
ability. Indeed, the more he meditates upon the matter, the 
more he is likely to be convinced that he himself is sadly 
lacking in these particulars, the psychology of this view being 
dependent upon a will to achieve rather than on actual 
knowledge. Moreover, the cleverly worded literature — and 
what a sad use of the word this is — of the salesman of various 
devices is calculated to intensify and emphasize this view. 
All of the advertising matter is a paean of praise of sexual 
athleticism, and a weeping and wailing, inspired to make 
still more mournful the sexually despondent male. 

On December 5, 1925, the post-office department issued a 
fraud order against the manufacturers of a device known as 
the “Perfection Developer,” one Walter H. Hartman of 
Columbus, Ohio, selling under the firm name of “Hart & 
Co.” The simple device was merely a cylinder of glass con- 
nected with a pump and designed to induce a vacuum about 
the organs to be developed. The effects persisted only so 
long as the device was in actual use, and if it had any 
permanent effects whatever, they could only be for harm. 

Another device of the same type was sold by one M. von 
Schwartz and William Billings of Ithaca, New York, under 
the name of the “Burt Vacuum Tube.” This firm was de- 
barred from the mails September 1, 1925. And there are 
many, many others! 

These devices are typical of most of the mechanical appli- 
ances offered by mail for men lacking sexual vigor. 
Obviously, they can be of no permanent service. Moreover, 
the psychology of their use is such as to discourage any real 
possibility of improvement through rest, diet, and psycho- 
therapy which long experience has shown are of value. 

GLANDULAR REJUVENATORS 

Public interest in any new medical development is at once 
capitalized by the promoters of nostrums and fallacies. It is 
not surprising, therefore, that increasing interest and knowl- 
edge of the glands of internal secretion should have aroused 

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in the minds of some promoters the possibility of unusual 
and unwarranted gains. 

In March, 1921, the “Youth Gland Chemical Labora- 
tories” was incorporated in Illinois; in February, 1922, the 
name of the corporation was changed to the “Druesen-Kraft 
Chemical Laboratories.” Later, it became known as the 
“Lewis Laboratories.” It was not, however, until March 19, 
1925, that the United States Government closed the mails to 
this concern. In the meantime, it reaped a rich harvest from 
the unwary. The advertising literature of this concern was 
of a style so striking as to have merited some better use. A 
full-page announcement in the newspapers was headed, in 
two inch high, black type, “your glands wear out”; in the 
center of the page, he-men and she-women danced the one 
step in close embrace. And here are the phrases that brought 
the replies: 

It is based entirely on the principle of Feeding Actual 
Gland Substance Direct to the Glands , thereby renewing and 
rejuvenating them. 

This method of giving new life to the glands is advocated 
and endorsed by the leading students of gland therapy 
throughout the world — including Dr. Arnold Lorand who 
is generally conceded to be the greatest living authority on 
this subject. 

The actual method of Treatment used by us is the result 
of exhaustive experiments covering several thousand cases , 
during the past two years. 

The “Lewis” Treatment is Practically Never Failing. 

If You Could Prevent the Wear and Tear on Your Glands 
Caused by Sickness, Age, Disease, etc., You Would Look and 
Feel as Young at yo as at 25. Science However Has Solved 
the Secrets of the Glands and Now for the First Time Shows 
You the True Way to KEEP OR REGAIN Your Vigor by 
Feeding and Replenishing the Most Important Glands! 

Build Up Your Glands and You Build Up Your Strength 
and Endurance. 

The evidence is clear that the firm did exceedingly well 
from a financial point of view. The original price of the 

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treatment was $10, which, on occasion, could be reduced to 
$7.50, and, if the victim still failed to succumb, to a special 
offer of $2.95. The court records in the case showed that the 
firm had spent at least $300,000 in advertising, and that it 
had a gross annual income of between $250,000 and $300,- 
000. Nevertheless, scientific evidence has shown that extracts 
or other preparations of the sex glands are without any 
power whatever when taken by mouth. They not only fail to 
produce rejuvenation of the entire body, but even to stim- 
ulate to any extent the particular portions of the body in 
which the applicant for rejuvenation seems to be especially 
interested. 

Another concern, with headquarters in Denver, issued a 
booklet entitled '‘The Secret of Staying Young.’’ Here were 
the testimonials of elderly men, 82, 83, and 84 years of age, 
who announced that they had lasting benefits from the treat- 
ments offered. These testimonials are just as vociferous and 
emphatic as those of aspirants for youth operated on by the 
disciples of Steinach. The treatments consisted of nothing 
more than dried animal glands, taken by mouth, which, as 
has been said, could not possibly have the effects claimed 
for them. The concern exploiting these desiccated glands, 
the “Vital-O-Gland Company,” not content with depending 
on the mental responses of those who took its preparations 
by mouth, sold at the same time the usual vacuum developer, 
a glass tube attached to a bicycle pump. When the Gov- 
ernment investigated this concern, it found twenty-two girls 
and five men occupied in sending out the literature. The 
evidence revealed that the gross income of the concern for 
1923 was $176,406.82. Rejuvenation paysl 

The Vital-O-Gland Company and the Lewis Laboratories 
have been barred by the Government from the use of mails, 
but there still remain many concerns offering, both to phy- 
sicians and to the public, glandular preparations for rejuven- 
ation or for sexual stimulation. There will always be sene- 
scent, somewhat lewd, and sad, old men to waste the funds 
of their declining years on such powerless pills. The memo- 

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ries of youth become more and more resplendent with the 
passing years. 

The Glandine Laboratories of Chicago and Los Angeles 
issues a circular with the question “Must We Grow Old?” 
and with the answer, “Science Says No.” The treatments 
consist of extracts of the sex glands to be taken by mouth. 
The Glandex Company of New York advertised in the 
public press a combination of gland extracts with iron. The 
International Research Laboratories of Chicago advertised 
“Baker’s Glandol,” with a salacious pamphlet emphasizing 
the rejuvenation of man, and with such headings as “The 
Most Interesting Thing is Love. Don’t Waste Life. Luck 
from Boldness, and Suppressed Desires.” Where is the man 
who could resist the plea? 

The Puritan Laboratories of Nashville, Tennessee, issues 
“Glandtone,” offered with the claim that it will restore 
youthful vigor to those passing with age. The Walton 
Chemical Company of Chicago emphasizes the glands and 
says that a combination of the sex glands, the thyroid, pros- 
tate, pituitary, and adrenal, hermetically sealed, will defer 
old age and renew vitality. What of the impudence and psy- 
chological cleverness of its warning: 

WARNING! 

The country is being flooded with literature from so- 
called “Laboratories ” offering to restore Sex STRENGTH 
in the forms of unsealed “Gland Tablets ” or “Liquids.” 

Such preparations may contain some gland substance , 
but unless the ingredients are SEALED to preserve their 
strength , the potency may be entirely gone in a few days. 

The Walton Treatment INSURES the STRENGTH of 
the INGREDIENTS and thousands have found this method 
SUCCESSFUL even after years and years of previous failure 
with other methods of treatment. 

In fact , fully three out of four who write of their remark- 
able results with this new method , say they had taken many 
other Treatments or methods without relief. 

Bear in mind that there is not an iota of evidence to show 
that any preparations of sex glands, singly or in combina- 

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tion, have ever been shown to have the slightest effect on the 
human body when given by mouth. It was the hope and the 
belief of Brown-Sequard that he had found such a substance. 
Even he thought that the taking of sex glands brought about 
in him a sort of rejuvenation. Yet in the more than fifty years 
since his passing, and since his claims were disproved, the 
public has not learned the truth. 

RADIUM AND LIGHT 

With the coming of the newer discoveries in medicine as 
to the effects on the human body of radium, the x-ray, and 
ultraviolet light, the agile-minded exploiters of the public’s 
interest in keeping young were again quick to respond with 
the preparation and sale of such apparatus and material for 
purposes of rejuvenation. Of course, rejuvenation is not a 
physical state that can easily be determined accurately. The 
old man with declining powers is ready to welcome the 
slightest sign of increasing ability in physical work or in 
sexual power. He forgets to reason that the rest and the 
mental stimulation associated with any new method of treat- 
ment are likely to bring about the illusion of strength. 

The manufacturer of a cabinet lined with incandescent 
lamps, for example, is not content to claim for it the simple 
uses of a sweat bath, or of heat produced by incandescent 
lamps. Ah! No! This simple cabinet becomes as by the wave 
of a magician’s wand, an “Inductive Metabolizing method.” 
And the manufacturer says: 

The Inductive Metabolizing method gives to the 

world one of the greatest, if not the greatest, means of re- 
juvenation of the human organism known to medicine, but 
the part that is most interesting about this modality is that 
of its synergetic action with all the recognized methods of 
rejuvenation now in use — such as gland therapy, radioactive 
drinking water, baths, etc., as the results obtained by their 
use, when accompanied by the Inductive Metabolizing treat 
merits, are increased tenfold. 

One can almost picture him rubbing his hands in glee as he 
murmurs: “Rejuvenation: That’s the word that gets ’em!” 

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The makers of apparatus containing radium or the 
blenders of waters which have been submitted to the rays of 
this wondrous element urge also its potency for rejuvena- 
tion. They point knowingly to the radioactive springs of 
Germany and Switzerland and cite the records of the old 
men who have visited those springs and returned home 
younger in body, if not in years. But they, too, neglect the 
effects of weeks of rest and freedom from care, of good diet 
and salubrious surroundings, and possibly — in fact, prob- 
ably — of enforced inactivity for those portions of the 
anatomy whose physical functioning persists in remaining 
the center of interest when rejuvenation is discussed. 

' ‘the NEW SCIENCE OF RADIENDOCRINOLOGY” 

If radiation rejuvenates — although of course it doesn’t — 
and if glands rejuvenate — and it has been shown that they 
do not — then, say the manufacturers of the Radiendocrin- 
ator, the combination will get the result. Merely ray the 
glands with the Radiendocrinator — price $150 — and you are 
there! The booklets are a hodgepodge of exaggerations, 
fallacies, and confusions regarding chemistry, physics, bi- 
ology, glands, radium, and what not. But the convincing 
document is a blue-colored bonded guarantee of satisfaction 
or money refunded. Couched in language that seems to make 
the chance of financial loss to the unwary impossible, the 
guarantee is nevertheless a snare and a delusion. Launched 
originally by Dr. Herman H. Rubin, New York, as a device 
to be worn at night over the glands and selling at $1,000, 
the apparatus is now a reflector on a stand and can be pur- 
chased for $150. But for pure romance the literature is at 
least ten times as fanciful. 

Quite recently newspapers reported the death of Mr. Eben 
M. Byers, age 51, of Pittsburgh, who had been for some years 
taking regularly a patent medicine containing radium, with 
the understanding that it would bring him back the youth 
that had gone from his aging tissues. Electroscopic tests, the 
history of this case, and the postmortem examination prove 
definitely that Mr. Byers died of poisoning by radium. The 

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preparation which he had been taking was called “radithor” 
and was found in tests made by Dr. Frederick B. Flinn of 
Columbia University to contain two micrograms of radio- 
active material in solution. Water jars lined with carnotite 
or uranium, which are presumed to provide radium drink- 
ing water for purposes of rejuvenation, constitute a potential 
danger because of the possibility of dangerous metallic sub- 
stances being dissolved out into the water. 

Radium emanation is toxic to some extent. The emana- 
tions from a gram of radium bromide will kill mice in two 
days. No one has really proved that radium emanation does 
anything in the way of rejuvenating the aging tissues. Since 
its exact possibilities for harm have not been established, the 
wise old man will let it alone. 

THE HOPE FOR THE FUTURE 

Even the Greek philosophers murmured that physical 
powers in matters of sex did not always parallel brain capac- 
ity. Strange that the sex instinct should be so deeply rooted 
and so prominent in life that two thousand years of experi- 
ence has failed to convince men of the truthfulness of that 
statement. 

Modern science has shown that the early detection of signs 
of disease by physical examination, and the establishment of 
a proper regime of life, including adequate rest, diet, exer- 
cise, simple personal hygiene, and freedom from worry will 
greatly extend the life of the average man. He may quite 
reasonably hope to live to seventy years, and if he is at all 
careful, considerably beyond that age. It behooves him then 
to grow old gracefully, remembering that much of the 
greatest work of this world that has been done in art, letters, 
invention, finance, and statesmanship has been done by men 
well beyond sixty years of age. Their minds were perhaps 
little given to the purely pleasurable functions of the bodies 
which constituted the abode for their restless spirits. 

Yes, indeed, you can give an old man young ideas, but no 
one has ever yet found out how to give him the machinery 
to put those ideas into effect. 

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XVII 


THE PROBLEM OF BIRTH CONTROL 


"Nothing is more dangerous than science without poetry, technical 
progress without emotional content. The proof lies in the hypertrophied 
intellectuality and rationality of our age, and the simultaneous de- 
generation of sentiment to the sub-human level ” — H. St. Chamberlain. 


I n his presidential address before the American Medical 
Association in 1924, Dr. William Allen Pusey considered 
limitation of population, and brought to the support of an 
argument for birth control most of the familiar facts about 
the impossibility of supporting the population of the future 
on the land of the present. “If no effort is made at birth 
control," said Dr. Pusey, “nature will take charge of the 
situation by eliminating those less able to resist." Con- 
tinuing his argument, he cited the contention of the 
economists that those people inherit the earth who multiply 
most rapidly, and that fecundity increases inversely accord- 
ing to the individual’s position in the social scale. It seemed 
to him, as it has seemed to others, that this means the down- 
fall of modern Christian civilization, with the triumph of 
the misery and degradation of Asia. “I particularly desire," 
he concluded, “that the mistaken impression should not go 
out that I mean to say that medicine now has any satisfactory 
program for birth control. It has not." 

In the tomes of the ardent economists, biologists, sociolo- 
gists, and philosophers who favor birth control, the eager 
reader will also search futilely for any practical program. His 
disappointment will not, moreover, depend entirely on the 
fact that our government, either wisely or unwisely, has 

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made unlawful the dissemination of such knowledge as is 
available. The fact is that none of the students of the 
problem, noT^ven the physicians, has ever perfected any j 
rnHHod^^r birth control that is physiologically, psycho- / 
logically, and biologically sound in both principle and prac- I 
t \ re. Not, of course, that devices for the prevention of con- 
ception do not exist; it is well known that they do, and that 
they are easily available to almost any purchaser in any 
drug store in America. Really the police disturb themselves 
much less about violation of the laws on birth contiol than 
about those having to do with liquor or singing. The diffi- 
culty lies primarily in the imperfection of the devices them- 
selves, and in the peculiar psychology of the lower stratum 
of society which the birth control enthusiasts insist must be 
brought to the light, lest its descendants inherit the earth. 

Every practical psychologist knows that such folk are not 
at all interested in the welfare of the United States as it may 
be one hundred years from now. The desire to plan for pos- 
terity — and that posterity not the next succeeding genera- 
tion, but of four generations ahead — connotes a high order 
of intelligence and public spirit. The impulse to sacrifice the i 
pleasure of the moment for the profit of a far removed future 
is within the moral scope, and always will be, of very few ; 
men, and perhaps of an even smaller number of women. [ 

But more important than this lack of altruistic imagination 
is the lack of any sure device for birth control. Of all those 
at present available,, the most ancient and mosF certain of 
all is that of simple continence. The chaste man or woman, 
obviously, never has a child. It is the contention of many 
religious and prudish persons that this continence is the only 
aid to the limitation of offspring that is approved by moral 
law. It is, on the other hand, the belief of most modern 
psychologists, and especially of the Freudians, that absolute 
continence in the presence of continuous temptation, such 
as must inevitably appear in the case of marriage between 
two persons who have for each other a profound affection, 
produces effects on the mental life and the daily behavior 
that are not conducive to a peaceful and healthful existence. 

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Continence is hardly likely, therefore, to appeal to the more 
intelligent members of the community. And it is only by 
the more intelligent members of the community that one 
may expect it to be practiced at all! The visible result of its 
impracticability among less reflective persons is apparent in 
the very fecundity that our socially minded uplifters de- 
plore. Even recognizing the fact that the long and piteous 
documents from working women printed in Mrs. Margaret 
Sanger’s Birth Control Review are especially selected be- 
cause they are long and piteous, they may be considered, 
nevertheless, as evidence that continence does not work 
among the poor. 

BIRTH CONTROL BY CONTINENCE 

As everyone knows, there are short periods in the life of a 
woman, recurring regularly, in which the likelihood of con- 
ception is less than at other times. These are, however, so 
indeterminate, and the modifying factors are so many, that 
those who have attempted to rely on them to limit their 
offspring have been invariably surprised at their failure. 
All the remaining methods now in use are mechanical and 
chemical. Do they work? Recently the best authorities avail- 
able in Great Britain conducted a symposium on the subject. 
It was the general verdict that all were unsatisfactory, 
although a majority agreed that a commonly known device, 
invented some centuries ago by an Italian named Fallopius, 
was better than the rest. The name of Fallopius is attached 
to the Fallopian tubes in women — they conduct the ovum 
from the ovaries to the uterus — and not to tne elastic tube 
here concerned. The percentage of efficiency of the available 
devices varies from ten to somewhere about ninety per cent; 
none of them is perfect. But ninety per cent is not to be dis- 
regarded! Moreover, some of them may produce irritations of 
the tissues and grave consequences, including cancer. Their 
psychological effects are too well known to require dis- 
cussion. 

One of the difficulties of arriving at a satisfactory formula 
for killing any sort of organism within the human body lies 

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in the fact that any solution that is sufficiently strong to kill 
is also sufficiently strong to irritate and destroy the living 
body cells. So with all the chemical substances thus far pro- 
posed for destroying or inhibiting the activity of either the 
ovum of the female or the sperm of the male. Practically all 
such substances are subject to the charge that they are too 
weak to be efficient, or so strong as to be distinctly injurious 
to the tissues, especially if used frequently. On such devices 
there is never any agreement. 

A list of contraceptive methods recently developed by one 
authority includes chemical and mechanical methods, meth- 
ods requiring no apparatus, permanent methods, and physio- 
logic methods. 


CHEMICAL CONTRACEPTIVES 

The chemical methods comprise all sorts of antiseptics, 
such as are commonly advertised in these times in our best 
magazines with the vague allusion to feminine hygiene that 
modern censorship condones. The chemical substances, sup- 
posedly able to destroy the male germ cell, come in the form 
of douches, powders, tablets, suppositories, and jellies, all of 
which are somewhat smeary and subject to the disadvantages 
notoriously attached to chemical manipulations. They re- 
quire, furthermore, immediate application, which has, to 
many a sensitive woman, seemed to be in the nature of a 
nuisance and a trial. Many a psychologist, particularly of the 
Freudian group, who delve so intimately into feminine 
reminiscences, has found the necessity for these postcon- 
tactual ablutions sufficient to bring about psychasthenic, if 
not hysterical, states. 

The mechanical devices include not only the apparatus 
worn by the male and donned at the appropriate moment, 
but also various devices to be used by the female and placed 
in position well in advance of the occasion when she may 
consider them to be necessary. The time of many a clinic for 
teaching such methods is devoted to giving lessons in the 
application of the device as well as to its sale; neverthe- 
less there has been many a failure due to the occlusive de- 

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vice being improperly placed. Some devices placed perma- 
nently within the female generative organ yield obstructions 
and irritations, which, as has been mentioned, are not in- 
frequently associated with the development of cancer. 

All of the methods which depend on will power rather 
than apparatus make demands on the psychological mechan- 
isms to such an extent that their users are found among the 
clientele of specialists in nervous and mental disease. True, 
many a religious cult, such as the Oneida Community, has 
taught its participants technics involving interruption and 
reservation, but these, it must be observed, follow the proce- 
dure as a religious observance and not as a technic for the 
avoidance of progeny. 

Each of the chief advocates of birth control has some 
method which he or she considers the ideal. But the fact 
that Mrs. Sanger, Mrs. Stopes, Miss Rout and Miss Bocker 
do not agree should be sufficient evidence in itself that the 
ideal has not been reached. 

PSYCHOLOGY AND BIRTH CONTROL 

Little is said by such propagandists about the psychologi- 
cal aspect of birth control, but this obviously is a matter of 
the greatest importance. The psychological factor, indeed, is 
largely responsible, not only for the frequent failure of all 
the common devices when applied under even the best of 
conditions, but also for the reluctance to utilize them, im- 
perfect as they are, in the lower ranks of society. It would be 
possible here, if this were a popular, rather than a scientific, 
consideration of the subject, to picture a nocturnal scene be- 
tween a male of the lower stratum, somewhat stimulated by 
alcohol, and the feminine partner of his misery, weary after 
a day at the washtub or scrubbing the halls of an apartment 
house. The mental states of the two, it must be plain, are 
hardly such as to lead them to pause for a consideration of 
their own difficulties, much less of the economic problems 
of the twenty-first century. The stimulated emotions of the 
male, coupled with the fatigued inhibitions of the female, 

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are little likely to encourage a recourse to complex mechan- 
isms in the name of humanity. 

RESEARCH ON CONTRACEPTION 

Medical science is not yet satisfied with the achievements 
of its investigators in this field. Research workers are still 
seeking methods which are scientifically safe and psychologi- 
cally satisfactory. The two technics to which most attention 
is being given at this time involve the use of the X-rays and 
the biologic process involved in the creation of immunity. 

It has been shown that exposure of the ovary in the female 
or of the testis in the male to a sufficient dosage of X-rays 
results in atrophy or deterioration of the tissues, and so 
causes permanent sterility. But the human tissues vary so 
greatly in resistance and the dosage of X-rays sufficient to 
produce the required effect without also producing other 
and much more harmful effects is so difficult to calculate, 
that the method is not as yet practical. 

The other method has been the outgrowth of experi- 
ments by such investigators as Guyer, Dittler, Metchnikoff, 
and McCartney. A proper understanding of it involves a 
knowledge of the biologic mechanism within the human 
body which results in the production of immunity to disease. 

It is known that a person who is infected with certain dis- 
eases develops resistance to future infection with those dis- 
eases by the creation within his body of antagonistic sub- 
stances. In the same way, the injection into the body of 
certain chemical substances causes it to build up a defense 
against them. It therefore occurred to the investigators 
named to find out whether or not the female organism might 
be immunized against the sperm cell of the male. They were 
supported in their belief that it might be so immunized by 
observations which seemed to indicate that the female tended 
in time, under the ordinary process of exposure, to develop 
immunity to the male sperm. It is known, for instance, that ! 
the liability to become pregnant is much greater during 
the early years of marriage than in the later years. It is 
known also that there is little tendency to become preg- 

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j nant among prostitutes, and that this fact is not altogether 
! the result of the chronic venereal infections to which this 
j class is subject. Finally, it was observed that there was a sub- 
I normal tendency to pregnancy in periods following unusu- 
,■ ally frequent exposure. 

The investigators prepared extracts and other preparations 
of the sperm cells of various animals, such as rabbits, albino 
rats, and chickens. These were injected into females and 
careful observations were made to determine whether or not 
they had any effect on fecundity. It was found that a definite 
effect did appear. Female albino rats injected with the sperm 
of the male remained sterile for a period of from two to 
twenty-two weeks beyond the normal gestation time, al- 
though their normal sexual cycle and behavior seemed to be 
in no way altered. These experiments were carefully con- 
trolled by injecting an equal number of rats with salt solu- 
tion or other innocuous material. In 1926, however, R. M. 
Oslund reviewed the subject so far as experiments on rats, 
rabbits, and guinea pigs are concerned and concluded that 
any delay in conception that occurred in these experiments 
was the result of a general disturbance of the body by the 
injection of the substance rather than any specific effect of 
the injected compound on the male and female elements 
concerned in conception. 

The government of Soviet Russia has recognized economic 
distress as an indication for the prevention of conception 
and is sponsoring research leading to the devising of a bio- 
logic method applicable to women. Kastromium and Karta- 
shev of the Perm Institute of Bacteriology in East Soviet 
Russia have done extensive experimentation on rabbits and 
guinea pigs and have reported definite results in preventing 
conception in the injected animals following the injection 
of sperm cells. J. Jarcho, who has cited their experiments, 
repeated the work on rabbits in this country and found that, 
whereas many of the controls became pregnant, none of 
those that were injected conceived, even over a period of 
six months. Much more experimentation is needed, how- 

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ever, before anything definite can be said as to the actual 
merit of this technic even in animals. 

Other Russian investigators have experimented on human 
beings. A summary of their results is given by Babadagly of 
Odessa, whose paper is available through translation into 
Spanish. Babadagly cites experiments with this method on 
human beings by Schorokova, Kolpikof and Lalin. Appar- 
ently more than a hundred women have submitted them- 
selves to such experimentation. Of seventy injected by Lalin, 
five became pregnant during the next five months. In the 
injections made by Kolpikof, sterility lasted from eight to 
ten months. Apparently the injections are harmless, but the 
work done is certainly not sufficient to define either the limi- 
tations or the possibilities. 

G. Lombard Kelly has just made available the results of 
experiments on guinea pigs, made with a view to determin- 
ing the effects of injections of the female sex hormone on 
conception and on pregnancy. It has been shown that the 
female sex hormone is the active agent in producing estrus 
and that injections of this hormone would throw even cas- 
trated animals into heat. In previous studies Kelly had found 
that injections of the serum from pregnant women would 
delay the onset of estrus in guinea pigs, which was inter- 
preted to mean an excess of corpus luteum in the blood of 
the woman during gestation. These observations would seem 
to indicate an antithetic action between the female sex hor- 
mone and the corpus luteum hormone. Experiments by 
Smith indicated that the injection of the female sex hor- 
mone into pregnant white rats would terminate the preg- 
nancy if it had not exceeded five days. Other investigators 
also, using white mice, were able to prevent conception and 
to interrupt pregnancy at any stage with comparatively small 
doses of the sex hormone. In an attempt to confirm these 
observations on guinea pigs, Kelly found that small doses 
of the female sex hormone injected for several days into fe- 
male guinea pigs immediately after exposure would prevent 
conception in all cases in which an adequate dosage was 
used. With a dose ten times as great it was possible to in- 

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terrupt pregnancy in the animal when about two weeks 
pregnant, and with a dose fifteen times as great it was pos- 
sible to terminate gestation after four weeks of pregnancy. 
In guinea pigs pregnant from six to eight weeks, injections 
of dosages from thirty to a hundred times as great brought 
an end to the pregnancy and almost invariably caused the 
death of the mother. Notwithstanding intensive study, it was 
impossible to determine certainly the cause of death. Ap- 
parently the deaths were not due to the injected material 
for the simple reason that dosages six hundred times the 
dose necessary to prevent conception, when injected into 
male or nonpregnant female guinea pigs were apparently not 
incompatible with life or health. Obviously these observa- 
tions have a direct bearing on many factors concerned in 
sterility, the prevention of conception, abortion, and similar 
subjects. No doubt further research will bring to light addi- 
tional results of importance. 

In addition to such investigations as have been mentioned, 
attempts toward the production of sterility have been made 
by L. Haberlandt, who first transplanted into the female 
the ovaries of pregnant animals and who more recently has 
used ovarian extracts given by mouth. Haberlandt is con- 
vinced that preparations can be developed which will have 
the power of preventing conception even when taken by 
mouth. Indeed, German writers are already discussing the 
legal limitations that should be placed on the sale and dis- 
tribution of such preparations. Other experimenters are 
looking into the possibility of producing artificial sterility 
through the limitation of vitamin E in the diet. The work 
cited is an indication of the extensive interest in this subject 
throughout the world and would seem to suggest the like- 
lihood of a successful result some time in the future. 

Obviously, if science is able to develop some such method 
as these, which will permit the production of sterility in 
individuals of the lower stratum with their own consent, 
which will be renewable after a definite period, and which 
will not depend for its effectiveness on any mental or physi- 

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cal action of the persons concerned at the time of sexual 
activity, a feasible method of birth control will have been 
found. But certainly we cannot be said, as yet, to have 
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SOME FOOD FADS 


"Man is a carnivorous production , 

And must have meals, at least one meal a day ; 
He cannot live, like woodcocks, upon suction, 
But, like the shark and tiger, must have prey ; 
Although his anatomical construction 
Bears vegetables, in a grumbling way. 

Your laboring people think beyond all question, 
Beef, veal and mutton better for digestion 
Byron — "Don Juan ” 


O f all the people of the world, Americans are most cursed 
with faddists; of all of the faddists that occupy our at- 
tention the food faddists are most eccentric and most comi- 
cal. We have those who believe that the eating of more white 
bread, more whole wheat bread, more fruit, or more raisins 
is necessary to healthful living. 

We are admonished at every turn to eat more of this or 
of that, or to confine ourselves wholly to some peculiar diet. 
We have those who oppose acids and those who oppose 
alkalis. The vegetarians who attach undue evils to the eat- 
ing of meat base their conclusions on the fact that the apes 
live on nuts, fruits, and cereals. Since most faddists are un- 
scientific anyway, they are certainly inconsistent. The vege- 
tarians say that animals living on a vegetable diet are strong 
and tractable, while the meat-eating animals are ferocious. 
Who, however, would care to argue that the mind of man 
is governed by what he eats? 

Of course, the sufferer from indigestion or the man dis- 
turbed by chronic attacks of inflammation of the gall blad- 
der or of the appendix is likely to be irritable and a gener- 

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ally unsatisfactory cuss to have in your circle of friends. 
Nevertheless, many of our greatest humorists and most effi- 
cient leaders have been men who abused alcohol and tobacco 
and who ,were epicureans at the dining table. There is some- 
thing more to temperament and to brains than the eating 
of steak, oats, or fish. The old proverb, “Tell me what you 
eat and I will tell you what you are,” was more a supersti- 
tion than a scientific fact. 

There is not the slightest scientific evidence to support 
the view that the eating of wholesome quantities of any 
single article of diet such as meat, bread, or any other of the 
fundamental foods is dangerous. 

FASTING FOR HEALTH 

Of all of the peculiar faddists of modern times, the most 
preposterous are those who insist on the fast way to health. 
The fasting road is the way to digestive ruin. The folly of 
fasting was long ago shown by medical scientists, and has 
recently been reiterated by many others. An occasional absti- 
nence from food may be helpful in giving the tissues a rest. 
Prolonged fasting is never necessary and invariably does 
harm. As a result, the intestinal tissues lose their motility, 
and there is a tendency to stagnation all along the intestinal 
tract. As a result of the absence of food, waste products, 
such as bile and mucus, are reabsorbed, and the body is 
likely to suffer to some extent with poisoning from this mat- 
ter. As evidence of the dangers of such fasting, there is con- 
stant increase in toxic substances to be found in the body 
excretions. 

Moreover, the person who is fasting fails to have his regu- 
lar intake of the necessary vitamins. It has been shown that 
the absence of these vitamins from the diet results in seri- 
ous symptoms apart from malnutrition. Hemorrhages from 
the gums, disturbance of the eye, increased liability to infec- 
tion, and wasting of the body are a few of the dangers. 


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FLETCHERIZATION 

More than a quarter of a century ago a man named Horace 
Fletcher found that thorough chewing of the food was an aid 
to digestion and nutrition. Like all faddists, however, he 
was not satisfied with reestablishing a simple fact that had 
been known for centuries, but finally came to believe that 
his chewing reform was the greatest discovery of all times 
and would revolutionize the world. Eventually, Mr. Fletcher 
found that when he chewed thoroughly he ate less than pre- 
viously, and he finally came to the view that but little food 
was necessary and that any food that could not be liquefied 
in the mouth should be avoided. The result of such a pro- 
nouncement was a thorough disturbance of the entire body 
and the development of intoxication and general disability. 
Professor William James, the great psychologist, is quoted 
by John H. Kellogg as saying, “I tried Fletcherism for three 
months. I had to give it up — it nearly killed me.” 

ANCIENT FOOD FADDISTS 

The weakness of following some food fad, as did Professor 
James when he took up Fletcherism, is a peculiar weakness 
that all too many great men have followed. It is a common 
thing to find that a genius has picked up some peculiarity 
and stuck to it, attributing the fact that he kept alive at all 
to his eccentricity of eating. Man likes to doctor himself, 
even if his doctoring is against all maxims of scientific knowl- 
edge or the dictates of common sense. 

Old Emperor Augustus, when he was the greatest monarch 
on earth, took trouble to set down in his writings the fact 
that he invariably munched a crust of dry bread while bounc- 
ing along in his war chariot, seeking new worlds to conquer. 
And the great Seneca, in one of his epistles, sets down that 
he was a dry bread faddist, too, even in his old age, and 
he made his evening meal on a frugal crust, sometimes eat- 
ing without sitting down, believing that it was better to eat 
standing up. 

All the Romans, when Rome was at its greatest glory, 

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made much of the custom of eating only /one meal a day, 
fasting until supper, which was a meal that came some time 
after sunset. And the philosopher Locke, of the seventeenth 
century, shaping his own gastronomic destiny after the man- 
ner of the Romans, was a fanatic for dry bread. 

Herodotus of Halicarnassus, sauntering through Egypt 
2,500 years ago on his original one man Cook’s tour, recorded 
one of the most curious of all the prehistoric fads and follies 
in the history of diet. The Egyptians, wrote Herodotus, spent 
three successive days of every month fasting and taking pur- 
gatives, believing that all poisons in the body were intro- 
duced through foods, and that the three days without food 
were necessary to let the poisons die. 

In this old Egyptian diet scheme, bread played an im- 
portant part, as it did in the diet of all ancient peoples. Of 
late years, the faddists have tried to swing people away from 
bread, and a new order has come in. 

BREAD IN THE DIET 

The romance of bread is a story that has been related 
many times in folklore and in written history. The rhapso- 
dist tells of the farmer going forth at dawn to sow the seed. 
Below the soil the kernel gathers nourishment to repro- 
duce itself a thousand fold. The wheat lifts its stalk to the 
life giving sun and rain. Men and the machines assemble 
for the harvest. Transportation engineers arrange for con- 
veyance of the seed to the mill and carry the flour across 
the world. The housewife in Scotland turns out her scones; 
in France, one sees the long loaves of French bread; in Aus- 
tria, the Vienna loaf; in Poland, the twist, and in our own 
country, the bread “untouched by human hands.” Time and 
again the epic of the wheat and of the soil (for the epic of 
the soil is always the story of wheat) has been the theme 
of novels such as Zola’s Mother Earth, of Knut Hamsun’s 
Growth of the Soil, of Reymont’s The Peasants, of Herbert 
Quick’s magnificent trilogy of Iowa and the Vandermark 
family, and of the great story of Frank Norris, The Pit . The 
story of bread carries one back constantly to the beginnings 

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of things. In preparing the English system of weights and 
measures the pennyweight was represented by thirty-two 
grains of wheat. Indeed, so fundamental was bread to life 
that the term “baker’s dozen’’ arose because of the strict 
laws laid upon bakers in the giving of proper weight, so 
that the careful and law-abiding members of the trade threw 
in an extra loaf to assure the customer that he was receiv- 
ing adequate measure. 

Now there was a time when a loaf of bread in these United 
States was just about as standard an item as a cubist paint- 
ing. In those days a loaf of bread looked like bread and per- 
haps served its purpose satisfactorily as a vehicle for butter 
or jam, but so far as its content, its texture, and its digesti- 
bility were concerned, it was best expressed by the letter x, 
representing the unknown quantity. Indeed, young ladies 
became especially famed for their ability to turn out a speci- 
men that would receive the approbation of the community, 
and many a damsel hung a blue ribbon received at the 
county fair as exhibit A in the parlor to attract prospective 
marital candidates in her direction. Many a pseudohumorist 
waxed wealthy on the jokes he made concerning the prod- 
uct turned out by newlyweds. And since those were the days 
before beauty shops were as plentiful as candy stores, many 
a young lady lacking comeliness qualified for the marriage 
route by her culinary capacity, with special emphasis on 
what she could do with flour rather than with powder. 
Those days, fortunately, are gone forever. Today a loaf of 
bread is as standard an item as the money that purchases it; 
the money must look and feel and weigh the same piece for 
piece; its ingredients must be always the same, and it must 
yield a certain definite value; in the same way the loaf of 
bread must have a definite weight, appearance, texture, and 
taste, and must yield a definite food and body-building 
value. To the physician who has to count on bread as an 
article in the diet of sick and well, it means much to know 
that there is a standard. 


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THE VALUE OF FOOD 

The scientific study of food has followed certain definite 
trends. As early as 1840 it was recognized that proteins, 
fats, carbohydrates, mineral matter, and water were the com- 
ponents of food tissues. Continuously thereafter chemists 
were investigating constituents of food substances, and by 
1895 Atwater and his associates in this country had exam- 
ined and listed the chemical composition of most common 
foods. About this time also it became common to classify 
food substances wholly by their caloric value or the amount 
of energy that they would yield to the body when taken in 
and properly digested. The next two decades added to this 
fundamental knowledge observations concerning those mys- 
terious substances known as the vitamins, so that McCollum 
and Davis were able in 1915 to formulate a theory of ade- 
quate diet. At that time they said that a diet must contain, in 
addition to proteins, carbohydrates, and fats for energy, in- 
organic salts for the building of the body and vitamins A 
and B necessary for proper growth and development. Later 
additional vitamins became known, so that the alphabetical 
category includes A, B, C, and D quite definitely established, 
and possibly vitamin X or E necessary for reproduction. 
When considering the value of any food today, we take into 
account all of these various factors, and, as is obvious to 
almost anyone with a fundamental knowledge of foods, no 
single substance provides all of the elements necessary for 
adequate nutrition. Milk is, no doubt, the most satisfactory 
single article of food consumed by man, but even milk is 
not a complete food when taken over a long period of time 
as the sole source of nutriment. One of the troubles with 
milk is that too much bulk is required to satisfy the body's 
needs. It contains 87 per cent of water and 13 per cent of 
dissolved substances; it happens to be rich in both calcium 
and phosphorus, whereas many vegetable foods are rather 
poor in these elements. Indeed, only the milk of animals 
and the leafy vegetables contain enough calcium to satisfy 
the needs of man. The element calcium is a most important 

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substance, for the human body is sensitive to changes in the 
amount of calcium in the circulating blood. Quite recently 
Collip, coworker with Banting in the discovery of insulin, has 
found that the amount of calcium in the blood may be con- 
trolled by an extract made from the parathyroid glands, 
which lie behind the thyroid gland in the throat. Experi- 
menting with this substance, he has been able to produce 
remarkable changes in the body activity, merely by lowering 
or increasing the amount of calcium in the blood. Milk 
supplies not only calcium, but also certain proteins, fats, 
and vitamins. 

Wheat, and indeed all the cereal grains, seed substances, 
potatoes, roots, and muscle meats lack the constituents that 
are supplied by milk and the leafy vegetables. The human 
being is supposed to be intelligent. It has been alleged that 
the large majority of us are morons and our dietary habits 
may be taken as evidence for the allegation. A moron, I 
may add, lest you take the newspaper definition, is an adult 
whose intellectual development stopped at the age of twelve. 
There is no law of man or of nature that compels the think- 
ing human being to limit himself to milk, wheat, oranges, 
nuts, or anything else in the food category. If he is really 
intelligent he will want to make up his diet of a sufficient 
variety of foods to provide everything necessary for the 
proper development and stability of his tissues. He will 
want to satisfy the esthetics of his appetite and the limita- 
tions of his digestive apparatus. Investigations have shown 
that fresh fruits and certain raw vegetables ought to be in- 
cluded in the diet to provide adequate amounts of vitamin 
C. Scientific studies have shown that the proteins of the 
muscle of the liver and kidney are more valuable as a supple- 
ment to cereals and fats than are the proteins of milk. In- 
deed, it is not even certain that milk provides an adequate 
amount of vitamin B, and it is known that various samples 
of milk differ as to their quantities of vitamins A and C. 
Eggs contain everything necessary for the growth and main- 
tenance of the body but are poor in calcium and unbalanced 
in other food principles. On the other hand, oysters, clams, 

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and crabs contain all of the uncharacterized food substances, 
including iodine and vitamin C. The fact that vitamin E is 
present in fish oil suggests an importance for fish in the 
diet that has not been previously thought of. Vitamin E, 
it must be remembered, is a help to proper reproduction and 
to the avoidance of sterility. Finally, all of the natural, pri- 
mary food substances, such as milk, butter, fish, and what 
not are not themselves standardized, but vary according 
to their place of production and their environment previous 
to use. This hasty review of the elemental values of some of 
the well-known food substances is indicative of the im- 
portance of a varied diet for man. Let us see how bread, as 
one of the fundamental and staple substances of human diet, 
has been gradually modified through scientific education 
and control to develop as nearly as possible a standard, 
highly nutritious, and body-building substance. 

THE VALUE OF BREAD 

As was intimated in opening this discussion, the bread of 
the past epoch had no definite constituents. It was made in 
many instances from flour, salt, yeast, and water alone. In 
other instances, it was made of the whole wheat and there 
were, of course, such modifications as bread made with rye, 
bread made with bran, and bread made with raisins and 
other added constituents. The baker, from the mechanical 
point of view alone, is not particularly desirous of prepar- 
ing any special form of bread. He likes to give his customers 
what they want, and perhaps to approach as nearly as pos- 
sible what dietary experts think they ought to have. No 
doubt, like all other business men, he wants to deal in a 
staple product and not be subject to extensive losses by the 
sudden growth of elemental and unjustifiable fads. 

It was, no doubt, with this desire in mind that the bakers’ 
organization established its Institute of Baking, and it was, 
no doubt, the same principle that urged many bakers of 
large interests to establish their own chemical laboratories 
for the study and standardization of their products. The re- 
sult has been an application of the scientific facts that have 

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been learned relative to modern bread. This application 
caused the supplementing with milk of the bread made from 
white flour, salt, yeast, and water. The addition of milk 
directly to the bread rather than dependence on the house- 
wife to give the milk to the family at the table is well war- 
ranted, because economical and scientifically satisfactory. 
This does not mean to say, however, that the milk added to 
bread is sufficient for all dietary needs; it merely means 
that a bread made with milk is a better and richer bread 
than one made without it. In the same way a bread made 
with raisins or other fruits provides the added constituents 
of those fruits. 

All breads furnish energy according to their composition. 
Modern bread having a scientifically established composition 
is a sensible food. It contains about 45 per cent starch and 
50 per cent total carbohydrates, and its protein content aver- 
ages between 9 and 10 per cent. It provides limited amounts 
of mineral salts, of fats, and of the vitamins, but it should 
be remembered that wheat products provide 42 per cent of 
the carbohydrate consumption of the United States and 26 
per cent of the total calories consumed in all food substances. 
As may well be imagined, a loaf of bread may vary greatly 
according to the quantity and the nature of the constituents 
that go into it. A bread made with white flour, yeast, salt, 
malt extract, sugar, shortening, and water will not have the 
food value of a bread made of the same constituents with 
the addition of the amount of milk required by modern 
baking standards. Our Government permits the title, “Milk 
Bread,” if one-third of the liquid used in making the bread 
is milk. A bread made with five pounds of sweetened, con- 
densed milk per cental of flour contains about one and a 
half ounces of milk to a pound of bread. 

Bread may be made of whole wheat and other elements 
of roughage and of vitamin supply that are lacking in bread 
made from white flour, and it is possible to prepare bread 
with wheat germ added to such an extent as to provide 
twelve times the amount of wheat germ contained in whole 
wheat bread. But such breads are open to certain objections 

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so far as texture and keeping qualities are concerned. The 
physician who is prescribing bread as a part of the patient’s 
diet must know the constituents and character of the bread 
that he prescribes. 

Indeed, the situation today resembles closely the situation 
that existed in the drug industry before the American Medi- 
cal Association appointed its Council on Pharmacy and 
Chemistry, and before the Food and Drugs Act of a little 
more than a decade past helped to clarify the situation. To- 
day, through the Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry, physi- 
cians are provided each year with a book known as “New 
and Nonofficial Remedies,” which gives the analyses, actions, 
and uses of all of the unofficial drug products available to 
the medical profession. At the same time the Council regu- 
larly issues reports concerning such products as are of in- 
definite composition or for which claims may be made that 
are not warranted by the actual constituents of the drug 
preparations. The variety of products offered from time to 
time by baking organizations that seem to be more con- 
cerned with profits than with public health offers opportu- 
nity for similar work in the baking industry to keep both 
the baker and the public informed of the actual basis on 
which exploiting of nostrumlike products is based. The In- 
stitute of Baking has done, and is doing, much in this 
direction. 


BREAD FOR REDUCING 

Not long since a baking organization issued, with exten- 
sive claims, a bread which bore the slogan “The Enemy of 
Fat.” Letters at once began to come to the American Medi- 
cal Association headquarters requesting information con- 
cerning this product and its actual importance as a part of 
the diet of those desiring to reduce. In attempting to reply 
to these questions. The Journal of the American Medical 
Association sought information from the American Institute 
of Baking and from the Westfield Testing and Research 
Laboratories. The information revealed that the bread ad- 
vertised as an “Enemy of Fat” contained from 29 to 33 per 

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cent of starch and a total carbohydrate content of from 36 
to 40 per cent, whereas ordinary bread contained only some 
45 per cent of starch and 50 per cent of total carbohydrates. 
Moreover, the bread for the obese contained 18 per cent of 
protein as compared with 9 or 10 per cent in ordinary 
bread. Clearly, from these analyses, the bread mentioned 
had no special value in a diet for those desiring to reduce. 
Any woman who would eat a smaller amount of ordinary 
white bread or the same amount of ordinary whole wheat 
bread and who would follow the rigid diet recommended in 
each package of the bread with special claims as to value in 
obesity would be able to reduce just as rapidly and at less 
expense. These observations caused the Institute of Baking 
to make the statement that the claims made for weight re- 
ducing breads were misleading and exaggerated. The Jour- 
nal of the American Medical Association supported the Bak- 
ing Institute with all its force of influence and publicity in 
its exposure of this quackery. 

WHOLE WHEAT 

The very fact that wheat and bread are fundamental sub- 
stances in the diet of man has made the exploitation of 
cereal products and of bread an attractive field for the ex- 
ploiter. This, too, has influenced the manufacture of numer- 
ous whole wheat products, for which claims are made that 
go far beyond scientific fact. Indeed, the false and ful- 
some advertising has been so potent that even a circular just 
issued by the Children's Bureau of the United States Gov- 
ernment advises the pregnant woman and the nursing 
mother to limit their diet of bread and cereals to whole 
grain because of the high mineral and vitamin content. 

Let us consider first the manner in which it has been 
endeavored to relate the consumption of white flour to the 
cause of cancer. It is a significant observation in medical 
history that the advancing of numerous and peculiar theories 
is a good indication of the lack of any accurate knowledge as 
to the cause of disease, just as a multiplicity of methods of 
treatment is a reflection of a similar state of affairs. Fortu- 

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nately sufficient is known about cancer to warrant the ad- 
vice that it be treated primarily by early diagnosis and sur- 
gical removal, with possible application of radium or X-ray 
for such purposes as may be accomplished with these meth- 
ods. The world was surprised not long since by the an- 
nouncement of the discovery of a new bacterial organism as 
the cause of cancer. For the past fifteen years the discovery of 
some bacterial organism associated with cancer has been an 
annual event. During that same period hardly a month has 
passed by but what the editor of The Journal of the Ameri- 
can Medical Association has had submitted to him manu- 
scripts advancing new theories as to the cause of this malig- 
nant condition, and not the least among these theories have 
been those associated with dietary fallacies. In England the 
exploiters of this peculiar idea have been such men as the sur- 
geon, Arbuthnot Lane, and the publicist, J. E. Barker. In- 
deed, even Sir Clifford Allbutt before his death was drawn 
into the controversy in the support of whole wheat bread as 
contrasted with that made from white flour. It was Sir Clif- 
ford Allbutt's view that the whole wheat flour was richer, that 
it had a more agreeable flavor than the white loaf, which he 
said was insipid, and that the vitamins are illusive and must 
be sought in the whole grain. Once this view was advanced, 
others came to its support, and medical health officers and 
general practitioners did not hesitate to advance their opin- 
ions. Arbuthnot Lane committed himself some years ago 
to the view that most of the ills of mankind are caused by 
intestinal stasis or constipation. He urged the use of whole 
wheat bread to relieve constipation and he short circuited 
the intestines and removed their kinks as a quick surgical 
road to the relief sought. It was a witty American surgeon 
who commented: “It's a long lane that has no kink." 

As might have been expected, it was not long before the 
British hyperenthusiasm infected the United States. Among 
the first to seize upon this conception for journalistic exploi- 
tation was the organ of that most erudite of automobile 
manufacturers, Mr. Henry Ford. The man, who found diffi- 
culty in distinguishing between Benedict Arnold and Arnold 

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Bennett, did not hesitate, through the periodical that he 
sponsors, to support the view that the eating of white flour 
bread is responsible for cancer. There was about as much 
actual knowledge behind the latter opinion as behind the 
former. There is not an iota of scientific evidence that the 
eating of white bread, or any other kind of bread, will cause 
cancer, and not the slightest reason to believe that the use 
of whole wheat bread will in any way prevent it. 

Before making a definite statement as to the actual value 
of white flour bread as contrasted with whole wheat, it 
should be emphasized again that neither white flour bread 
nor whole wheat bread constitutes a single article in diet for 
any intelligent person. As pointed out by McCollum, there 
are many reasons why the American can eat white flour 
bread satisfactorily. ‘‘White flour,” he says, ‘‘keeps much 
better than whole wheat flour, and so can be handled with 
less commercial hazard. The American public likes white 
flour bread, and I do not see any reason,” he continues, 
‘‘why this taste should be disturbed. The important thing is 
to insist upon the consumption of a sufficient amount of 
what I have termed the protective foods — milk and vege- 
tables of the leafy type — to insure that calcium deficiency, 
and the vitamin deficiency of white bread will be made 
good.” If baking technologic research is able to incorporate 
larger amounts of milk solids in the loaf of bread or other- 
wise to insure a sufficient amount of calcium and the im- 
portant vitamins, even this charge cannot rest against white 
flour bread. 

The supporters of whole wheat as against white flour for 
dietary purposes argue that the human bowel requires a cer- 
tain amount of roughage in order to exercise its functions 
satisfactorily. This point must not be considered without 
reference to the varying conditions that may exist in dif- 
ferent individuals. Dr. W. C. Alvarez of the Hooper Foun- 
dation for Medical Research has vigorously attacked the un- 
guarded and unqualified recommendation of coarse food 
substances. ‘‘Some men and women can be greatly helped 
by bran,” he says, ‘‘and their constipation can be cured if 

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they happen to have the digestion of an ostrich; but if they 
happen to have congenitally defective or handicapped diges- 
tive tracts; if they have ulcers or narrow places, they cannot 
handle the mass of indigestible material, and they promptly 
get into trouble.” Many other dietary substances such as 
celery, lettuce, spinach, and raisins provide roughage. Why 
ask bread to be like Messalina — all things to all men? It is 
for the individual physician, knowing the condition of the 
intestinal tract of the person with whom he is especially 
concerned, to determine whether or not that person ought 
to use breads or other foods that depart from the standard 
product or from the normal diet. For those who do not 
have such special recommendation, the standard white bread 
loaf, that forms the large portion of bread baked in the 
United States today, is the product to be recommended as 
most satisfactory. 

We are a people singularly cursed with faddists. We have 
educational cults, healing cults, religious cults, and heaven 
alone knows how many peculiar promotional systems. We 
have dietary faddists who believe that the eating of more 
white bread, more wheat, more fruit, or more raisins is nec- 
essary to healthful living. The time has arrived for calling a 
halt to the growing procession of slogans that tend to pro- 
mote panaceas for health and well-being. We are admonished 
at every turn to eat more bread, to drink more milk, to buy 
more raisins, to consume more apples, to confine ourselves 
to whole wheat, to try some bran, or to add one or another 
of a dozen different items to our daily regimen. Many per- 
sons have a limited tolerance for a food like raisins, and the 
victim of chronic inflammation of the intestines may hesi- 
tate to secure his iron through a “mixture of sugar and 
skins” as one caustic commentator characterized this con- 
fection. 

The starchy foods — wheat, corn, rice, and potatoes — 
are universal sources of food for the body. Bread, the very 
staff of life, gives that feeling of satisfaction following eating 
that is an important factor in a suitable diet. One should 
not urge the sedentary, the desk-ridden, or any other mus- 

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cularly inactive person to eat more meat or more wheat oi 
to increase his bread supply. Americans today tend more 
and more to suffer with obesity or overweight. It is the 
opinion of those best informed that overweight is one of the 
most important factors in shortening the span of human 
life. Physiologists have established the fact that a meal com- 
posed largely of cereals is passed through the stomach within 
one and a half hours, whereas the inclusion of meat will pro- 
long the time two or three hours. In recommending a diet 
of cereals and starchy foods as compared with meats, fats, 
and cheese, these things must be taken into account by the 
physician. 

The scientific physician welcomes the establishment of a 
standard loaf of bread made according to the best scientific 
evidence as to what is demanded in bread by the taste of 
the public and by our knowledge of nutrition and of the 
mysterious vitamins. Such a product can be included in 
diets both for the sick and for the well with a clear under- 
standing of the effect that it may have on digestion and 
growth. The physician opposes the promotion of any single 
article of diet according to “the all or nothing policy’ ’ as 
the one substance important to health or the control of 
disease. In efforts at education of the public, which the 
modern physician believes is the most important factor in 
lengthening the span of life, faddist notions must be at- 
tacked with all the vigor and influence that the scientific 
pen can command either by purchase of advertising space 
or by the contribution of articles published for the public 
good. The time is near at hand when the compliment given 
by Don Quixote to a knight of his acquaintance may be 
used without fear of attack from any meticulous critic. The 
Don remarked to his squire, Sancho Panza: “He is as good 
as good bread.” Man does not live, however, on bread alone. 
The important thing is the consumption of a sufficient 
amount of all good substances to insure that the deficiency 
of minerals and of vitamins, and of other important con- 
stituents is fully supplied. 

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DANGEROUS FOOD COMBINATIONS 

The most recent idea exploited commercially by food fad- 
dists is the dangerous food combination theory. Recently 
Dr. Agnes Fay Morgan, chairman of the department of 
household science in the University of California, discussed 
this subject. The food faddists claim that some combinations 
are deficient because they leave out important substances; 
but most frequently they claim that combinations of acid 
foods such as fruits, along with starches such as bread and 
potatoes, are unwise because the acid will prevent the diges- 
tion of the starch. Such a statement can only come from com- 
plete ignorance of the process of digestion. Actually there 
are digestive ferments for starches released far down in the 
intestines. 

The same faddists will claim that proteins and starchy 
food must not be eaten together, notwithstanding the fact 
that at least five generations of Americans have been reared 
on a diet consisting mainly of meat and potatoes. Faddists 
claim that milk and fruit acids must not be eaten together, 
because the acids curdle the milk. Who would care to give 
up strawberries or raspberries and cream? One need not do 
sol Just as soon as the milk reaches the stomach it comes 
into contact with a secretion that is largely acid. Many physi- 
cians who take care of babies advise the addition of acid to 
the milk fed to the infants because they believe that it helps 
their digestion. 

There is no more evidence that excessive alkalinity is 
desirable for the human body than excessive acidity. Physiol- 
ogists have learned to appreciate the fact that the tissues 
have a certain normal acidity and alkalinity and that the 
patient is best served by maintaining the normal under most 
conditions. The human body is provided with factors of 
safety in its functioning and tends to adjust itself. Food 
faddists constantly strive to break down the normal borders. 


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THE VEGETARIANS 

The vegetarians believe that meat is a dangerous poison, 
that it creates rheumatism and gout, that meat is dangerous 
because it is full of germs. They reason wholly by analogy, 
claiming that the eating of meat makes a person savage. All 
of us know better than that. A friend of mine sat opposite 
a vegetarian in a restaurant. My friend was a great lover of 
steaks and ordered a large one. A fanatic in the health field 
likes to tell everybody else about his particular notions. The 
cold bath fanatic comes into his office, or his schoolroom, 
or any other place, and announces to the world that he had 
his cold bath that morning. Perhaps it was necessary for 
him to break the ice to get that cold bath, and if he has to 
break the ice it makes it all the more important. The cold 
bath fanatic believes that to take a cold bath in the morn- 
ing is the perfect road to health. He wonders audibly why 
you are such a weakling that you do not take a cold bath. 
Your only pleasure comes when he comes down with pneu- 
monia and you can say, “I told you so.” 

The vegetarian fanatic is of the same type. This vegetarian 
looked over at my friend as he began to masticate his ten- 
derloin steak, and he said, ”1 never eat meat.” He said that 
”1 never eat meat” as though he was flinging the flag of de- 
fiance in my friend’s face. “And beside,” he continued, “I’m 
an antivivisectionist. I never harm a lower animal.” 

My friend said, “You may not eat meat, brother, but you 
are going to feel like hell when you hear that you just ate 
a big caterpillar with that lettuce you’re working on.” 

Just why anyone becomes a vegetarian has never been 
certainly established. In some instances it seems to be merely 
a desire to be different from the majority. On the other 
hand, some people are so sensitive regarding the sight of 
flesh or blood that they simply cannot eat meat because they 
see it exposed in the butcher shop. Other vegetarians are 
actually so concerned about pain caused to the lower ani- 
mals that they avoid animal food for that reason. Vegetarians 

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eat milk, eggs, and cheese which, of course, are animal prod- 
ucts as much as the flesh of the animal. 

Dr. Adolphe Abrahams of the Westminster Hospital in 
London points out that the intestinal tract of man is in- 
capable of manipulating a sufficient amount of vegetable 
material to insure receipt of the caloric value needed for 
good health. If, however, cheese, eggs, and milk are in- 
cluded, the minimum amount can be had. On the other 
hand, there is plenty of evidence that meat protein is supe- 
rior for tissue building to vegetable protein, regardless of 
caloric value. An occasional vegetarian distinguishes himself 
as an athlete or strong man. This does not prove that every- 
one who is a vegetarian will be an athlete nor does it indi- 
cate in the slightest that other athletes will do well on a 
similar diet. 

There are plenty of notions regarding the training of 
athletes that have never been established scientifically. One 
recent writer on athletics has suggested that long distance 
runners eat such things as will give power of endurance and 
increased nerve force, and that hammer throwers take food 
and liquids which would make flesh and bone. Such state- 
ments are absurd; there are no such foods with such specific 
qualities. In the older days of the time of John L. Sullivan, 
athletes never kept in training, but immediately after a 
match dropped all restrictions and took vast quantities of 
beer and meats and put on weight. It, therefore, became 
necessary for them on going into training to adopt the most 
rigid of diets. This brought about the notion that certain 
foods were not suitable for athletes. 

The argument has been made that the modern sophisti- 
cated diet of man leads to gastric ulcer, cancer, Bright’s 
disease, and similar disturbances. Recently a study was made 
of two native tribes — the Kikiyu and the Masai. The Kikiyu 
live entirely on vegetables; the Masai eat meat, blood, and 
milk. Neither of these savage tribes averages the European 
height, but the average height of the meat eater is five inches 
more than that of the vegetable eaters, and their strength 
is 50 per cent greater. It was found, furthermore, that gas- 

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trie ulcer, rickets, and practically every disease, except in- 
testinal obstruction, was more frequent among the vegetable 
eaters than among the meat eating tribe. 

There is another reason why people who eat a balanced 
diet are really the normal people! They are happy. The 
average man who lives on a one-track system is not usually 
happy. He is constantly distressed with an interior craving. 
A person whose mind is on his appetite is not a pleasant 
person to meet. The really pleasant people are the people 
who have just finished a good dinner, and who have all the 
happy feelings that come with a good meal. 

EAT MORE CAMPAIGNS 

The “eat more campaigns” are of the greatest interest 
to all of us because they represent the spread in the field of 
nutrition of what is known as propaganda or advertising. 
American opinion today is made largely by advertising. 
More people read advertising than read anything else. The 
advertising writers are paid higher rates than are paid to 
the finest writers of literature. The advertising artists are 
paid higher rates than are paid to the artists who draw the 
finest landscapes or pictures. The greatest incomes given in 
this country today are given to people who have the power 
to convince other people of the value of certain articles. 
Advertising has come into the scientific field of nutrition, 
and people are taught by advertising to eat for health rea- 
sons. 

The advertiser recognized, even before the National Edu- 
cation Association, the fact that people are primarily inter- 
ested in health. Without health there can be no happiness. 
Without health there can be no financial success. Health is 
fundamental to everything that is important in life. 

The first “eat more campaign” was the campaign to eat 
more raisins. Now there are various uses for raisins — as has 
become widely known since the coming of prohibition. The 
advertiser, who was selling raisins on the basis of the health 
appeal, made his appeal on the ground that raisins give 
iron. A certain amount of iron is necessary in the human 

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system, but the amount of iron that is necessary for the 
average man in health is not a great deal. 

It has been shown at the University of Rochester in New 
York by experiments on animals that the amount of iron 
needed by the average man in order to take care of his regu- 
lar iron interchange each day is a few milligrams per day. 
That is not a great deal of iron. That would be about as 
much iron as one could get by sucking hard on a rusty nail. 

People began buying little packages of raisins and eating 
two or three or four packages of raisins per day. They filled 
their interiors with seeds and stems and peel and began 
developing irritations of the stomach and intestinal tract. 
The “eat more raisins campaign” gradually disappeared. 
Then came the campaigns to eat more pineapples, more 
oranges, more this, more that, and more of everything. 

THE VITAMINS 

The wise man of today eats a widely varied diet. He recog- 
nizes that there are all sorts of food substances which go to 
make up a balanced diet. He recognizes that one has to eat 
certain quantities of proteins of various types, carbohydrates, 
and fats, mineral salts, a certain amount of cellulose to rep- 
resent the ash, and the roughage that is necessary in the 
diet. He recognizes the importance of the mineral salts, 
such as iodine, calcium, phosphorus, and iron, and he recog- 
nizes the necessity for the vitamins — A, B, C, D, E, and as 
far up as you can go with actual knowledge. 

A teacher asked a little boy one time to write an essay. 
He was a little doubtful what to write about. She said, “Just 
write what is in you.” He gave it a great deal of thought and 
finally he wrote, “In me there is an all-day sucker, my cereal, 
stomach, liver, and lungs, and the bowels, which are a, e, i, 
o, and u, and sometimes y and w.” Most people know just 
about that much concerning the vitamins. 

We must consider the vitamin, not only in its relation to 
complete deprivation, but also as to the value of small 
amounts in all diets. We know if a child or an animal, such 
as a white rat, is deprived completely of vitamin A, that 

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animal will develop xerophthalmia, and be easily infected 
with respiratory disease and other types of infection. If de- 
prived of vitamin B, its appetite and digestion suffer. If 
you deprive it of vitamin C, it is likely to get scurvy. If you 
deprive it of vitamin D, it develops rickets, and if you de- 
prive it of vitamin E, it will lose the power of reproduction. 

Those are the end results of the deprivation of vitamins, 
but we have not yet come to the point where we actually 
know the results of vitamin deficiency in small amounts — 
of relative vitamin deficiency. This must concern the stu- 
dents of the science of nutrition for the near future — the 
question of what happens when a person is deprived of rela- 
tively large amounts of the vitamins, but still gets some. We 
are going to find that when we apply all of the knowledge 
that we now have on nutrition we are going to be able to 
make a better type of human being than exists upon the 
world today. 


DRUGS AND FOOD IN MEDICINE 

The evolution of therapeutics constitutes one of the most 
interesting chapters in the history of medicine. The magi- 
cal formulas and the therapy based on analogy, which were 
the basis of medical treatment before the time of Hippoc- 
rates, gave way to the intelligent use of physical therapy and 
the treatment based on scientific observation, which were 
the distinguishing characteristics of the Hippocratic school. 
The didacticism of Galen, which dominated medicine for 
some eight hundred years, must be considered the basis of 
the therapy by fixed formulas and shotgun prescriptions, 
which yielded only with the advent of scientific pharmacol- 
ogy and with the development of the work of the Council 
on Pharmacy and Chemistry of the American Medical As- 
sociation. 

Although not completely successful, the efforts of this 
Council have made a distinct impression on American ther- 
apy, and the results of its work will be even more apparent 
in a coming generation than they are today. It must be 
borne in mind that the work of the Council on Pharmacy 

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and Chemistry began coincidentally with the work of the 
Council on Medical Education and Hospitals. The gradu- 
ates of the 170 medical colleges, which have been reduced 
to the 70 class A schools of today, still practice among us. 
These graduates constitute the group to whom some fifty 
manufacturers of fixed formulas and unscientific prepara- 
tions appeal. 

The development of our scientific knowledge of foods is 
much more recent than such knowledge as we possess con- 
cerning the actions of drugs. All of us can remember when 
the only reason foods were taken was their caloric value. 
We can remember the period when it was first realized that 
foods contain proteins, carbohydrates, fats, and mineral 
salts. We can remember the time when it began to be real- 
ized that there was more than one kind of protein. We can 
remember particularly the first announcements of the dis- 
covery of vitamins and the subsequent exploitation of this 
knowledge. Whenever a new discovery is made in the field 
of science, commercial exploiters are ready to adapt that 
discovery for their personal gain. The furor associated with 
the discovery of the vitamins has made the word itself one 
with which to conjure. The spring tonic of the past contain- 
ing sulphur and molasses, the iron, quinine, and strychnine 
which has been for years the staple tonic of the dispensaries, 
and even such patent medicine tonics as depended primarily 
on old John Barleycorn for the impetus which they gave to 
a sluggish circulation and a lassitudinous mind have given 
way to the vitamin tonic and the health food. 

Notwithstanding the lack of exact information on which 
to make definite claims for various natural as well as syn- 
thetic food products, both the medical profession and the 
public have been deluged with screaming announcements 
concerning the health-giving qualities of such preparations. 
Foods are sold as health foods, as tonic foods, and as vitaliz- 
ing foods. This was the situation that caused the Council on 
Pharmacy and Chemistry to ask of the Board of Trustees 
the permission to appoint a Committee on Foods, which 
should serve in relationship to food products in the same 

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way that the Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry concerned 
itself with drug products. The personnel of the committee 
as first established included representatives in the fields of 
internal medicine, pediatrics, and biochemistry. The work 
has been strenuous, indeed so time-consuming and difficult 
as to cast a severe burden on those who have given of them- 
selves for the benefit of the public. From time to time some 
of those originally on the Committee have been compelled 
to resign, but their places have been taken by others who 
have carried on continuously for almost two years. 

One of the significant requirements of the Committee 
on Foods is to demand that any food product comply with 
the requirements of the Food and Drug Administration and 
of state regulating bodies concerned with foods. All of these 
have given to the Committee the highest type of cooperation 
in questions which have arisen and have thus made far 
simpler the work of both the Committee and the manufac- 
turers who cooperate. 

Every one is familiar with the great rise in the use of 
chocolate drinks and cocoa. Malted milk has become the 
staple luncheon of innumerable workers. The claims made 
for certain glorified malted milks indicate that their man- 
agers conceive them to be panaceas for mankind. For years, 
tea and coffee have been forbidden to children on the 
grounds that the caffeine which they contain would over- 
stimulate the child and that such drinks tended to take the 
place of milk and of more nutritious beverages in the child’s 
diet. There has been a well defined impression that choco- 
late and cocoa should not be forbidden to children, notwith- 
standing the fact that these also contain theobromine. One 
of the general decisions adopted by the Committee says: 

No special health claims for chocolate (plain chocolate, 
bitter chocolate, chocolate liquor, or chocolate paste) , cocoa 
or products consisting in considerable part of chocolate or 
cocoa are permissible for children. No objection may be 
taken to health claims for foods merely chocolate flavored 
and which as consumed in probable maximum quantity are 
free from any probable caffeine or theobromine effect, pro - 

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vided that health claims are permissible for the basic foods 
themselves . 

Gelatin as a dessert and as a food substance for the invalid 
has attained wide vogue in recent years. It has been repeat- 
edly urged that milk fed to the infant can be made more 
digestible by the addition of gelatin. A careful review of 
the available evidence caused the Committee to adopt the 
decision that gelatin cannot be considered an aid to the 
digestibility of milk or milk products. 

It has been taken for granted by many physicians, as well 
as by the public, that one tomato juice was like another 
and that there was little, if any, choice among such prod- 
ucts. However, investigation of the methods of preparation 
of tomato juices indicated that some of the methods were 
much more destructive of the vitamin content than others. 
Hence the Committee adopted the decision that an accepted 
canned tomato juice must have a vitamin content practically 
equivalent to that of the raw tomato juice used, excepting 
that juice with materially reduced vitamin content may be 
accepted if the label and advertising plainly declare the 
tested potency as compared with that of the raw juice. 

Another type of product that has had great vogue in re- 
cent years has been strained vegetables especially recom- 
mended for infants, children, convalescents, and special 
diets. The reason for this recommendation is the fact that 
the fiber of the vegetable is comminuted by the process, 
and in that way it is more easily handled by the digestive 
tract. Here again the Committee was concerned not only 
with the question of the vitamin content but also with the 
question as to whether or not the prepared product was as 
rich in mineral salts as the original vegetables. On these 
questions, the Committee has adopted several general deci- 
sions: 

An accepted canned , strained, or sieved vegetable spe- 
cially prepared for infants, children, convalescents, and spe- 
cial diets shall have a vitamin content practically equivalent 
to that of the raw vegetable or vegetables used or in so far 

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as is possible to obtain by the most modern and efficient 
manufacturing methods for the protection of vitamins , ex - 
cepting that such special vegetable products with materially 
impaired vitamin content may be accepted , however , only 
on proper and prominent declaration on the label and in 
advertising of the experimentally determined vitamin con- 
tent relative to that of the raw material used . 

An accepted canned , strained, or sieved vegetable espe- 
cially prepared for infants, children, convalescents and special 
diets shall have a mineral content practically equivalent to 
that of the raw vegetable or vegetables used or in so far as 
is possible to obtain by the most modern and efficient 
manufacturing methods excepting that those products with 
materially reduced mineral content may be accepted, how- 
ever, only on proper and prominent declaration on the label 
and in advertising of the experimentally determined mineral 
content as compared to that of the raw material used. 

In considering canned, strained, or sieved fruits for in- 
fants, it was found that fruits are commonly bleached with 
sulphur dioxide. The question of possible harmfulness of 
this procedure was carefully considered. The Committee 
ruled: 

No objection will be taken to the presence of small quan- 
tities of added sulphur dioxide in vegetable or fruit products 
especially prepared for infants. 

For several years the public has been besieged with the 
claims made for products containing various amounts of 
bran and cellulose. It has been argued that such foods are 
healthful in that they overcome constipation and relieve 
the associated symptoms. On the other hand, competent 
gastroenterologists are convinced that too much roughage in 
the diet will irritate the gastro-intestinal tract, and that its 
use may be exceedingly harmful in cases of ulcer of the stom- 
ach or duodenum and in cases of colitis. 

The introduction of processes of irradiation of various 
cereals has also been given serious consideration by the Com- 
mittee. The exact dosages of vitamins or of irradiated ergos- 
terol necessary for health in the normal adult or in the child 

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have not been established. Fortunately, it is well known 
that there is a considerable factor of safety and that the 
toxic dose is hundreds or even thousands of times beyond 
the necessary dosage of such substance. The irradiation of 
foods has been advanced as a special quality to increase their 
sale and use. It has been suggested that the amount of vita- 
min D developed in some irradiated cereals is so slight that 
an infant would be required to eat four pounds of cereal 
daily to get the equivalent of a normal dosage of cod liver 
oil. In passing on irradiated foods, the Committee has urged 
that manufacturers place on the package statements of equi- 
valents to cod liver oil in vitamin D, to carrots in vitamin 
A, to orange juice in vitamin C, and to yeast in vitamin B, 
so that the purchaser or the physician who prescribes the 
foods may have a more adequate conception of what is be- 
ing supplied. 

The Committee has deprecated the irradiation of milk on 
the grounds that this basic food substance might best be 
undisturbed. On the other hand, it has recently passed an 
irradiated bread, since this stable substance in the diet has 
been attacked as being deficient in many essential substances. 

It is realized, of course, that the knowledge concerning 
vitamins, as well as the application of this knowledge itself 
to daily life, is in an exceedingly early experimental stage. 
Fortunately, the possibility of harm attached to the con- 
sumption of such products is not nearly so great as would 
be the misguided use of therapeutic medicaments. 

The American people are given to all or nothing policies 
in what they do for health. If they are told that the con- 
sumption of a certain amount of orange juice is healthful 
because it provides vitamin C and tends to overcome aci- 
dosis, they are likely to drink so much orange juice as to 
upset the digestion and to make impossible the taking of 
additional necessary good substances. If they are told that 
vitamins are healthful, they buy anything for which a vita- 
min claim may be made. It must be realized that the human 
being can take not more than 6,000 calories a day, that the 
average man eats 4,000, and that probably 3,000 are suffi- 

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cient. These must include all the necessary food substances, 
and it is safe to say that the essentials will be taken in the 
vast majority of cases by any one who eats a well balanced 
diet, including meats, fruits, cereals, vegetables, milk, and 
eggs. 

The diction of the advertiser of food is purposefully ex- 
travagant in order that he may the better influence the group 
to which he is appealing. The purpose of the Committee on 
Foods is to have the labels of food products clear as to the 
nature of the product advertised and its composition. The 
Committee refuses to accept any product that is advertised as 
a health food or as a tonic food. It deprecates the claim of 
sterility, unless the terms “sterile” and “sterilized,” as ap- 
plied to foods, are used with their strict scientific significance 
and implication only. 

The Committee on Foods was created to prevent or dis- 
courage unwarranted, incorrect or false advertising claims 
in the promotion of food products and thus to protect the 
public and the medical profession against deception by un- 
truthful or fraudulent health, nutritional, or other advertis- 
ing claims for food. It is recognized that the advertising of 
foods is a regular practice of food merchandising and that 
truthful food advertising is attractive to the public. It pro- 
vides them with statements concerning food values and 
proper nutrition, and aids in the dissemination of much 
helpful information. Incorrect or fraudulent food adver- 
tising, on the other hand, in proportion to its degree of in- 
correctness and falsity, is capable of working harm in mat- 
ters of health. 


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"Pure water is the best of drinks 
The temperance poet sings 
But who am 1 that l should have 
The very best of things ? 

Let dukes go freely to the pump 
Let princes sip their tea 
Whisky or beer or even wine 
Is good enough for me” 

— Anon. 


T he human being can live around forty days without food, 
around four days without water, and around five or six 
minutes without air. Water is thus the second most im- 
portant substance taken into the human body. Moreover, 
one-half of every solid food taken into the body is water. 
The necessity for water lies in the fact that it enters into 
every chemical reaction that takes place in the human body, 
that it is of importance in regulating the temperature of the 
body and, indeed, that 100 pounds out of the body weight of 
an average adult human being is water. 

The extent to which water is utilized is obvious from the 
fact that the body gets rid of at least an ounce of water 
every hour without any realization of the fact that the water 
is disappearing, this loss taking place in the way of insen- 
sible perspiration. The total amount of water lost through 
insensible perspiration is about a pint and a half a day. In 
times when the human being is subjected to considerable 
heat, such as occurs in a ride in an open car under the Cali- 
fornia sun, as much as 10 quarts of water may be taken into 
the body and evaporated from it in a few hours. 

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It is not surprising, then, that thirst should constitute one 
of the most fundamental of human sensations and that its 
relief should be a major desire associated with the three 
other fundamental desires of mankind, the satisfaction of 
the sense of hunger, the satisfaction of the desire for propa- 
gation, and the selection of a spiritual belief as a prop on 
which to lean in times of doubt. 

Throughout the world men vary in the manner in which 
they assuage their cravings for fluids. The popularity of 
beer in England, of wine in Italy and France, and of certain 
beers and wines in Germany and Austria is proverbial. For 
those who prefer their beverages without too much added 
stimulation there remain tea and coffee. 

COFFEE 

The American has a consumption of coffee approximating 
12 pounds per capita annually as contrasted with less than 
one pound for the Englishman, whereas the Englishman’s 
consumption of tea is in inverse ratio to the coffee require- 
ment. Milk, long considered the most important individual 
food substance, is universally used, but seldom does the par- 
taker realize that it is approximately 90 per cent water. 

Other beverages temporarily replace in popularity those 
that have been mentioned. When William Jennings Bryan 
became the standard bearer for grape juice, the manufac- 
turers of that beverage profited amazingly. Buttermilk, time 
and again, has put forth a spurt, but fairly soon its appeal 
to the appetite lags, and some other fluid concoction comes 
to the front. 

In the southern portions of the United States vast amounts 
of flavored syrups mixed with carbonated water are imbibed. 
Such drinks as Coca Cola are dependent for such stimulation 
as they develop on a small content of caffeine, the active 
ingredient of coffee. 

In the more northern portions of the United States, the 
soda fountains do a thriving business in malted concoctions 

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of sugary taste which cloy the appetite and thus save the 
hard earned shekels of the stenographers, permitting them 
to purchase cosmetics instead of food. 

The popularity of any beverage may be built up by a 
sufficient amount of money spent in advertising with a suit- 
able psychological appeal. 

MALTED AND CHOCOLATE DRINKS 

Conspicuous among American beverages are food drinks 
claimed to control nervous breakdowns, to induce prompt 
sleep, to relieve stomach disorders and feeble digestion, to 
restore the tired worker, and to act specifically as nerve 
foods. These mixtures are essentially concentrated extracts 
of malted milk and eggs flavored with cocoa or chocolate. 
Thousands of Uncle Sam’s citizenry still believe that certain 
substances taken into the stomach go directly to certain 
organs, giving them nourishment and stimulating them to 
the height of activity. 

The strange notion that any substance taken into the stom- 
ach will be selected by the blood and carried directly to the 
nerves or the brain and thereby induce alertness, intelli- 
gence, and extraordinary mental perspicacity is completely 
fantastic. The claims that a mixture of milk, malt, eggs, and 
cocoa will induce prompt, natural sleep in severe cases of 
insomnia is merely taking advantage of the power of sugges- 
tion and of a lack of physiological knowledge in the group 
to whom the appeal is made. 

Doctors know that any warm drink taken at night will 
help to assuage restlessness. Indeed, application of the warm 
fluid to the outside of the body in the form of a warm bath 
is probably preferable to the effects of warmths derived by 
taking the fluid internally. Such an effect is all that can be 
expected of such mixtures. 

The Food and Drug Administration of the United States 
Department of Agriculture has issued certain definitions 
which should be more widely known to those who indulge 
in beverages of various types — and who does not? 

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GINGER ALE AND CARBONATED WATERS 

The most common dilutent of more potent beverages is 
ginger ale and mineral waters. Ginger ale is a carbonated 
beverage prepared from ginger ale flavor, harmless organic 
acid, potable waters and a syrup containing sugar, invert 
sugar or dextrose, with or without the addition of caramel 
flavor. 

Carbonated waters are merely effervescent drinks prepared 
by charging ordinary water with carbon dioxide. Sometimes 
the carbonated waters are made from natural mineral waters 
obtained from various springs and containing, therefore, 
varying but small amounts of calcium, sulphur, phosphorus, 
iron, magnesium, and other mineral salts. 

Root beers were formerly brewed from sweetened infu- 
sions of various roots and herbs, the gas being formed by 
true fermentation processes. Nowadays, such drinks are 
manufactured by processes which involve mixing of the 
herbs and subsequent carbonation. 

One of the most popular root beers includes caramel, 
sassafras, sarsaparilla, licorice and ginger roots, birch bark, 
hops, spikenard and pipsissewa herbs, vanilla beans, and 
wintergreen leaves. These materials are ground in a mill, 
the ground product extracted with boiling water under pres- 
sure, caramel added, and the mixture bottled from auto- 
matic filling machines. These ingredients are utterly with- 
out medicinal value, notwithstanding the fact that for years 
sarsaparilla was a popular spring tonic. 

SODA WATER 

The soda waters flavored with fruit syrups are merely car- 
bonated beverages prepared with flavors consisting of fruit 
juices and sugar, sterilized by heating and put up in bottles, 
sometimes sweetened with glucose, sometimes colored with 
artificial dyes and preserved with antiseptics. 

Not infrequently citric or tartaric acid is added to real 
fruit syrups to bring out the flavor, and to imitation fruit 
syrups in order to help them to imitate the desired product. 

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In more recent years orange juice and grapefruit juice 
have supplemented the juice of the lemon and of the lime 
in providing citrus fruit drinks. The chief advantages of 
citrus fruits are their content of vitamin C, the antiscurvy 
vitamin, and their tendency toward an ultimate alkaline re- 
action in the body. 

Such an alkaline reaction is, of course, provided by any 
carbonated beverage. There is not, however, in any of the 
citrus fruits any miraculous principle that will yield eternal 
youth or that will quite certainly prevent the occurrence of 
the common cold. 

Food fanatics, nevertheless, swill vast amounts of orange 
juice or products prepared from mixtures of the pulp and 
of the peel, in the belief that they are thereby building 
themselves up physically, since many of them have already 
broken down mentally. The orange juice combined with gin 
in various mixtures is employed wholly as a flavor and those 
who take it in this form are not concerned with vitamins. 

Apparently the human body must have its fluids. The 
manner in which it gets the fluid is, after all, of little im- 
portance. If grape juice, malted milks, or root beer appeal 
to the appetite, there is no reason why water should not be 
taken in this manner, provided the sweet character of the 
beverage is not such as to ruin one’s desire for necessary 
foods and deprive the body of nourishment. 

If the pleasant tingle of ginger ale or carbonated water 
appeals to the palate, one may indulge in these beverages 
to the complete assuagement of thirst without fear of harm- 
ful consequence, and with a subsequent reaction limited 
quite definitely by the amounts of more potent preparations 
with which these basic products have been modified. 

ALCOHOLIC DRINKS 

And it has not yet been proved that the taking of lightly 
alcoholic beverages, in moderation, in any way shortens 
human life. However, the value of alcoholic drinks in the 
prevention of coughs, colds, influenza, and the like has prob- 
ably been overestimated. Whisky may relieve a patient from 

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pain and depression; but it will not prevent pneumonia, 
and according to some medical authorities, it will even make 
the likelihood of pneumonia greater. Statistics fail to show 
that it has cut down the influenza death rate appreciably. 

In 1925, Dr. Roger I. Lee read before the annual session 
of the American Medical Association his views as to the use 
of alcohol in medical practice. He pointed out that unques- 
tionably the form of alcohol given has a distinct effect on 
the organs of taste and smell, and the form and dilution 
have a definite effect on the ease with which the drug is 
tolerated by the stomach. The great vogue of alcohol in the 
past was for the treatment of acute infections. It was no- 
ticed, for instance, that in such infections large amounts 
of alcohol could be tolerated without alcoholic intoxication, 
that the drug acted as a food tending to spare the tissues 
of the body, and that it possibly facilitated the retention of 
fluids in the body, a matter of great importance in fevers, in 
which the loss of water is great and serious. 

Without regard to these factors, however, Dr. Lee finds a 
certain definite use for alcohol or for alcoholic liquors in 
the treatment of disease. “The usual immediate effect of 
alcohol in human beings,” he says, “is the creation of the 
state of artificial euphoria.” 

The conspicuous example cited by Dr. Lee is one that has 
been cited to me by numerous great clinicians throughout 
the United States. “An elderly patient, for example, is con- 
valescent from a mild upper respiratory infection, whether 
we call it a cold, the grip, influenza, bronchitis, or bronchial 
pneumonia. In the convalescence, the weight of years hangs 
heavily on the patient. He is conscious of many mild func- 
tional disturbances; he is depressed and miserable in mind 
and body; he is without appetite, and has a sense of prostra- 
tion and weakness. To be sure, much can be done for this 
patient by careful nursing, tonics, and the various so-called 
volatile stimulants. Nevertheless, the exhibition of alcohol 
in some agreeable form eases the miseries of his body, en- 
courages him to eat, and helps in the establishment of re- 
covery.” 

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“There are occasional cases in the early stage of pulmo- 
nary tuberculosis,” Dr. Lee says, “when the little fever, the 
distress of body, and the consciousness of this dread malady 
make life appear drab, and the judicious administration of 
alcohol in small amounts seems to alter the gloomy outlook 
on life and to make endurable the rigors of the necessary 
regimen.” 

As for heart disease, here too Dr. Lee finds a use for alco- 
hol, particularly in the patient with chronic disease of the 
organ that will no longer respond to the drugs used. The 
patient is worried and distressed. He sees constantly before 
him impending death. Such a patient “often finds more com- 
fort from alcohol judiciously given in moderate doses than 
from opiates, which are better reserved for a future period.” 

Alcohol is probably never directly life-saving. That term 
must be reserved for such effects as are brought about by 
diphtheria or scarlet fever antitoxins, by digitalis, by salvar- 
san, by quinine, or by other remedies with specific action on 
the organisms that cause disease. 

In most of the textbooks on the uses of drugs there is 
specific mention of the use of alcohol in medicine as a food. 
The Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry of the American 
Medical Association — a body composed of some seventeen 
practicing clinicians, specialists in the diseases of children, 
chemists, pharmacologists, bacteriologists, and others — has 
prepared for the use of teachers of materia medica and thera- 
peutics a book called Useful Drugs. This volume aims to 
select from the thousands of remedies in the United States 
Pharmacopoeia and the National Formulary those drugs and 
preparations of greatest usefulness to the practicing 
physician. 

In this book it is pointed out that alcohol is used exter- 
nally to harden and cleanse the skin. Its astringent action 
permits it to serve as a mild counterirritant, and the fact 
that it is strongly antiseptic in concentrations of 70 per cent 
gives it high usefulness in surgery. Internally, according to 
Useful Drugs, “it is a narcotic, excessive doses depressing 
and paralyzing the central nervous system. Small doses pro- 

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duce euphoria, stimulate respiration, moderately dilate the 
cutaneous and splanchnic vessels, and modify the circula- 
tion. It is burned in the body and thus serves to a restricted 
extent as a source of energy.” “In well selected cases,” says 
this guide, “especially in patients accustomed to its use, it 
may be very valuable; otherwise it is apt to do more harm 
than good.” 

The chief use of alcohol as a food or as a source of energy 
has been in diabetes. Since it is not nitrogenous it cannot 
replace protein substances that are broken down in the body, 
and it cannot replace insulin in the burning of sugar. It may 
act as a substitute for some of the carbohydrates in the body, 
however, as it serves in the burning of fats. Alcohol does not 
become glycogen, or give rise to the ketones, the substances 
that lead to acidosis and eventually to diabetic coma. Thus, 
with alcohol in the diet, it is possible to use a smaller 
amount of insulin than would otherwise be the case. The 
physiology and chemistry of these bodily reactions is a com- 
plicated matter. 

Many competent physicians prefer to treat their cases of 
diabetes without the use of alcohol. No doubt an equally 
large number prefer to be in a position where they can use 
a pleasant form of this remedy if they feel the need for it. 
The late M. Duclaux, of the Pasteur Institute, was so much 
impressed by the experimental evidence on this question 
that he asserted that alcohol was a food surpassing starch 
and sugar in value, since weight for weight it contained more 
energy. 

Many experiments have been cited to show that alcohol is 
harmful. Every one admits the validity of those experiments 
that indicated its detrimental effect on precise mental opera- 
tions, such as are involved in typewriting, target shooting, 
typesetting, and motor driving. On the other hand, mental 
operations are shortened, the simple reactions and reaction 
times quickened, mental associations (such as making words 
to rhyme) made easier, and public speaking indulged in 
with facility. This has been thought to be the result of pri- 
mary mental stimulation. But Professor W. E. Dixon, the 

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noted British pharmacologist, emphasizes the fact that these 
effects are the result of inhibition or depression of the higher 
centers of the brain. 

It is safe to say that there is not the slightest scientific 
evidence to indicate that alcohol taken in moderation ever 
appreciably shortened one’s existence. “When it is taken in 
strict moderation, injurious effects are yet to be proved,’’ 
says Professor Dixon. The evidence presented by Professor 
Raymond Pearl, the eminent biometrician of Johns Hopkins 
University, cannot be gainsaid. In a fairly large and homo- 
genous sample of the working class population of Baltimore 
the moderate drinking of alcohol did not shorten life. In- 
deed, moderate steady drinkers showed somewhat lower 
rates of mortality and greater expectation of life than did 
total abstainers. On the other hand, those persons who were 
heavy drinkers of alcoholic beverages showed considerably 
increased rates of mortality and diminished longevity, as 
compared with abstainers or moderate drinkers. 

HEAVY DRINKERS 

The people who create an alcohol problem are obviously 
the heavy drinkers. They are, after all, cases for a psychi- 
atrist, since their problem is a mental problem. They take 
too much alcohol because only with too much alcohol do 
they feel normal. The interior of the body of the drunkard 
shows the effects of alcohol as a poison. The final result of 
alcoholic intoxication repeatedly indulged in is delirium 
tremens — certainly a state of disease requiring serious con- 
sideration. 

Professor Pearl emphasizes the beneficial effects of alcohol 
on the race, since it has a remarkably sharp and precise 
selective action on germ cells and developing embryos, kill- 
ing off the weak and defective, and leaving the strong and 
sound to survive and perpetuate the race. The fact has been 
proved on guinea pigs, fowls, rats, mice, rabbits, frogs, and 
insects. But if this fact is applied to the human race, an 
entirely different point of view must be held, since the care 
of such weak, defective, or otherwise impaired specimens 

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as come through embryonic life to human existence is a 
social problem. 

Professor Pearl insists that the prevalent notion that 
parental alcoholism tends to cause the production of weak, 
defective, or monstrous progeny is not supported by the ex- 
tensive body of experimental work that has been done on 
the problem. But there is some evidence to sustain this 
point of view. The German scientist, H. W. Siemens, states 
the matter briefly: “The cultured peoples of antiquity dis- 
appeared, despite the fact that they had no syphilis and that 
the alcohol industry was unknown to them. No uniform 
explanation of the downfall of all vanished peoples is 
afforded, therefore, by pointing to alcohol, to syphilis, or 
any similar agent. Above all, we know far too little as yet 
with regard to the influences that cause alterations in the 
germ plasm to permit us to draw any conclusions that would 
guide us to logical action/’ 

SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE ON PROHIBITION 

A debate took place not long ago on prohibition. There 
was a dry lecturer — dry in more than one sense. He was 
lecturing on the advantages of a perfect heredity, and he 
thought he would give a few examples. He looked out into 
the audience and he said, “Is Mr. Eckles in the audience?” 
An old man up near the front said, “I am here.” 

“Will you stand up?” 

He stood up. 

“How old are you?” 

“I am seventy-six years old.” 

“Are you a total abstainer, Mr. Eckles?” 

“Yes, I never took a drink in my life.” 

The lecturer said, “Ladies and gentlemen, look at that 
man. Seventy-six, and never took a drink in his life. Isn’t that 
wonderful? Is Mr. Thompson in the audience?” 

A fellow away in the back says, “I’m here.” 

“Stand up, will you, Mr. Thompson?” 

Mr. Thompson stood up. 

“How old are you?” 

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“Eighty-one years.” 

“Mr. Thompson, have you been a total abstainer?” 

“Yes, indeed.” 

“Ladies and gentlemen, look at that wonderful man. 
Eighty-one years old. A total abstainer. Think of that! Think 
what prohibition will do for you.” 

Then an Irishman, away in the back of the hall said, 
“Hold on a minute. Is this an open meeting? Can anyone 
say a word?” 

The lecturer said, “Yes. Anyone who has anything to con- 
tribute is welcome to stand up and give his views and evi- 
dence on this particular occasion.” 

The little Irishman stood up and he said, “It’s this way. 
My father died about six years ago and he^was ninety-six 
years old. He took his first drink when he was fourteen years 
old and he had two drinks every day after that until the day 
he died, and he is dead now about six years. Last week they 
called us up from the cemetery and said they were going 
to move the cemetery and asked us to come out and take 
the old man up. We went out and dug him up. We opened 
the coffin and looked at him, and by golly, he looked better 
than either one of these two fellows you have just had stand- 
ing up here.” 

The story is told merely to indicate how bad the evidence 
can be that is sometimes used to support arguments in the 
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"A fool’s bolt is soon shot.” — Old English Proverb. 


N o doubt the first agents of treatment used by man were 
those which could be had through simple adaptations 
of things natural. The application of heat and cold, rubbing 
and massage, and the use of water and of sunlight are as old 
as man himself. In the aphorisms of Hippocrates one reads 
of the uses of such methods; even at that time sound ob- 
servers seem to have realized that these agents may act for 
good or for evil. 

“Heat is suppurative,” says one aphorism, “but not in all 
kinds of sores; but when it is, it furnishes the greatest test 
of their being free from danger. It softens the skin, makes 
it thin, removes pain, soothes rigor, convulsions, and teta- 
nus.” But again, “Heat produces the following bad effects 
on those who use it frequently: enervation of the fleshy 
parts, impotence of the nerves, torpor of the understanding, 
hemorrhages, deliquia, and along with these, death.” And in 
commenting on the latter aphorism, Galen and, still later, 
Celsus, said: “By ‘heat’ is meant ‘hot water’ or a ‘hot fomen- 
tation.’ ” 

Massage, too, was practiced in the earliest times. Anthro- 
pologists and ethnologists have described the practice as it 
exists among savage peoples today, and accounts are found in 
primitive medical texts. It is repeatedly referred to in the 
folklore of all nations, particularly in the tales of the Arabian 
Nights. Such massage included not only simple rubbing, but 

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also pinching and kneading, later classified by French and 
Swedish investigators with technical terms. 

ANCIENT PHYSICAL THERAPY 

The ancient Egyptians, the Greeks, and the Romans were 
firm believers in the health-giving powers of the sun’s rays. 
Indeed, Herodotus asserted that light must be regarded by 
the physician who knows his business as a means of repelling 
illness and as a subsequent aid to recovery. There were sun 
rooms in the homes of all the well-to-do Romans, not glassed- 
in sun parlors facing north, as in our apartments today, but 
large central spaces, open to the sky and to the sun itself. 

Humphris tells us that the first use of electricity in heal- 
ing took place in the time of Tiberius, some twenty years 
after the death of Christ, when a physician named Scribo- 
nius Largus made use of the raja torpedo fish for rheumatism 
and for headaches. The electric rayfish and the electric eel 
of Brazil are said to be able to convey a considerable shock. 
Scribonius Largus was, however, known chiefly for the scope 
of his writings, as his name no doubt indicates. His recom- 
mendation was based, apparently, wholly on empiricism. 
Much the same sort of reasoning assigned unusual virtues 
to mixtures of drugs of foul smell or of nauseous taste. The 
results commonly are the proof of the power of suggestion. 

Of the birth of the Rontgen ray and of the finer electric 
apparatus of our modern times, accurate descriptions are 
easily available. From the primitive observations of the past 
have arisen these remarkably complicated devices that have 
made necessary increased knowledge by the physician of 
physics and of chemistry, of physiology and of biology, and 
that call for a finer discrimination in their choice and in 
their application to disease than it has been necessary to 
accord to many of the drugs used in medicine. 

The knowledge of physical therapy which forms the basis 
of the considerations here presented is not derived from 
personal observation of the devices used in physical therapy, 
from an intimate study of their effects on animals or on 
patients, or even from their actual trial on my own physical 

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constitution — a body inured to punishment by the trials of 
numerous toothpastes, breakfast foods, condensed, dried, and 
powdered milks, or other samples conferred on editors by 
earnest manufacturers and a progressive advertising depart- 
ment. Such statements as are here made result from the 
reading of innumerable manuscripts submitted by aspirants 
for fame in the field of physical therapy; from the review- 
ing of a considerable number of major opera that have ema- 
nated from the pens of physical therapeutic scribes, some 
obviously, some possibly, some ostensibly, and some not 
likely in the employ of concerns producing apparatus; from 
conferences with many specialists in this growing field, and, 
finally, from an attempt to apply to the assembled informa- 
tion what is known as editorial judgment — a thing some- 
times called by cynics the result of a disordered digestion. 

The use of outdoor sunlight and of baths is not an exceed- 
ingly costly procedure and it is doubtful that anyone ever 
spent a great deal of money on these methods of healing. 
The moment personal attention and intricate apparatus come 
upon the scene, however, there is introduced the question 
of financial outlay. It is pitiable indeed that many a suf- 
ferer who should have devoted his funds to the securing of 
proper nursing attention and of suitable residence in a sana- 
torium should have spent considerable amounts on manipu- 
lation by untrained hands or hands trained to unscientific 
performance, or that the necessary money should be devoted 
to the purchase of extraordinary lights or electrical devices 
that are found shortly on the scrap heap. 

VIOLET RAYS 

The credulity of mankind in regard to such apparatus is 
astounding. It is now beginning to be generally known that 
the short rays at the end of the spectrum are invisible. Never- 
theless, they are badly named. True, they are in the violet 
zone of the spectral colors, but the mere attachment of the 
word “violet” to these rays causes innumerable people to be- 
lieve that any violet-looking light is ultra-violet ray. Not 
long ago, I stopped briefly in a chain drugstore where a 

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statuesque blonde was demonstrating to two prosperous look- 
ing business men a new device which she called the “sun 
ray lamp.” It was merely an ordinary bathroom heater with 
a violet colored bulb in the place where the usual heating 
element resides. She said to these two interested observers, 
“Gentlemen, this gives you the real violet ray.” And when 
they answered with the usual American response, “Is that 
so?” she said, “Yes, and besides the bulb is medicated.” Just 
why this second announcement should have been so con- 
vincing I have never been able to understand, but they paid 
their money and got a useless piece of apparatus for it. 

I have seen a bald-headed barber in a barbershop waving a 
purple colored incandescent bulb around the head of a bald- 
headed man while solemnly telling him that these ultra- 
violet rays will cause the growth of hair. There is not the 
slightest evidence that ultra-violet rays applied to the head 
of a man with hereditary baldness will do anything but tan 
the skin or burn it. Certainly they do not grow hair. Never- 
theless, a great syndicate of hair-growing shops for men has 
been built up with this notion. 

VIBRATIONS 

Then, too, thousands, or actually hundreds of thousands, 
of people have been shaking their systems into insensibility 
with electric belts that produce vibration, with the belief 
that such vibration was conducive to health and longevity. 
One old judge put his belt around his head to shake off a 
headache and instead shook loose the retina of his eye so 
that he developed blindness. Another corpulent business 
man so agitated his midriff as to bring about perforation of 
a gastric ulcer. 

There is danger in physical therapy unwisely used, per- 
haps danger beyond almost any other medical methods. 
There is, indeed, in this field merely the beginning of scien- 
tific study notwithstanding some hundreds of years of 
practice. 

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SCIENCE VERSUS EMPIRICISM 

The proper evaluation of evidence regarding the use of 
new methods in the treatment of disease is difficult. The 
patient is anxious to be well, the physician wants to see him 
cured or at least benefited as promptly as possible, and his 
friends and relatives constantly endeavor to encourage him, 
regardless of their actual belief as to the state of his illness. 
The result of this continuous positive suggestion is to lend 
to any method of treatment that may be employed a credence 
that is perhaps not its actual due. Few physicians — and, in- 
deed, few scientists — can resist the hyperenthusiasm that is 
likely to follow a first successful result. The paths of the his- 
tory of therapy are bestrewn with the wrecks of new cures 
that sailed forth as the last word in therapeutic achievement. 
Mental, manipulative, natural, mystical, spiritual, and other 
cures have been brought forth by apostles of healing and 
vaunted as the secret for the solution of all the problems 
of healing that have confronted the physician since the earli- 
est times. But when the apostle died, or when the primal 
faith that animated his followers disappeared, the cure went 
the way of the apostle. 

Now, physical therapy has been more subject to misun- 
derstanding of its efficacy in varied conditions than has any 
other form used by the scientific physician. The potency of 
the placebo depends only on the mental suggestion and on 
the personality of the man who administers it. His contact 
with the patient is not direct. The contact of the chiroprac- 
tor, the osteopath, and the religious healer consists usually 
of the direct laying on of hands. Few physicians of experi- 
ence fail to realize the importance of such immediate rela- 
tionship to the patient. If more physicians took the trouble 
to make thorough examinations of their patients, never fail- 
ing to examine the chest after the clothing had been com- 
pletely removed from the upper part of the body and using 
auscultation, percussion, and palpation, which are fundamen- 
tal to physical diagnosis, there would be fewer failures and 
many more persons satisfied with the care of their physicians. 

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SUGGESTION IN PHYSICAL THERAPY 

Without doubt, powerful suggestion is conveyed by the 
use of any intricate or striking mechanical method. The use 
of electricity, including the direct application of the cur- 
rent, the galvanic apparatus, pocket batteries, and all the as- 
sorted forms of waves supplied through more intricate mech- 
anisms, as well as the use of electricity to produce heat and 
light, is a striking therapeutic procedure. The late — but not 
too late — Albert Abrams well knew the value of intricate 
apparatus for impressing the patient and, even more, for 
impressing the uncritical physician. His first venture, spon- 
dylotherapy, carried with it a physically intensified sugges- 
tion; and those later Goldbergian evolvements, the oscillo- 
clast and the biodynamometer, were impressive in their com- 
plexity, even to some competent physicians. 

Regardless of the fact that the underlying basis for many 
physical methods never has been thoroughly established and, 
indeed, is not even yet perfectly understood, the official 
organ of the American Electrotherapeutic Association only 
recently said: “The various irregular cults have also worked 
out in some instances methods that have sometimes suc- 
ceeded where the rank and file of the medical profession 
have failed.” The editorial referred to cites particularly the 
treatment of sacro-iliac strain, recommending, first, adjust- 
ment and, secondly, the application of electricity. On what 
basis does the editorial presume to say that displaced verte- 
brae once adjusted remain adjusted, unless held in place over 
long periods of time by methods of fixation? Who has proved 
that ligaments that are relaxed will resume their functions 
when the supposed luxations are properly replaced? Who has 
made the scientific studies, using the Rontgen ray and all 
the other methods known to modern science, by which even 
an iota of truth can be attached to the claims of chiropractic 
and, indeed, to most of those of osteopathy? Granting that 
there is a modicum of truth in the claims of the latter cult, 
what scientific organization will be willing to admit that 
half-educated and incompetent men with no thorough un- 

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demanding of the human body and its mechanisms should 
be privileged to apply any single form of therapy or 
diagnosis? 


THE DANGERS OF SYSTEMS AND SPECIALTIES 

If medicine is to be partitioned oft into a series of special- 
ties and cults practiced by men who have learned only one 
organ of the body or only one system of diagnosing and of 
treating disease, medicine as a science is bound to fail. No 
part of the human body can be detached and treated as sepa- 
rate from the organism as a whole. This danger threatens 
all the forms of physical therapy. It was no doubt enthusiasm 
for a single method that caused an editorial writer in the 
official organ of electrotherapy to say that “physical therapy 
will ultimately be recognized as of greater value that all 
other therapeutic methods.” This concentration on an “all 
or nothing” policy in the treatment of disease must inevit- 
ably lead to preposterous and exaggerated claims, and ulti- 
mately to the detriment of scientific practice. Physicians 
have watched the inroads made on the practice of medicine 
as a single science. They have noted the attempts of optom- 
etrists to parcel off the eye as their particular field; of cos- 
meticians to assume the right to treat disorders of the skin 
and to request legislatures to grant them power to remove 
moles, warts, tumors, and other excrescences; of chiropodists 
to assign to themselves the complete care of the feet; of 
chiropractors and osteopaths to make the field of manual 
manipulation their exclusive purview; and of some of the 
specialists within the ranks of medicine itself to assign all 
important functions to the teeth, to the lungs, or to other 
organs of the body. The time has come to call a halt on geo- 
graphic warfare within the human body, and to look on it as 
a “united states” that will be at least as firmly consolidated 
as the forty-eight individual constituents of our government. 

If electrotherapy could point to a past that was free from 
the faults that have marred the progress of drug therapy 
since the earliest times, it would need no caution as to the 
future. But what has become of the hundreds of galvanic 

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apparatus that struck amazement to the hearts of trembling 
children led into physicians’ offices some twenty-five years 
ago? Where are the little electric batteries that formerly oc- 
cupied the showcases in the drug stores? Indeed, what has 
become of the claims for high voltage Rontgen rays in the 
removal of deep-seated malignancy? What a brief period it 
required for these claims, vaunted as the last word in the 
control of cancer, to resolve themselves into a method used 
only in apparently hopeless cases! The judgment may be 
premature, but it is based on scientific studies made in well 
recognized institutions for the study of human diseases. 

PHYSICAL THERAPY PROMOTION 

There was a time when the medical scientist, having com- 
pleted his education in the field to which he wished to de- 
vote himself, opened his office, began teaching in a medical 
school with which he had affiliated himself, undertook the 
care of patients in legitimate hospitals, and left it to the 
recognition of the public to advance him to the limit of his 
merits. Today, modern, high powered business methods ap- 
plied to the practice of medicine have pointed the way to 
cults and to the hyperenthusiastic practitioner for promo- 
tion of his particular plans. All the forces of publicity are 
directed toward urging on the public the peculiar advan- 
tages that are claimed to accrue to single methods. The high 
priest of the peculiar system does not hesitate to instruct 
his followers in promotion of the system by all the arts and 
crafts — mostly the crafts — of salesmanship. There are physi- 
cal therapists who believe that “high frequency” means the 
treatment of eighty patients a day. Again, organizations are 
established, not for study and investigation or for the pro- 
motion of knowledge in relation to the growth of any de- 
partment of medical science, but primarily for the securing 
of public acclaim through the organization, rather than 
through the individual. The multiplicity of medical organi- 
zations is evidence of the fact that in some instances they are 
not established with investigation and study as their main 
objects. Consider in this connection the society called the 

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Association for Medico-Physical Research. In its meeting, 
one program is devoted entirely to the claims of the now dis- 
credited Abrams method; another, to the exploitation of 
methods for the treatment of cancer, not one of which is 
established on any sort of a sound foundation; and still 
others to the promotion of systems of practice that should 
meet with nothing but the scorn of all who consider them- 
selves honest and ethical practitioners of medicine. One 
finds here names of men known as faddists, who have dis- 
carded scientific rationality. One, without regard to the estab- 
lished facts of science, insists that a rice diet will prevent and 
cure cancer. Another promotes the treatment of cancer with 
a serum, regardless of the fact that carefully made investiga- 
tions have revealed the failure of his method. There is G. 
E. Harter of the Defensive Diet League of America, who has 
collected a lot of miscellaneous aphorisms and peculiar con- 
cepts concerning food into a system and who has inveigled 
dentists of this country to his support with the idea that it 
is the duty of the dentists to establish the food habits of 
the nation. Among this miscellaneous crew of peculiar fad- 
dists appear the names of some physicians whose places on 
the program apparently represent an attempt to camouflage, 
with a sort of medical aristocracy, the fallacies that occupy 
the major portion of the program. 

BASIS OF PHYSICAL THERAPY 

The results of physical therapy seem to depend on many 
factors. Without doubt, rays of light have many and vary- 
ing effects on the human body. Attempts have been made to 
separate them into effects of the light itself on the tissues 
and into chemical effects. Electricity has the power of acting 
through the heat that may be produced and, perhaps, through 
some effects produced by the current itself not yet deter- 
mined; indeed, the mechanism is no better determined than 
is that of immunity in general. Electric stimulation no doubt 
has the power to act on nerves and on muscles, producing 
visible motive effects; and with such effects come mechanical 
changes. Is it not time that intensive study be applied in an 

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analytic manner to determine to just what extent the bene 
fits observed from the various electrotherapeutic measures 
are due to physical changes in the tissues, to mechanical 
changes in the tissues, to the power of suggestion, and, per- 
haps, to other factors of which we know nothing? Until 
some adequate basis on which the methods may rest is de- 
termined, no one can call such methods truly scientific. We 
have in physical therapy various methods of producing heat 
in the human body. There is the heat produced by friction; 
the heat produced by the external application of light, of 
hot water, or of other heat-producing methods; and the heat 
produced within the body by diathermy, by the direct in- 
jection of heating material, or by the use of methods that 
will draw unusual quantities of blood to a certain point. 
In the evaluation of any form of physical therapy, who shall 
say to what extent the thermic factor alone is responsible 
and how far the other factors that have been mentioned have 
a part to play? 

The numerous devices for effecting the production of 
heat, external or internal, for the body unquestionably vary 
in their potency and in their mechanism. How is the individ- 
ual physician who knows little or nothing of the physical 
basis of electricity and, in fact, who knows little or nothing 
of any physics at all, except in the use of the term as it 
applies to castor oil and cascara, to have any actual knowl- 
edge of these so-called modalities? 

Drug products are compounds of chemical substances and 
may easily be separated into their individual ingredients. 
Scientific pharmacy has already made sufficient progress to 
warrant the statement that these ingredients will or will not 
do what is claimed for them. But when one is confronted 
with a large box beautifully trimmed with nickel plate and 
glass, the interior of which is a mass of wiring, spools, coils, 
gages, screws, nuts, and what not, and is told that, properly 
applied, this apparatus will cure pneumonia, neuritis, lum- 
bago, eczema, dysmenorrhea, falling of the uterus, and fall- 
ing of the palate, who is to tell one whether or not the ma- 
chine will actually do all that is claimed for it? When the 

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textbooks in the field of physical therapy tell the physician 
that the spine of the patient with locomotor ataxia may be 
restored to its pristine glory by running a few shocks up and 
down from the cervical region to the coccyx, is he to discard 
the prognosis that he has made in the past and to tell the 
friends and relatives of the victim of the wiles of Venus 
that his lapse from virtue is to have no further evil effects? 
What is the physician to do when he learns that most of the 
textbooks in this field are the products of men who are 
employed by concerns selling apparatus; when he is con- 
stantly besieged with lecture courses paid for by those who 
have something to sell; when his office is inundated with 
literature telling him that his financial future depends on 
the purchase of a vast amount of such machinery? Clearly, 
a housecleaning is badly needed in this particular field. 

The advance of electrotherapeutics under the guidance of 
its pioneers was an enthusiastic but bitter warfare against a 
stubborn and conservative medical profession. The introduc- 
tion of unknown forces into the treatment of disease meant 
that physicians untrained in the basic sciences on which a 
comprehension of these forces depends must begin anew 
their period of infancy and education, or yield their patients 
and their livelihood to those better informed. So far as elec- 
trotherapy is concerned, physicians have felt, no doubt with 
reason, that they must be shown. Whether this fortunate 
scientific skepticism was founded on a scientific frame of 
mind, or was merely an obstinate resistance to what was 
apparently an incomprehensible phase of medical treatment, 
is a matter for conjecture. In any event, the inspired pio- 
neers of electrotherapy have had little patience with oppo- 
sition, no doubt feeling that it was not based on comprehen- 
sive understanding of the things which to them seemed as 
simple as the child’s alphabet. Let us, with editorial judg- 
ment, take the middle ground. No doubt the position of the 
medical profession regarding physical therapy has been un- 
reasoning and blind; but just as certainly the enthusiasms 
of the pioneers were a beautiful manifestation of the credu- 
lous will-to-believe. Science demands controlled observa- 

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tions; it requires due precautions against the will-to-believe, 
definite allowance for the vis medicatrix natures , and simple 
admission that there is much that we do not know. The repe- 
tition of these aphorisms may sound as infantile as the 
squeaky “mamma” of the Christmas doll; but, alas, how nec- 
essary the repetition seems to be! When the allowances are 
all made, it seems that more must be granted at this time 
to those who opposed than to those who proposed, in the 
field of electrotherapy. 

With the passing of time, the pioneers began to adapt 
themselves for the most part to the knowledge that medicine 
began to acquire from the fundamental sciences. The dis- 
coveries in chemistry, in physics, in biology, in physiology, 
and in pathology began to make themselves felt in the physi- 
cal therapeutic field. If one scans the reports made through 
the passing years, the names of masters of these related 
fields will be found in the records. Always apparent is the 
intent to eliminate the unscientific, to determine the actual 
physical basis of apparatus and of methods, and to detect 
physiologic and pathologic changes such as may have oc- 
curred. 


THE TEACHERS OF PHYSICAL THERAPY 

Education in physical therapy today may be had through 
the available literature, represented by advertisements, 
pamphlets, articles in periodicals and textbooks; through 
courses in physical therapy given by well-established schools 
and hospitals, by the paid representatives of manufacturing 
concerns, and by impromptu teachers with no credentials 
other than a profound belief in their own erudition; through 
the suave representations of detail men who know well how 
to befuddle the brain of the busy practitioner with a nomen- 
clature fit for nothing so much as the construction of cross- 
word puzzles. Indeed, like all the literature of medicine, of 
art, of science, of religion, and even of literature itself to- 
day, that of physical therapy may be divided into two main 
groups — the commercial literature and the literature of sci- 
ence. The groups infringe on one another to the extent that 

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the literature of science is commercial. Even a moron might 
follow easily the path of commerce or of science; but the 
unenlightened physician who wishes to tread the devious 
path between will need a guide to prevent him from stray- 
ing into blind alleys and treacherous by-paths, and, indeed, 
from losing his way altogether. 

At the meeting of the Modern Language Association held 
in Chicago recently, William McFee suggested that the 
American literature of the future would perhaps be the liter- 
ature of commerce rather than the literature of science and 
of art. Since commercial organizations demand and pay for 
the best available literary talent, the magazine of the future 
may well consist of a central section of advertising written 
by masters in the literary field, surrounded by the rather 
dull pages of fiction produced by apprentices in the trade. 
Of course, even under the present it is hard to tell where 
the fiction ends and where the advertising begins in many 
periodicals. The cautious purchaser never forgets that the 
aphorism “Whose bread I eat, his song I sing” represents 
the psychologic observation of centuries. 

The literature of commerce is a literature of affirmation; 
search as one may through page on page of circular, bulle- 
tin, or advertising pamphlet, the statement of negation is a 
rarity. The literature is inspirational, leading inevitably to 
the signature on the dotted line. Even the most stupid of 
readers must already have noted the application to the field 
of electrotherapy of the fundamental psychologic fact dis- 
covered perhaps by Messrs. Macfadden and Hearst and 
widely exploited in their periodicals. Most of the illustra- 
tions used in the folders on physical therapy, observant 
readers have pointed out, represent the application of physi- 
cal therapeutic methods, not to unfortunate soldiers, coal- 
miners, and teamsters, but to beautiful damsels, apparently 
in the pink of health, who have unveiled quite excessive por- 
tions of their intimate anatomy for the local application of 
a one-square inch electrode or the application otherwise of 
the healing heat or invisible ray. 

The literature of electrotherapeutics, as I have intimated, 

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comes sometimes frankly with the mark of commerce 
stamped on its pages; sometimes camouflaged behind the 
name of a physician who obviously is in the employ of, or 
has most certainly been influenced by, the concern devoted 
to the sale of the particular device. Frequently it is never- 
theless the earnest effort of a sincere scientist to record his 
honest observations for the good of his fellow physicians and 
for the benefit of mankind. Actually, the field of physical 
therapy is not nearly so bestrewn with the flimsy invitations 
of verbose commercial barkers as was the field of drug ther- 
apy at its worst some twenty-five years ago. There are, and 
have been, in the electric manufacturing field producers 
who have seen that permanent business demanded sound- 
ness from the start. They have proceeded cautiously in the 
issuing of advertising matter. They have attempted to state 
the facts concerning their devices and left it to scientific ob- 
servation by clinicians to provide the claims. On the other 
hand, some manufacturing concerns have champed impa- 
tiently at the delay in adoption of their devices by cautious 
members of the medical profession. These business men, not 
content with the scientific observations made in well-con- 
trolled laboratories and clinics, have gone afield for the pro- 
vision of their material, or have purchased the full time of 
easily credulous and perhaps not too meticulously ethical 
observers to supply claims for their machinery. The state- 
ment is a broad one, but it will be supported in due time by 
documentary evidence. 

An investigation of the curriculums of medical colleges 
indicates that but few are ready to give courses in this 
branch of medical treatment. A survey of the hospitals of 
our country finds few of them adequately equipped with 
physical therapeutic apparatus; many are supplied with obso- 
lete and inefficient, perhaps sadly rusted and degenerated, 
types; still others, equipped in the heyday of some lax politi- 
cal appropriation, present whole edifices devoted to intricate 
apparatus, both good and bad, which lie idle because of the 
lack of competent men and women to manipulate them. In 

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this situation the practitioner turns naturally to possible 
sources of information. 

The physician is informed by one concern or another that 
he may secure the privilege of instruction from an expert 
who is endowed by the manufacturing concern which pro- 
motes him with nothing short of celestial wisdom. The 
courses are offered free or for nominal sums, but are never- 
theless commercial courses. Try as it may, the manufactur- 
ing concern which endeavors to promote the sale of its de- 
vices by the direct teaching of the physician cannot separate 
its teacher from the charge of commercialism. That teacher 
may be honest, his intentions may be of the best, he may 
even attempt to lean backward to avoid the taint of com- 
mercialism; but, as the poet eulogized: 

You may break , you may shatter the vase if you will , 

But the scent of the roses (?) will hang round it still. 

Contrast with the flaming promulgations of commerce 
the modest announcement of the course in physical therapy 
offered by a university. Here is no blatant shouting of un- 
usual virtues; merely the statement that the course has been 
planned for licensed practitioners of medicine only, that it 
includes six weeks of daily clinical work together with suit- 
able lectures, and that it is offered to provide a working 
knowledge of the subject. Here is no announcement that 
physical therapy will bring to the practitioner taking the 
course extraordinary and increasing fees; no statement that 
the use of these electrical devices will win for him such prac- 
tice as is now secured by self-advertising cultists; no induce- 
ment on the grounds that the flashy apparatus, issuing daz- 
zling sparks and quivering rays, will attract to his books the 
misguided morons who are unable to distinguish between 
sense and sensibility. Here is the contrast between science 
and charlatanism. 

Unfortunately, the textbooks, like the science itself, are 
undergoing a process of development which makes difficult 
depedence on any one of them. The most conservative find 
it necessary to limit so greatly the field of electrotherapeu- 

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tics, and even of light therapy apart from therapeutics, that 
the practitioner is likely to consider its study, and most cer- 
tainly investment in apparatus, little worth while. On the 
other hand, the enthusiastic outbursts in volumes by ac- 
cepted leaders in this field are a strain on the credulity of 
the most mellow of minds. One author considers that “one of 
the most effective uses of electricity is the relief, and at 
times the cure, of all degrees of descension of the uterus, 
except possible complete procidentia/’ “It is probable/’ he 
asserts, “that every puerperal woman would be the better 
for a course of nongalvanic rhythmic currents after cessa- 
tion of the lochia.” He advises “cathode depigmentation” 
for the removal of freckles; electric ionization for the cure 
of salpingitis, and, in fact, finds some use for electricity in 
every possible physical or mental condition that afflicts the 
human body. Actually, he recommends the treatment of ec- 
topic gestation by electrocution of the fetus before the fourth 
month, and the use of more moderate currents afterward to 
promote its absorption. He wisely suggests that in the mean- 
time the patient should be at absolute rest in bed, with the 
constant attendance of a nurse. 

And yet these statements of presumably scientific writers 
on electric therapy are mild indeed compared with the lucu- 
brations of the commercial wielders of the pen who are in- 
hibited by no scientific doubts whatever in their develop- 
ment of literature that will sell the goods. Speaking of the 
incandescent lamp, one of them says: 

When you use a thermotherapeutic light , you invoke 
nature's strongest force , the most permanent therapeutic 
power. 

Another statement says of diathermy: 

No physicians office , no hospital or sanitarium is complete 
without some good physical therapy equipment — particu- 
larly a diathermy apparatus of the portable or semiportable 
type. Such a machine is a very decided requisite if modern 
methods of medicine and surgery are to be employed. 

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Just how much more requisite a ‘‘decided requisite” or a 
“very decided requisite” may be than something that is just 
“requisite,” deponent sayeth not. 

And finally, for it would be possible to multiply these ex- 
amples interminably, hearken to this section of “Resusci- 
tated Sunlight”: 

We are all familiar with the marvelous vitalizing , beauti- 
fying and regenerating power of Sunlight . We have seen the 
earth, brown and sear in early Springtime, quicken to life 
and beauty; the tiny buds burst their prison cells , and de- 
velop into floiuer and fruitage; the fetid odors of putrescence 
disappear — and all, under this magic influence of the sun's 
rays . 

Yes, more; we have watched with keenest interest the red 
blood come into the veins, sparkle into the eye and vigor 
into the limb of the anemic and invalid, through the stimu- 
lating effects of the “Sun Bath But somehow, we limit the 
Electric Light to its luminous qualities, forgetful that in it 
we have real “bottled sunshine ” under our absolute con- 
trol, ready for application when desired and with the widest 
range of adaptation . 

As the physicist has learned, the Electric Light is identical 
with Sunlight; in fact, it is Sunlight resuscitated from the 
energy long stored in the lumps of coal used as fuel. This 
latent energy in the coal, liberated in the furnace and trans- 
formed in the dynamo, is flashed forth again in radiance 
from the electric arc, or incandescent filament, on its inter- 
rupted mission of service to the world. In other words, that 
subtle force — that potent silent process that tints the petals 
of the lilac and the lily, that scents the rose and the jasmine, 
that flavors the ripening fruit in the orchard — is one and the 
same of Nature's forces, whether at work in the flower gar- 
den, on the sands of the seashore, or in the Light Baths. 

It is presumed that the gentleman who wrote this state- 
ment is now more gainfully employed selling lots in Florida. 

The physician who is anxious to perfect himself in the 
fundamentals of physical therapy, or even in the practical 
use of the apparatus, is confronted by a troublesome situa- 

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tion. As has been intimated, the schools of medicine and 
the postgraduate schools offer but few courses, and those not 
continuously. Moreover, mushroom schools have sprung up 
here and there to offer such courses to any aspirant, be he 
chiropractor, osteopath, cosmetician, chiropodist, barber, 
farmhand, or blacksmith. Who has defined the point at 
which the work of the physical therapy aide or technician 
ends or commences? The ignorant cultist, licensed by a too 
complaisant state to practice some single system of diagnosis 
and treatment, finds his patients seldom inclined to inquire 
whether or not his fundamental training warrants the use 
of the potent electrical devices with which he may have 
equipped himself. Indeed, most often this course of study 
has embraced some hours with the detail man or demon- 
strator and a cursory study of the book of directions, if he 
happens to be able to read. Even the “naturopath” equips 
himself with artificial sunlight against the day when the 
clouds obscure the sky, although information has not yet 
been received that he has secured artificial grass and bottled 
dew for his nightgown-clad hypochondriacs to walk in while 
the artificial sun may shine. 

The medical practice acts of our individual states make 
strange allowances for all sorts of unusual encroachments 
on the practice of medicine. Legislators seems not yet to 
have realized that the ability to diagnose disease according 
to the facts of modern scientific medicine is, and legally 
should be, an absolute prerequisite to any sort of treatment. 
The nurse, the technician, the aide, or whatever high sound- 
ing title may be conferred on a medical assistant, gains con- 
fidence with time and soon wishes to depart from the shelter- 
ing wing of the physician whom she may assist, to establish 
herself in her self-constituted profession of physical therapist. 
In several states the new laws regulating the practice of 
cosmetology specifically exempt the other new profession 
of electrology so far as concerns the removal of superfluous 
hair, moles, warts, or excrescences from the skin. 

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THE FUTURE OF PHYSICAL THERAPY 

Today more than seventy-five per cent of the leading hos- 
pitals of the United States have fully equipped departments 
of physical therapy in charge of physicians especially trained 
in the use of such devices and methods, and not infrequently 
conducted by technicians who are capable of using the ap- 
paratus without danger to the patient and under proper 
medical instruction. For the treatment of rheumatic dis- 
ease, for the overcoming of paralysis after such diseases as 
infantile paralysis and meningitis, for reeducating the para- 
lytic who is suffering with locomotor ataxia, for straight- 
ening twisted spines and for many similar purposes physical 
therapy is invaluable. 

Standardization and control are particularly the attributes 
of American civilization. Proper standardization and con- 
trol are only beginning to be applied to the field of physical 
therapy through the Councils on Medical Education and 
Hospitals and the Council on Physical Therapy of the Amer- 
ican Medical Association. The setting up and maintenance 
of such standards mean much for the safety of the American 
people and for the maintenance of their health. 


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"But let a man know that there are things to be known , of which he 
is ignorant , and it is so much carved out of his domain of universal 
knowledge .” — Horace Mann, Lectures on Education. 


S ome seventeen years ago, I originated in The Journal of 
the American Medical Association a column called 
“Tonics and Sedatives” in which appear each week, in addi- 
tion to medical facetiae, errors of a medical nature clipped 
from newspapers, magazines, and books throughout the 
country. Glancing over the assembled material, one finds 
that it may be grouped according to certain definite types. 
First are typographical errors that do no harm to anyone. 
According to modern newspaper methods a hasty guess is 
good enough to serve the purpose as far as the name of a 
disease may be concerned: “Miliary tuberculosis” frequently 
appears as “military tuberculosis”; “hypostatic pneumonia” 
as “hypothetic pneumonia”; “exploratory operation” as “ex- 
planatory operation”; “cardiac decompensation” as “cardiac 
decomposition”; “vertebra misplaced” as “vertebrate mis- 
placed”; “vasoligation” as “vasolitigation”; “cocci” as “cock- 
eye”; “prostate gland” as “prostrate gland”; “iritis” as “eye- 
ritis”; “angina pectoris” as “angora pectoris”; and “inguinal 
hernia” as “lingual hernia.” These errors represent the sub- 
stitution of some word in common usage for a technical 
term requiring special knowledge. They are perhaps the in- 
evitable result of that system of news reporting which calls 
for eight editions each day, appearing three to five hours 
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possibly from that queer triple play, legman to telephone to 
rewrite man, by which most of the local news is put out. 

In matters of anatomy, organs, muscles, bones, and joints 
may find themselves strangely displaced in newspaper re- 
ports. The fibula, from the leg, is accredited to the hip. One 
reads of a “mastoid abscess of the eye,” whereas the mastoid 
is situated behind the ear. Persons are reported as dying 
from pleurisy of the shoulder and collar bone, of the kidney, 
of the heart, and of the intestines. The pleura is the mem- 
brane lining the chest cavity and covering the lung. It is 
spelled p-l-e-u-r-a, as can be found in any dictionary, and yet 
it far more frequently appears that someone has died from 
“p-l-u-r-a-1” pneumonia, certainly a singular statement. Dur- 
ing the illness of President Wilson, the official bulletin, 
published in Washington under the editorship of George 
Creel, created to supply the public with facts, contained in 
a boxed statement on its first page, the following absurd 
announcement: 

Owing to the various rumors that are going about regard- 
ing the condition of President Wilson, we state that he has 
not had a paralytic shock, nor has he had any of the other 
troubles about which the gossips are busy . The President is 
suffering from inflammation of the prostatic gland , which is 
properly known as acute bowel trouble . 

If “inflammation of the prostatic gland” is properly known 
as “acute bowel trouble,” the medical profession has been 
wrongly instructed about the matter ever since it first found 
out there was a prostate. 

Still more remarkable statements are made as to the causes 
of various diseases. The excellent foreign correspondent of 
the Chicago Tribune, Floyd Gibbons, cabled that lockjaw 
or tetanus was prevalent because of the large number of 
rusty nails. Thus he perpetuated an old superstition and dis- 
regarded entirely the bacterial origin of the disease. The 
Kansas City Times remarked sagely: 

William II has a bad inheritance . His great uncle, Fred- 
erick William IV, died with a clouded mind . William him- 

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self has had an ear abscess , the true diagnosis of which has 
never been made public. This has given ground to a rumor 
that it is of a hereditary leucorrheal character. 

Leucorrhea, it may be explained, is a condition occurring 
only in women, and that, too, in regions remote from the 
ear. The error arose no doubt through the modest substitu- 
tion, by some editor, of the word “leucorrhea” for the name 
of a venereal disease which sounds much the same and which 
he hesitated to print. 

In surgery the newspaper writer has wide latitude for his 
imagination. The Baltimore Sun sagely explains that “gastro- 
enteroanastamase is the medical term for ulcers of the stom- 
ach,” but “gastroenteroanastomosis” is, instead, the surgical 
term for sidetracking the movement of food by joining to- 
gether the stomach and the intestine. Another item tells of 
a man who was operated on for “Albee of the spine,” 
whereas Albee is the name of a surgeon who designed the 
operation in which the bones of the spine are splinted stiffly 
together with a piece of bone taken from the leg. At least 
a hundred times, I have seen the statement that a leg was 
broken, but not fractured, and one does not have to be a 
physician to know better than that. 

Certain remarkable tales circulate through the press peri- 
odically much as an influenza epidemic returns at intervals 
to devastate the populace. A news bulletin will carry the 
astounding information that a noted specialist has cured the 
eyesight of a patient by removing the eyeball, washing it, or 
scraping it, and returning it to its cavity. Again some press 
service will circulate this perennial tale. It is a figment of 
the imagination and possibly arises from the fact that an un- 
trained onlooker at the ophthalmic operation becomes dizzy 
with the escaping fumes of the anesthetic. Here is a story 
that has recently made the rounds of hundreds of papers: 

There is a girl here at the Shrine hospital about fifteen 
years old , who has a snake in her stomach. They have no 
idea about how it happened to be there , but the doctors 
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sleeping or in swimming some time. The snake is about two 
feet long and three inches around , and sometimes they say 
it is stretched out as far as it can in her stomach. 

The number of amphibia, reptilia, and other zoological spe- 
cies that have been reported in the newspapers as the day’s 
catch for some enterprising physician is legion. Sometimes 
they are not hooked out of the stomach from above, but re- 
moved at other orifices as the product of an unusual con- 
ception. When the stories are traced to their respective 
sources, they invariably degenerate into some hoax. In one 
case, it was discovered that some of the older nurses in a hos- 
pital were anxious to impress an innocent probationer with 
the wonders of medical science. The assistance of an obliging 
interne — the interne is always willing to oblige the nurses — 
was secured. At the time of the operation, the interne drew 
forth a squirming length of rubber tubing, the probationer 
was duly impressed, and a news-seeking reporter sent the 
story on its route. 

A paragraph might be given to the story of the feverish 
girl of Escanaba; for almost three weeks her temperature 
was reported as ranging up to 118 degrees F. and once, it 
was alleged, the mercury blew off the top of the thermom- 
eter. Her story was not unique in the annals of medical 
science. Almost any hospital could produce records of pa- 
tients who had attempted similar impostures and success- 
fully eluded the detective methods of physicians over long 
periods of time. In the case of the girl from Escanaba, the 
long run of the story depended on a number of factors: the 
news came from a distance sufficient to deter investigation; 
the girl was not in a hospital where her actions could be 
controlled; her physicians had lost their skepticism which 
the great Pasteur said was the distinguishing mark of the 
scientist. Finally the news was handled by the Associated 
Press, an agency which editors have come to trust implicitly 
and which is ready to assume responsibility. Regardless of 
the fact that competent physicians all over the country de- 

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dared the story impossible, newspapers continued to publish 
the event until an actual unmasking occurred. 

Another point of interest is the way in which newspapers 
continue to perpetuate such ancient medical superstitions 
as, for example, the belief that prenatal impressions of the 
mother may mark the child. There are, of course, books of 
instruction for prospective mothers which suggest that they 
visit the Art Institute and gaze upon beautiful paintings 
and sculpture in order that the forthcoming progeny may 
resemble Venus de Milo or the god Adonis. But there is no 
basis in scientific fact for such a belief. Nevertheless one 
frequently sees in his newspaper such items as the follow- 
ing: from the Modesto, California, News: 

A young French woman testifying in an alleged bigamy 
case here today said that a month before the birth of her 
child , her husband gave her a black eye. The baby was born 
with a black eye. 

MEDICAL MISTAKES OF NOTED AUTHORS 

It is apparent then that one of the great faults in the 
reporting of medical news is lack of accuracy in such mat- 
ters as terminology, spelling, and definition. Another appar- 
ent fault is the printing of any news item of scientific inter- 
est without attempting to check in some manner its reliabil- 
ity or accuracy or conformity with scientific fact. It is clearly 
the duty of the writer of a piece of news to verify the spell- 
ing of the terms he uses, and to make sure that such terms 
actually exist and are used in their correct meanings. The 
editor shares with him the responsibility for printing a story 
that exploits a medical discovery that has no basis in scien- 
tific fact or that is founded on poorly substantiated evidence. 
No doubt, much of the difficulty is traceable to the fact 
that newspapers have not been and are not even today 
equipped with competent medical men to pass on medical 
news. One seems safe in assuming that the newspaper re- 
ports of medical matters represent the actual knowledge of 
the news gatherers and purveyors, largely in the past men 

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who have obtained their knowledge of journalism only in 
the bitter school of experience and not in the classroom, 
who have passed from copy boy to reporter, from the sport 
page to literary criticism, from police news to the drama. 

Hardly one of our great hedonists has been free of errors 
in the medical held. In “The Meadow Lark,” Edna Ferber’s 
short story in the Cosmopolitan, she says of the Muller girl: 

She had the short , sturdy fibula of the energetic woman 
and seemed to take more steps and to come down harder 
than was absolutely necessary. 

The hbula is just one of the two bones in the leg, and the 
tibia is larger and more important. 

Earl Derr Biggers, writing of Charlie Chan in the most 
carefully edited Saturday Evening Post, says: 

Tait turned and with a firm step crossed the threshold of 
the parlor. For a moment he stood, looking about the group 
inside. Then he gave a strangled little cry and pitched for- 
ward onto the floor. Duff was the first to reach him. He 
turned the old man over and, with deep concern, noted his 
face. It was as blank as that of the dead man in Room 28. 

The next instant a young man was at Duff's side, a good- 
looking American with frank gray eyes, now somewhat 
startled. Removing a small, pearl-like object from a bottle 
he crushed it in his handkerchief, and held the latter be- 
neath the nose of Mr. Patrick Tait. 

“Digitalis,” he explained, glancing up at the inspector . 
“It will bring him around in a moment, I imagine. It's what 
he told me to do if he had one of these attacks.” 

But of course he meant amyl nitrite, used in angina pectoris, 
for digitalis is never taken that way. 

In “War Nurse,” Rebecca West, writing in the Cosmo- 
politan, said: 

There seemed to be somebody with arms around my hips, 
dragging me down and down. 

Something funny had happened to the room. The shadows 
at the end of it were flying down on my face like birds. 

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Presently there was blood everywhere . 1 was lying in it. 

The men were bending over me, their flannel nightdresses 
flapping on their hairy legs. They were saying astonishingly 
sweet and gentle things; how sweet and gentle and tactful , I 
did not realize till afterwards. It is magnificent the way the 
French take certain things for granted without foolish em- 
barrassment. 

Then other people came. I was placed on a stretcher and 
carried to some place that I never saw, answered questions 
through a fog, was given treatment that made me cry, and 
put in an ambulance and driven back to my own hospital, 
where they performed an emergency operation. 

What had happened was that by repeated lifting of over- 
heavy weights, I had gradually torn my uterus from my body. 
It had been hanging by a thread and when I lifted the fat 
man the rupture was complete. 

It happened to many nurses in the war. It means, of 
course, that you can never have any children. 

Which is quite an athletic feat for any woman and, of course, 
really did not happen to very many. 

“The Scaler,” Stewart Edward White in The Golden Book 
Magazine, makes the arteries carry sensations: 

Hours later, as it seemed, they moved slowly in the direc- 
tion of camp. The cold had stiffened FitzPatricWs cuts and 
bruises. Every step shot a red wave of torture through his 
arteries to his brain. 

Any child with grade school physiology knows that nerves 
transmit the sense of pain. 

O. O. McIntyre finds a complication of diseases sufficient 
to destroy a nation: 

An East Side tenement baby asleep on floor, while her par- 
ents were having a high time at a party next door, was 
attacked by a sewer rat and two fingers were stripped of 
flesh to the bone. The child died in frightful agony of blood 
poisoning, lockjaw , and rabies. 

Rupert Hughes, who ought to know better, says of George 
Washington in the new American Legion Monthly: 

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He was an ardent breeder of stock. He . . . made a great 
study of mules , importing the finest European breeds and 
putting them out to stud. 

Just a mule with no pride of ancestry or hope of posterity. 

An item found in the latest E. Barrington novel entitled 
The Laughing Queen: 

For answer he (Julius Ccesar) caught her (Cleopatra's) 
jewelled hands and pressed them first to his heart and then 
most passionately to his lips , there holding them and feeling 
the blood beat in blue veins. 

But the blood does not beat in the veins; only in the arteries. 

In Ludwig Lewisohn’s Case of Mr. Crump , page m, he 
says: 

She told him that life had been difficult and had brought 
on one of her heart attacks. Her heart had not been strong 
since her early girlhood . It was a functional disorder ; there 
was a regurgitation of both the mitral and the pulmonary 
valves. 

But those diseases are actual organic pathologic conditions, 
not psychiatric, or functional. 

And finally, Judge Ben B. Lindsey tries a hand at the 
cause of cancer in The Companionate Marriage: 

When I say that illness often results from the effort of 
husband and wife to condone infidelity in each other, I don't 
mean “mere nervousness.” The nervous tension in these 
cases may be so terrific as to produce glandular imbalance 
and profound disturbances of physiological function that can 
result in almost anything. Among the diseases that often 
result are asthma , tuberculosis, acute digestive disorders, 
defects of eyesight, and a long list of other troubles. Con- 
sider, for example, the remoter consequences that might 
come from such digestive disturbances. It is well known that 
some digestive disorders readily lead to duodenal ulcer, and 
that duodenal ulcer in turn frequently ends in cancer. Thus 
the chain of cause and effect may be a long and tragic one . 

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MEDICAL MISTAKES OF ARTHUR BRISBANE 

Let us consider one of America's confessedly greatest news- 
paper men whose journalistic jewels are daily syndicated to 
millions of readers. The omniscient Arthur Brisbane never 
hesitates to comment on any medical subject, and almost in- 
variably he is wrong. An engineer might admit that the 
omniscient one is right about everything except engineering, 
or a chemist might grant the authoritative character of the 
omniscient Brisbane's remarks so far as they concern every- 
thing but chemistry. Apparently, omniscient as he is, the 
great Brisbane overlooked the criterion established by Albert 
Edward Wiggam which defined the recognition of expert 
knowledge as one of the marks of an educated man. After 
calling attention to the fact that osteopaths were celebrating 
a “normal spine week," the omniscient one proceeded: 

Osteopaths today take the place of doctors and doctors 
cannot do what osteopaths do, because they haven't learned 
that in the human body the skeleton is as important as the 
steel frame in a skyscraper. It is as dangerous to have a bone 
pinching a nerve as it would be to have an iron beam cutting 
off an electric light wire, or a water pipe. Mayor Walker, of 
New York, on his way west for a rest from overwork, stopped 
in Chicago for an osteopathic treatment. Wise mayor. 

Shortly after this was published the Hearst papers announced 
that Mr. Brisbane did not intend to say that osteopaths take 
the place of doctors. Even if he had said that, however, the 
item would have been little better. The analogy between 
pinching the nerve and an occluded water pipe is a typical 
Brisbane analogy. He makes science so simple that his com- 
ments appeal particularly to the simple-minded. Let us see 
what the dispenser of what have kindly been called “Bris- 
banalities" does with a matter of medical news! Here is an 
example: 

Tears are deadly to germs, says an English scientist. One 
tear in a test tube with millions of bacteria dissolved them 
all. Nature has many ways of protecting the body . There is 

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salt in tears , and salt is one of the greatest protectors . Salt , 
acid, and violent shaking are deadly to germs . When you 
sneeze you kill germs, just as you would be killed if an 
elephant stepped on you . 

There is a specimen of a complete Brisbanism. First, the 
statement of an unspecified English scientist, that one tear 
dissolves a million germs, absolutely untrue; next, the in- 
formation that salt is one of the greatest protectors of the 
body against germs, also untrue; and then the alarming com- 
parison of a sneeze to an elephant. That is the real Brisbane 
touch. 

Again Mr. Brisbane writes: 

Science is powerful. It can help you if you will let it. Keep 
away from quacks of all kinds, including quacks that think 
they can cure you by talking to you about it — unless the 
latter makes you cheerful. 

Next to X-rays and the surgeon’s knife comes cheerfulness. 
The energy of the blood destroys cancer in many cases. 
Cheerfulness increases blood energy. 

There you see how by pure logic, Mr. Brisbane leads us to 
the cause and cure of cancer, sought unsuccessfully as yet 
by scientists for many years. 

And in another issue: 

A very long needle is used to inject adrenalin right into 
the heart. The adrenalin, made from one of the mysterious 
glands of the body located in the pancreas, is injected into 
the tissues of the heart itself. 

Adrenalin, Mr. Brisbane should have discovered, comes from 
the adrenal gland just above the kidney, and has nothing to 
do with the pancreas in the matter of its origin. 

Commenting on the death of President Harding, the in- 
spired one said: 

When you hear that a well-known man is ill, observe the 
doctors and how they feed him. Many a man dies because 

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doctors don't know enough to take food from a man fighting 
high temperature . 

For your own sake , remember that the body cannot elim- 
inate poisons and assimilate nourishment at the same time . 
Elimination and assimilation don't go together. 

While your temperature is above normal , take nothing 
but water — plenty of it — and your temperature will come 
down probably . 

But Mr. Brisbane never hesitates. Here Arthur takes it for 
granted that a Mongolian idiot has something to do with 
Chinese parents — but it has not: 

Question any experienced obstetrician as to occasional 
births of “Mongolian idiots ” in his practice, and you learn 
that Asiatic blood is never completely absorbed by whites. 

The Mongolian idiot appears frequently in Italy, both 
parents apparently white, and scientists trace the appearance 
to the importation of Mongolian slaves as far back as Marco 
Polo , in the thirteenth century. 

The omniscient Arthur in a generous mood offers advice 
to King George’s physicians who apparently have been over- 
looking something in the way of helping His Majesty. The 
item from the New York American, and from all the rest of 
the syndicate papers: 

King George's condition worries his doctors, puzzled by 
his “great fatigue.” 

The King's blood is tired after months of fighting against 
poisonous streptococci. 

His blood has lost what military commanders would call 
its fighting morale. 

After a long campaign a tired army needs fresh soldiers. 
The King's blood needs vigorous, fresh leucocytes, and could 
get them by transfusion. That so important a step should be 
so long delayed is surprising. The King's physicians might 
well hesitate to experiment with so illustrious a patient . But 
blood transfusion is no longer an experiment, but a scientific 
remedy for blood stream infection. 

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So next Mr. Brisbane discusses surgery of the brain. Pos- 
sibly ten other men in our country really know something 
about it: 

At the base of the brain lies the pituitary gland , a puzzle 
to scientists, thought by some to be the residence of the 
human soul . 

Dr. F. J . Evans of Denver has successfully removed a small 
tumor, near the pituitary gland, from the brain of a child 
four years old. 

One-half the skull was removed on one side, one lobe of 
the brain lifted, while the surgeon worked through brain 
tissue. A fine achievement. . . . One day such operations 
will be as common as pruning trees. It is probable that 
ninety men in a hundred, at least, could be made mentally 
more efficient by brain surgery, especially removing pressure 
of the skull and giving important parts of the brain more 
room. . . . Put your hand on top of your head. Run it along 
the top lightly. If you feel a depression at the top you need 
brain surgery to lift the skull top a little and let the brain 
do better work. Some doctors will say this is nonsense, but 
that is what all doctors past forty said when Harvey 
announced the circulation of the blood, driven by the heart. 

It seems that alcoholic wines are different from other alco- 
holic beverages: 

Mussolini forbids intoxication which means more in Italy 
than forty constitutional amendments would mean here. But 
Mussolini allows his Legislature to decide that the mild and 
rare drunkenness caused by drinking natural Italian wines, 
does not count. Only hard liquor drunkenness is to be 
punished. 

To prohibition that seems absurd, but it is not quite 
absurd scientifically. Natural wines, no matter how much 
you drink, do not produce delirium tremens. 

Champagne, of course, is not included among natural 
wines and is about as bad as whisky with the additional dis- 
advantage of completing the process of fermentation in your 
stomach. 

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“Never feed a fever/’ says the great maestro: 

Secretary Good's relapse , coming after optimistic reports 
from his doctors , reminds you that NO FOOD should be the 
rule in cases of fever indicating a toxic condition . 

Secretary Good's temperature was high , his body was fight- 
ing desperately against poison , and eliminating it. 

“Then',' you read, “he took nourishment for the first 
time." 

He took nourishment, and immediately his condition 
changed for the worse. It did so inevitably. The body cannot, 
at the same time, absorb nourishment and eliminate poison. 

One task is enough, for a man low in strength. 

Doubtless the usual course was followed. The patient is 
feeling a little better. Those that love him are distressed 
because he has had no food for several days. 

Food is given, when it should be sternly withheld, and the 
relapse comes, the unnecessary and very hard work of diges- 
tion and food assimilation having been added to a body 
already overworked. 

Doctors, too often, yield to family anxiety, based on the 
foolish belief that a man, fighting poison in his blood, needs 
food “to keep up his strength." He needs water, rest, quiet. 
Food is only more poison, and many that call themselves doc- 
tors do not know it. 

Any man in average condition can live on water for twenty 
days or more, without serious injury. Remember that, if 
some one tries to feed you, when you have high fever, or any 
indication of a septic condition. 

There is danger, it seems, in looking too closely at cock- 
tails: 

Professor Guillain, of the University of Paris, says, truly, 
that more people kill themselves with cocktails than with 
pistols, shotguns, knives, gas, and poison. 


That France and Britain should have copied our worst 
form of alcoholic poison, says little for their intelligence, but 
in both countries, only the worthless froth of the population 
drinks the mucous-membrane and kidney destroyers. 

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Dip your handkerchief in a cocktail , apply it to your eye- 
ball , and you will know what a cocktail does to the lining of 
your insides. 

If French and British cocktails shorten life , made with real 
spirits, ask yourself what bootleg liquor must do to the 
American interior. 

Arthur now begins to cogitate on the facts of life: 

The women's air race from the Pacific Ocean to Cleveland 
was saddened by the death of Miss Marvel Crosson, a coura- 
geous and admirable young woman. 

For the present such races should be confined to men. 
Their death is less important. 

When such a woman as Miss Crosson is killed , there is no 
knowing what brilliantly useful men and women may , in her 
death, have been deprived of their chance of life. 

Of course, there was the immaculate conception: 

A New York court sets free individuals arrested on a 
charge of teaching birth control. That was not the “set-up” 
when the people were arrested. But public opinion caused a 
change. 


Temporarily it is decided that the woman, not some 
gentlemen with theories, may decide how many children the 
woman shall have. 

The idea that God wants a sickly woman with six or seven 
sickly children to have another sickly child isn't compli- 
mentary to divine wisdom. Besides, all the birth control in 
the world could not prevent it if the Lord willed it. He is 
omnipotent. 

Sugar, it seems, makes heat but not fat: 

This country, once the great sugar-consuming nation of 
the world, now eats less sugar than it needs, A GREAT 
DEAL LESS, as shown in the investigation ordered by Earl 
D. Babst, head of the American Sugar Refining Company. 
Sugar is necessary to health. Nations insufficiently supplied 

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with sugar , as was shown in the big war , are nations partly 
starved. 

Australia uses , per capita , eighteen pounds of sugar more 
than the United States , and New Zealand uses fifteen pounds 
a year more than the United States. 

This is due in part to the folly of women trying to get 
thin , told by ignorant specialists , (t Sugar will make you fat.” 

Sugar will NOT make you fat. On the contrary, it will 
supply heat and burn up waste tissue. 

So it seems also that sunshine prevents cancer, which is 
just Mr. Brisbane’s notion: 

Proof that the complete costume of modern woman, in- 
cluding dress, stockings, shoes, and underwear, may weigh 
as little as 24 ounces causes the virtuous to grieve. But, even 
as woman in her changing moods cuts off her dress at top 
and bottom, may be comfortable. The low-necked dress is 
partially justified by this fact, to which your doctor will tes- 
tify. Cancer attacks women more often than men, and cancer 
of the breast, dreadfully frequent in civilized countries, is 
quite unknown among female savages that wear no clothing 
above the waist. Sunshine seems to keep cancer away. 

Not only diagnosis, but prognosis and treatment comes 
from the noted specialist: 

Mussolini, as was surmised, is suffering from ulcers in the 
duodenum, the short intestine, into which the stomach 
opens. That can be cured if the walls of the intestine have 
not been eaten through. 

Ten days’ fasting and a good course of saline cathartics 
will discourage and clear out the Llambia bacilli. Half a 
pint of sour milk, soured with the Metchnikoff bacillus, plus 
careful living, will do the work and keep things right. 

The hemorrhages in Mussolini’s case are the dangerous 
signs. A disease like his killed Napoleon at St. Helena. But 
in Napoleon’s case depression and despair did half the work. 
Mussolini has many interesting things to live for, and prob- 
ably will live. 

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So then he takes up locomotor ataxia and forgets about 
its syphilitic cause: 

You can tell the age of fishes by the size of their ears. The 
fish has an interior ear; although you can't see it , it is there. 
In that ear grows a little “otolith” like a small, round stone. 
Rolling around the ear cavity this stone, by its feeling, tells 
the fish whether he is swimming right side up or on his back. 
Strange idea, you say, the same is true of man. We have in- 
side the ear structure, a minute quantity of liquid which, 
as it moves back and forth like the “spirit” in a mechanic's 
level enables us to keep our balance with our eyes shut. 
Locomotor ataxia destroys that fluid, and its victims fall over 
when they shut their eyes, and they must look at their feet, 
as they walk. 

We are all “fearfully and wonderfully made” — fish, men . 
mice and microbes. 

And dietetics is his specialty! 

Chicago's campaign to increase consumption of beef is 
useful. Human beings need meat, as a time-saving propo- 
sition. 

Millions of years of frost and rain grind up rock, earth- 
worms prepare soil, grass grows, cows eat it, men eat the 
cows, and get in half an hour the benefit of work done by 
the cows, worms and nature. 


There ought to be another campaign to encourage the use 
of mutton. For all but the strongest men mutton is better 
food than beef. For children especially, mutton is better, 
being a less “nervous” food. 

And again Arthur solves the problem of cancer. Just 

Don't die of cancer, it isn't necessary. At the age of 40 
one out of every ten persons has a cancer. One hundred 
thousand die of cancer in the United States every year. At 
least 75,000 die unnecessarily. Autopsies show that thousands, 
dead of old age, take cancers to the grave with them. Pay 
attention to any strange growth on the body. A little work 
will often prevent a cancer spreading. Above all, keep in 

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good condition , with regular sleep , moderate exercise, much 
fresh air and your blood will take care of the cancer . 

The vitamins, ahl the vitamins! 

What are vitamins? We know that we can't live without 
them, that they cure rickets in children, what foodstuffs con- 
tain the various vitamins, and scientists have just discovered 
that two of them, vitamins A and B, give off some kind of 
strange radiation . Rats deprived of certain necessary vita- 
mins, have no children. Deprived of other vitamins, they 
starve to death, although supplied with abundance of food. 

Three important things we possess, without knowing what 
they are, electricity, vitamins, and the soul of man. 

And occasionally Arthur lapses in his grammar, as he tells 
what happened to Eastern visitors in the Golden West: 

Westerners live cheerfully under conditions that would 
appall some in the East. 

While fishing on the Klamath River, Mr. Clark stopped 
with an old farming couple, zoo miles from a railroad. They 
had ten cows and sold $700 worth of milk a year. Visiting 
tourists yielded about half as much as the ten cows. 

And then he expresses himself further on cancer: 

Dr. Boris Sokoloff of St. Louis proves to the Pasteur Insti- 
tute in Paris that lactic acid can be useful against cancer. 

Twenty-seven per cent of cancerous rats were completely 
cured by injections of lactic acid and cancerous growth 
arrested in the remaining 73 per cent. 

The value of lactic acid and the energetic lactic bacilli is 
not fully appreciated. Doctors should experiment with the 
introduction of lactic bacilli directly into the lower, intes- 
tinal tract, instead of relying on the bacilli to find their way 
safely through the destructive juices of the stomach, into the 
duodenum and onwards. 

Thus Doctor Brisbane! Needless to say much of his advice 
is unscientific and absolutely pernicious. But every day hun- 
dreds of thousands read his disquisitions on everything from 

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the Dempsey-Firpo fight to the Einstein theory and accept 
them as gospel truth. I do not know what his batting average 
may be in other fields. In medicine, he seems to average one 
correct hit in about twenty trips to the plate. 


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XXII 


MEDICAL ADVERTISING 
AND PROPAGANDA 


"You manufacture, with the aid of unguents, a false head of hair, and 
your bald and dirty skull is covered with dyed locks. There is no 
need to have a hairdresser for your head. A sponge, Phoebus, would 
do the business better .” — Martial: Epigrams, Book VI, Ep. 48. 


O nly a little more than a century has passed since the time 
when the simple announcement that a piece of goods 
was for sale at a certain price sufficed to make it known to 
the purchasing public. Today, the sale of most commodities, 
luxuries, and services is the result of a highly organized, 
intricate campaign. Our thoughts, our beliefs, our food, our 
clothing, our pleasures, and our government are controlled 
by propaganda. The word, originally of wholly evil con- 
notation, now represents all of the various forces that may be 
brought to bear to influence public opinion. Five years ago, 
Mr. Bruce Barton, who did so much to popularize the Bible, 
at least briefly, said to me in a conference in New York: 
“The medical profession has the greatest message to deliver 
for the good of mankind, and it is the one group which has 
failed to avail itself of the power of advertising for promot- 
ing that good.’* I tried to convince Mr. Barton that the 
medical profession had done more than its share in the way 
of philanthropy and that education of the public in health 
by means of paid advertisements was the duty of the state, of 
the press, and of industries generally. Mr. Barton’s main 
business is not religion but advertising — he is a great author- 

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ity in the field of propaganda, and I fear I left him un- 
convinced. 

As early as 1843 a leader in the field of advertising noted 
that pain or the fear of pain had the greatest appeal to 
mankind, and that for this reason medical advertising, in- 
cluding the announcements of patent medicines, took most 
of the space in the press. He pointed out also that vanity 
had psychologically the next strongest appeal and that the 
advertisements of beauty products followed closely after 
those of medicines and doctors in their ability to command 
public interest. With the beginning of the Twentieth Cen- 
tury and with the introduction of modern propaganda, con- 
ditions changed. The coming of anesthetics and of modem 
medical science, the education of the public as to the fallacies 
of patent medicine advertisements, the development of 
something in the nature of ethical standards for the press, 
and, above all, the recognition that propaganda could change 
the habits of thought, of action, and of living of a nation, 
have worked tremendous changes. 

Propaganda — the word is of ancient lineage, going back 
to the first great Catholic Board for propagating the Faith — 
today includes all that was included in its earlier meaning, 
rather than paid advertising alone. Of the methods used 
more will be told later. However, in a country noted for 
commercial efficiency, the direct advertising methods have 
been developed far beyond the methods of insidious propa- 
ganda. Advertising today commands the highest priced 
writers and artists; its directors are the very molochs of com- 
merce; it speaks and the whole world listens. 

THE COST OF ADVERTISING 

Today the advertising expenditure in the United States 
totals approximately $1,502,000,000, of a total national ex- 
penditure of ninety billions. This figure represents about 
one-half as much money as is spent annually for preventive 
medicine and the care of disease. Of the money distributed 
for advertising, the newspapers in 1927 took $690,000,000; 
direct-by-mail appeals, $400,000,000; magazines, $210,000,- 

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ooo; billboards and outdoor advertising, $75,000,000; busi- 
ness and trade papers, $75,000,000; premiums, programs 
directories, and similar places of advertisement, $25,000,000; 
streetcar cards, $20,000,000; and the radio, just in its infancy, 
$7,000,000. The materials most widely advertised in the 
period from 1922 to 1927 were automobiles, toilet articles, 
foods, beverages, and tobacco. In 1927 these constituted 65 
per cent of the total national advertising in newspapers in 
forty-nine large cities. Foods, toilet goods, household goods, 
automobiles, and accessories accounted for 51.3 per cent of 
all magazine advertising in 1927. The rapid growth of the 
radio business and of the electrical refrigerator business was 
stimulated by the heaviest expenditures for advertising ever 
made by any investments. The manufacture for which the 
greatest increases in advertising took place from 1921 to 
1927 were radio sets, electric refrigerators, automobile equip- 
ment, foods, toilet articles, silverware, clocks, and watches. 
The sale of such goods is proportionate to the amount of 
money spent in propaganda and advertising. 

The entire nature of the life of the American people has 
been modified by the appeals made through propaganda. 
Consider, for instance, food and clothing. A human being 
cannot possibly eat much more than 3,500 calories day after 
day. It is possible for most of us to maintain our weight 
satisfactorily under ordinary conditions with well under 
3,000 calories. When more money becomes available for 
food, one does not buy more food but begins to vary the 
nature of the products that are taken. As a result of the fact 
that the American people had more money to spend for food 
during the past five years, through the development by 
experts in chemistry and nutrition of new types of food, and 
because vast sums were spent in exploiting foods, a great 
change has come in the diet of our people. Package foods 
have multiplied in number and in variety. The farina, whole 
wheat, and oatmeal of a past generation now come to us in 
hundreds of forms — mixed, inflated with air, shot from a 
cannon, half-cooked, wholly cooked, irradiated, twisted, 
straightened, and modified indeed in every possible way to 

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afford novelty to the sensation of taste, to the feel upon the 
tongue, to the sense of smell, to sight, and to hearing. 
Actually every factor has been studied that might possibly 
make for increased appeal to the epicure. For this the Ameri- 
can people pay and pay heavily, and a large part of what 
they pay goes to the advertising that promotes these foods 
to the purchaser. Today the average man eats about one 
thousand calories less per day than he used to eat. He pays 
more for it. These changes have caused consternation in 
many great industries which now undertake propaganda to 
overcome them. The subject might be carried further to show 
how the package goods developed the chain store and vice 
versa but this would carry us far afield. 

CLOTHING AND PROPAGANDA 

The clothing of men and of women has changed consid- 
erably in the past ten years. Changes in fashion are not 
extraordinary, and great tomes have been written describing 
modifications in human wear from generation to generation. 
The last ten years have seen, however, some of the most re- 
markable changes in fashion that ever afflicted humankind. 
The results of these changes have been such as to shake 
to their foundations some of our greatest industries. It has 
been said that Americans will not raise anything but cotton 
and will wear anything else. Early in the present decade, 
furs and fur-trimmed garments and short skirts became the 
vogue. The coming of the short skirt demanded silk hosiery. 
At the same time, the shoe trade began to develop novelty 
styles, and fashion decreed that shoes must match the dress. 
Rayon silk, which had formerly been merely a curiosity, 
became the established material for underwear. In 1926, 36 
per cent of the sales of women’s underwear, including vests, 
bloomers, step-ins, union suits, slips, nightgowns, and other 
garments more or less unmentionable, were made of rayon; 
31 per cent of silk, and 33 per cent of cotton. As a result, 
there occurred a tremendous depression in the woolen and 
worsted industries, and the manufacturers of cotton stock- 

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ings went into bankruptcy. For this propaganda was re- 
sponsible, and the connection has been traced directly. 

A few years ago, the producers of velvet were faced by a 
tremendous depression in the use of that material. A con- 
ference was held, and it was determined to spend money for 
propaganda. Agents were sent to Lyons where silk is manu- 
factured and to Paris, where the celebrated designers were 
informed of the situation and suitably dealt with. As a 
result, Worth and designers of equal fame began to develop 
gowns, cloaks, and other feminine accessories of velvet as 
the mode for the coming season. The wife of the President 
of the United States suddenly appeared in a velvet hat. This 
fact was widely commented on in the press. Newspaper 
articles began to appear on the women’s pages announcing 
that fickle fashion had changed to velvet. The manufacturers 
of chopped or ready-made dresses who copy the Paris 
fashions began ordering thousands of bolts of velvet. The 
shop girls, clerks, and all of the group known as the lower 
middle class began to buy velvet gowns for evening wear 
and even for day time. The velvet business increased tre- 
mendously, and the depression was temporarily allayed. 

THE CRAZE FOR SLENDERIZATION 

A few years ago a craze for slenderization swept the 
United States. The corset industry was ruined. A manu- 
facturer who developed boyish form brassieres made millions 
and expanded his factories to meet the demand. The pro- 
ducers of white flour and sugar felt the depression. In several 
large cities, hygienists noted that the rate of tuberculosis for 
adolescent girls and for young women began to increase. 
Here is a disease definitely associated with malnutrition. The 
response was prompt. Again propaganda was brought into 
the picture to influence public psychology. The Paris de- 
signers who had decreed lean models, short skirts, and a 
modicum of trimming were prevailed on to decree hips, 
trains, and ruffles for the future mode. The manufacturers 
of white flour and of sugar began purchasing space in the 
press for their advertisements. Great publicity organizations 

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were designed to promote education through news columns, 
editorials, lectures, motion pictures, and the radio. Mr. 
Ziegfeld picked larger girls for his chorus and covered them 
up. Today the trend is toward bigger and better women, and 
toward women more fully clothed. Immediately other in- 
dustries depending on leanness began to be depressed and 
to build propaganda to save themselves. One of the steps 
in the reverse propaganda was the promotion of the Holly- 
wood diets. A critic of movies, Luella Parsons, first pro- 
moted these diets as having been developed for the movie 
colony by a congress of celebrated French and American 
physicians. This obviously was pure bunkum. Somewhere 
the word emanated that the diet had been developed by a 
famous medical clinic. The “Eighteen-Day Diet” was given 
tremendous vogue because the Hollywood standard of 
beauty in women is the American standard of beauty, and 
fat girls do not photograph well. The artists of Hollywood, 
if one may call them such, wage constant battles against 
avoirdupois. The “Eighteen-Day Diet” began its day. Then 
the producers of package foods, of sugar, and of flour again 
felt a depression in their trade. The evidence indicates that 
pressure was brought to bear on the powers that be in jour- 
nalism. The advertisements of the food industries, as has 
been pointed out, represent one of the largest groups carried 
in the press and in the magazines. Suddenly, all of the papers 
began to carry articles by the experts on how to gain weight 
rapidly, and another depression was delayed. 

HALITOSIS AND DYSKINESIA 

Increased education of the public as to the facts of physi- 
ology, anatomy, and hygiene has not disposed wholly of the 
old psychology. Among the chief appeals that may be made 
to mankind through advertising, the appeals to relief from 
pain and the promotion of health, and the appeal to vanity 
or the promotion of beauty still loom largely. Thus, the 
physician and particularly the hygienist and the dermatolo- 
gist have become prophets in the land. The promoters of 
yeast, unable to find in this country physicians who would 

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give testimonials, were able to purchase them from British, 
Spanish, French, and German colleagues at about $150 each, 
the money in many instances going to some charity which 
the physician desired to aid. Perhaps much of this goes back 
to the original inspiration that came to Feasley when he 
found the word “halitosis” and made a million dollars in a 
season for the Listerine company. Immediately the bright 
boys of the advertising agencies began thumbing the lexicons 
in search of new words to charm the public fancy. The 
Metropolitan Life Insurance Company launched “dyskin- 
esia” as a safe word for constipation; a yeast concern, over 
the drawing of a pallid, haggard citizen, said, “Just making 
the motions — a victim of cachexia (run-down condition) .” 
Dr. Sansum discovered acidosis for the orange growers, and 
Listerine, having worn threadbare the sad tale of the wall- 
flower — “Why wasn’t she dancing?” — discovered seborrheic 
dermatitis. 

In support of advertising claims, millions of dollars are 
being spent in research. In a recent visit to the Mellon 
Institute I saw experiments being conducted to support 
ventilating devices, mattresses, bed springs, gelatin, bran 
foods, and what not. The scientific appeals appeared in 
the advertisements of 1930. Thus modern advertising is 
scientifically grounded and most of the great campaigns of 
the current years have been studied by experts who have not 
been slow to ask for the evidence on which the campaign 
was based. Honesty in advertising has become a national 
slogan and better business bureaus throughout the land 
enforce the standards. 

In the observations thus far set forth, I believe it has 
been shown that advertising is doing as much or more to 
educate our public than the public schools. But our public 
schools are, themselves, constantly swayed by propaganda! 
Practically no one who has looked into the situation fails 
to realize that the present era of prohibition is the direct out- 
growth of textbooks loaded with propaganda under the guise 
of science which pervaded our schools in the latter part of 
the nineteenth century. Not long ago the American Medical 

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Association was besought by a propaganda bureau against 
narcotics to urge the insertion into all the current textbooks 
of statements which would no doubt result in the abolish- 
ing of the right of the physician to prescribe morphine or 
cocaine fifty years hence. The political censorship of text- 
books is not a strange phenomenon. Politics recognizes the 
importance of propaganda and wins elections with it. In the 
campaign of 1916 Henry Ford advertised under the caption 
“Humanity and Your Vote” the reasons that led him to 
support President Wilson. The announcement appeared si- 
multaneously in five hundred newspapers in all parts of the 
country. That was at the time when Irving Berlin wrote “I 
Didn’t Raise My Boy to Be a Soldier,” which was followed 
shortly after, when the United States entered the war, by that 
other peaceful melody, “Oh, How I Hate to Get Up in the 
Morning,” and also by “Over There.” 

Obviously scarcely a single field of human thought or 
action has not been entered by the advertiser. Today the 
advertisement is used as much or more to influence public 
opinion as to sell commodities or luxuries. The advertise- 
ment, rather than the editorial, is the most effective means 
of persuading the public to any course of action. Already 
the advertisement dominates our scenery, our literature, our 
entertainment. The beauties of scenery are defaced by miles 
of billboards; on the tallest rocks appear the slogans; stories 
are written longer so that they will run over among the 
advertisements, and it has been suggested that the time will 
come when writers will insist on being next to good adver- 
tising matter, just as advertisers now insist on being next to 
pure reading matter. On the radio a Beethoven concerto is 
devoted to promoting somebody’s oil burner, and a lecture 
on evolution is sandwiched between the claims for a health 
drink and a cold cure. Children are more familiar with the 
Gold Dust Twins, the Campbell Kids, the Victor Dog, the 
Carnation Contented Cow, the Borden Eagle, the Bull 
Durham and the Camel of the cigaret than with Little Lord 
Fauntleroy and Black Beauty. There is an anecdote of the 
prayer of a modern little girl. “Oh, Lord, make me pure,” 

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she said. “Not 99.44% pure like Ivory Soap, but absolutely 
pure like Royal Baking Powder.” 

Thus propaganda has pervaded politics, government, edu- 
cation, art, and science. Social service and charity, today or- 
ganized virtually as big business, do not hesitate to avail 
themselves of propaganda in the business of doing good. A 
great portion of the funds accumulated for charity and for 
philanthropy is paid out to the newspapers and magazines 
for advertisements planned to raise more money. The man- 
agers have found that the advertisements get results that can- 
not be had in the modern state of our civilization in any 
other way. The churches, deserted because of the more saga- 
cious appeals of the movies, the golf courses, and the baseball 
games, buy advertising space to attract the faithful. News- 
papers, anxious to sell space, arrange for public-spirited citi- 
zens who like to see their names in print, to pay for these 
advertisements in the promotion of good. 

A study of advertisements is the best route to follow in 
tracing the history of any of the human activities during the 
last twenty-five years. A quarter of a century ago The 
Journal of the American Medical Association showed that 
the vast majority of the products advertised were drugs; then 
came books, then apparatus, and finally foods. Today foods 
equal, if not surpass, drugs in the amount of space sold, and 
books follow closely thereafter. The years see the gradual 
introduction of new devices for accurate measurement, of 
mediums for the growth of bacteria; they see the rise and 
fall of the vaccine; the coming of radium and of the ultra- 
violet ray; they see the appearance of insulin, of liver ex- 
tract, of arsphenamine, and of scarlet fever antitoxin. If you 
would see the real, enduring progress of medicine during 
the past twenty-five years, study the advertisements. It is 
simpler than surveying the original contributions. 

ADVERTISING HEALTH 

While propaganda has overwhelmed every other phase of 
human life, its application to spreading the benefits of 
scientific medicine has been slow — and no doubt much to 

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the advantage of the practice of medicine. True, the Ameri- 
can Society for the Control of Cancer, the National Tuber- 
culosis Association, the American Child Health Association, 
the National Health Council, the American Heart Associa- 
tion, and innumerable similar organizations are devoted to 
propaganda. However, compared to the type of effort and 
the results achieved in the field of commerce, the best of 
their work is amateurish. They simply do not have the funds 
to purchase advertising space or efficient propaganda in 
quantities sufficient to make their voices heard among the 
shouting for public attention. They seek free time on the 
radio, free space in the press, free public speakers. Wherever 
social effort turns in its propaganda, it finds itself in con- 
flict with the interests. Consider the difficulties of the editor 
of a newspaper when he surveys the publicity material that 
comes to him. Thus Salmon points out in “The Newspaper 
and the Historian”: 

The press has a free hand in some of its campaigns for 
public health — flies , rats , mosquitoes , and caterpillars are 
not commercialized and campaigns against them are univer- 
sally popular . But the press suffers a heavy handicap when 
it attempts to improve other conditions that militate against 
the health of the public. Efforts to secure pure milk may run 
counter to milk dealers and to the Grange; proposals to 
improve the water supply come into collision with the tax- 
payers; epidemics must not be reported because they reflect 
on the boards of health and diminish the out-of-town trade; 
news of the bubonic plague must be suppressed because its 
publication will interfere with travel; disgraceful living con- 
ditions in congested districts must be ignored because the 
tenement houses are the property of wealthy residents; the 
results of accidents must be minimized because they reflect 
on the railroads, or on important local manufacturing indus- 
tries, or on the large department store; danger from fire in 
buildings where many persons are employed must not be 
dwelt upon because the owners are influential citizens; 
advertisements of patent cure-alls must not be rejected be- 
cause they make widely known the home town where they 
are manufactured; a clean-up week must not be urged 

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because it is opposed by the board of public works; exposure 
of filthy conditions behind the scenes in restaurants will 
result in boycotting the restaurants by the public and in boy- 
cotting the exposing newspapers by the restaurants; advocacy 
of free clinics may incur the displeasure of the medical pro- 
fession; the premature announcement of discoveries in medi- 
cine or in surgery may bring only ridicule on a paper 
overzealous to publish. 

In all of this discussion, I have not been so naive as to 
imagine that individual physicians, individual clinics, indi- 
vidual universities, and other medical and scientific organi- 
zations have failed to realize the value of propaganda for 
promotion. At the beginning of the twentieth century, a 
noted surgeon began to appear regularly in the press in pub- 
licity relative to his surgical accomplishments. He admitted 
shortly before his death that ninety per cent of his practice 
came to him directly from the public as a result of such 
exploitation. Another surgeon, having been induced by 
proper representatives to discontinue his direct contacts with 
publicity, admitted shortly thereafter that the effect on his 
practice had been prompt in its depression. 

ADVERTISING AND PRACTICE 

A great clinic, if properly organized, must have its pub- 
licity department. Representatives of the clinic must appear 
regularly at all important medical meetings, to read papers 
on investigations. Motion pictures revealing the work of the 
clinic must be sent broadcast to the meetings of county med- 
ical societies. Interviews with the leaders must be given 
freely, and they must cultivate a journalistic sense so as to 
make statements sufficiently fantastic to catch the first page 
and sufficiently scientific to avoid too great condemnation by 
medical colleagues. The discoveries made by the research 
workers who are contentedly toiling in their cubbyholes 
must be acclaimed and exploited by the “contact men” as 
they travel about throughout the land. In this way, the name 
of any clinic may be brought prominently to the people. 
I say “may be”; perhaps I should say “has beenl” 

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No one realizes better than I, however, how wholly in- 
efficient from the commercial or professional advertising 
man’s point of view has been the propaganda for scientific 
medicine and particularly for the individual practicing 
physician. Let us assume that a really dynamic public re- 
lations counsel — for such is the title of a great authority on 
propaganda — were employed by organized medicine to pre- 
sent to the public the ability of the family physician to 
diagnose and treat rheumatism. The public, we will assume, 
is not especially interested in either rheumatism or phy- 
sicians. 


PROMOTING RHEUMATIC CURES 

Rheumatism, or inflammation of the joints, or pain in the 
back or muscles, which is the popular conception of the 
term, is a common, painful disease. The condition is chronic, 
and as with most chronic disorders, patients are eternally 
hopeful. Remissions occur and patients are likely to feel that 
each new treatment is bringing relief. Indeed, the chiro- 
practors, osteopaths, faith healers, and others who depend 
largely on the power of suggestion, can, for these reasons, 
cite their quota of benefited and cured cases and produce the 
testimonials to substantiate the citations. Let us assume that 
the organized medical profession wished to increase greatly 
the practice of the individual physician, particularly as re- 
lates to the treatment of rheumatism, and devoted a suf- 
ficient sum of money to propaganda for that purpose. 

Various leaders of the profession would prepare articles 
for the press calling attention to the menace of rheumatism 
and emphasizing its frequency and painful character. Some 
twenty or thirty syndicated health columnists would be asked 
to cooperate by devoting their columns to a similar purpose. 
Syndicated editorial writers would be visited, provided with 
the facts, and urged to awaken their readers. The matter 
would be discussed with the business departments and then 
with the editorial departments of leading weeklies and 
women’s magazines. Interviews would be secured with Henry 
Ford, Jimmie Walker, Bishop Manning, and others of similar 

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repute who speak promptly, if not authoritatively, on most of 
the affairs of mankind. Arthur Brisbane would be asked to 
discuss the relationship of rheumatism to the Pharaohs of 
Egypt and he would emphasize that rheumatism is a menace 
to mothers — and who has not had a mother? The Associated 
and the United Press would circulate the interviews to the 
most remote hamlets and townships. Everyone would re- 
member remote twinges of pain and would be flattered to 
think that he was suffering with the disturbance that had 
aroused the interest of Mr. Ford and Mr. Brisbane. 

Publicity organizations which devote their entire efforts to 
securing publicity for various movements would begin their 
work. News items about cases of rheumatism among noted 
and notorious people would be furnished to editors and they 
would assemble them in special columns so that rheumatism 
would loom much larger in the public eye than it actually 
is. The procedure was followed by our editors last year in 
connection with juvenile suicides, and is regularly followed 
in connection with motor accidents. The Sunday magazine 
sections would appear with lurid pictures and highly adjec- 
tived articles about the manner in which rheumatism caused 
the downfall of Grecian and Roman civilizations. Mr. Irving 
Berlin would produce a song called the “rheumatic blues,” 
which jazz orchestras would feature on the radio. Victrola 
records would appear overnight. Dances would appear in the 
Scandals and in the Follies, and when the girls stood on their 
heads and the skirts toppled downwards it would be discov- 
ered that they spelled “rheumatism.” A movie called Her 
Dangerous Love would reveal a woman who sacrificed her 
life for a man with rheumatism. Red Grange would explain 
how rheumatism has interfered with his success since leaving 
Illinois. Noted ladies like “Peaches” Browning and Fanny 
Ward would be photographed with their skirts raised suf- 
ficiently to reveal the locus of rheumatism in the knee joint 
and an arrow would point to the spot of inflammation. The 
manufacturers of drugs for the relief of pain, of ointments 
used as counterirritants, of hydrotherapeutic devices, of heat 
lamps, and of diathermic apparatus would buy space in 

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which rheumatism would be fully discussed. Gradually the 
interest and the fear of rheumatism would accumulate. Then 
billboards and streetcar cards would shout rheumatism on 
every side, and sky writers would point the word in the 
heavens. 

At last the American people would be “rheumatism- 
conscious.” The organized medical profession, having held 
its own connection with the campaign secret until the psy- 
chological moment had arrived, would launch its advertise- 
ments. Full pages would be taken in the press to emphasize 
the main points that had been brought out in the pre- 
liminary campaign, and the public would be urged to go to 
the places listed where, for a certain price at a certain time, 
a proper diagnosis and treatment could be had. Certainly 
they would flock by thousands, for propaganda never fails 
unless it conflicts with fundamental human instincts. Even 
with these it can be temporarily successful. 

The campaign described has been purposely exaggerated, 
but for every item or step that has been mentioned adequate 
evidence can be produced to reveal its use in some campaign 
already before the American public. By such methods 
Madame Helena Rubinstein took a pot of cold cream, made 
according to the formula of a Polish physician, and ran it 
into millions of dollars. Her subject was beauty and she had 
something definite to sell. 

Furthermore, the example itself is not such a bad selection 
for a propaganda, if one should really be made. Rheumatism 
must have competent diagnosis and differential diagnosis. In 
Vienna, because of the importance of the problem of rheu- 
matism, three great centers for rheumatic patients have been 
established in the three largest hospitals cooperating with 
the Krankenkassen. In the outpatient departments attending 
to patients for the Krankenkassen , extensive physical thera- 
peutic departments have been installed. At all the great spas 
and resorts the Krankenkassen have established special de- 
partments for the care of rheumatism. In England one sixth 
of the disability of workmen is found to be due to rheumatic 
disease which costs annually about ten millions each year in 

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sick benefits and the loss of eighteen million working days 
per year. For Berlin it was estimated that the number of 
rheumatic patients who are members of the Krankenkassen is 
seven and one-half times as large as the number of tuber- 
culous patients. Nevertheless, the propaganda against tu- 
berculosis is tremendous; the money spent in study and 
education concerning tuberculosis is in millions as con- 
trasted with paltry thousands devoted to rheumatism. But 
shall we have a similar propaganda concerning every disease? 

In a survey of the trend of medical practice I emphasized 
my belief that the care of public health in the mass was the 
duty of the public health officials, and that preventive medi- 
cine as applied to the individual must remain the work of 
the individual physician, if the latter is to survive for the 
future. Thus one of the chief duties of the public health 
official will become the making of suitable propaganda for 
the scientific practice of medicine and the devotion of public 
funds to this purpose. It is encouraging to see the health 
officer of New York advertising the prevention of diphtheria 
by toxin-antitoxin and to see the buses on Fifth Avenue 
carrying signs urging the people to go to their family physi- 
cians for this service. It is encouraging to see seven great 
philanthropic organizations in New York cooperating to 
advertise in the New York Times, urging people to go to 
their family physician for periodic physical examinations. It 
is encouraging to see the great pharmaceutical houses edu- 
cating the public regarding the progress of preventive medi- 
cine and urging the people to go to their family physicians 
for advice and the application of established methods. Thus 
scientific medicine is being helped by propaganda. The 
propaganda is powerful, efficient, and costly, and the physi- 
cians are not being asked to devote their own funds to 
purchase advertising space primarily for the good of the 
public. 

There exists among the public, the advertising agencies, 
and the press generally a strange notion as to the principles 
of medical ethics and their application to advertising. The 
Principles of Medical Ethics say wisely: 

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It is unprofessional to procure patients by indirection 
through solicitors or agents of any kind , or by indirect adver- 
tisement or by furnishing or inspiring newspapers or maga- 
zine comments concerning cases in which the physician has 
been or is concerned. All other like self-laudations defy the 
traditions and lower the tone of the profession and so are 
intolerable. 

Here is nothing which will prevent a county medical society 
from engaging in group advertising to warn the people away 
from cultists, to educate the public as to the advantages of 
scientific medicine and the dangers of one-track systems of 
healing. Great advertising agencies, urging such advertise- 
ments on county societies — and many county, as well as a 
few State societies, have purchased space for such purposes — 
point out that cultist groups, including osteopaths, magnetic 
belt promoters, and even Christian Scientists, take space in 
the newspapers to promote their wares. The Christian 
Science Committee on Publications is no doubt the most 
efficient organization ever developed to combat unfavorable 
publicity. Until the present year, it has fought an almost 
invariably successful battle. The fallacy of the advertising 
agencies’ argument should be obvious. If the advertising of 
the cultist is unscientific and against the best interests of the 
community, the cure for the situation is for the newspapers 
to refuse their advertising, not for the medical profession to 
combat the advertising by buying space in opposition. The 
medical profession should not give up its principles; the 
advertising agencies and mediums should acquire more prin- 
ciples. 

Propaganda for anything will succeed temporarily, but if 
it is opposed to fundamental human instincts or if it is 
untrue the facts become known and the repercussions are 
serious. In all the campaigns for carrying preventive medi- 
cine to the public which we in the headquarters of the 
American Medical Association have supervised, we have in- 
sisted on limitation to those methods which were fully 
established as efficient and harmless. The results have been 
favorable and there have been no serious repercussions. 

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Propaganda is a most potent force, used today to control 
practically every phase of human thought and action. Med- 
icine has but trifled in its employment, whereas the possi- 
bilities of more extensive and proper use of established 
technics might yield great good to the advancement of 
medical science, the good of the medical practitioner, and, 
above all, the health of the public. The philanthropies 
in the field of medicine, the corporations engaging in medi- 
cal practice, are using propaganda far more efficiently than 
it is used by organized medicine. Indeed, the old inhibitions 
are strong, and organized medicine has not yet determined 
how far it wishes to go in opposing unsound propaganda in 
the field of social medicine with its own point of view. The 
choice must nevertheless be made. The opinion of the 
public is being established for it by teachers who have 
studied the situation and who realize how the opinion of 
the public is formed. If the medical profession is to have 
any part in controlling public opinion, it must accommodate 
itself to the situation and use the forces that are being mus- 
tered by the opposition. Through the publication of its 
own health magazine, through its contacts with the press, 
through its association with the great commercial interests 
allied to medical practice, through cooperation with many 
social services and philanthropies of high leadership, organ- 
ized medicine is beginning to avail itself of the powers of 
propaganda for its own and for the public good. But the 
situation demands far more consideration by organized 
medicine than it has yet had. 


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"Every doctor must have human understanding but the psychotherapist 
needs it to an unusual degree and besides this he must be a natural 
leader. For in this realm the relationship between doctor and patient 
is particularly close. In this condition the patient is particularly 
lonely , frightened and weak and needs a strong guide. Psychotherapy 
is mental guidance .” — Henry E. Sigerist , "Man and Medicine .” 

S ignificantly, in his book on mental healers, Zweig 
chooses as the three outstanding names in this field 
Mesmer, Mrs. Eddy, and Sigmund Freud. In previous chap- 
ters I have shown the gradual evolution of faith healing 
from the time of Paracelsus through Mesmer and Mrs. Eddy 
to all of the charlatans as well as to the scientific psycho- 
therapy of modern times. Whenever any discovery is made 
in science it is used, promoted, and exploited not only by 
scientists who pursue investigations for the advancement of 
knowledge and who adapt the discovery to the treatment 
of ailing man, but also by charlatans who take advantage 
of the public interest and, with little or no knowledge, 
emphasize those factors which appeal particularly to human 
weakness. 

It would be folly to deny that the work of Sigmund 
Freud is one of the most fundamental contributions ever 
made to the happiness of mankind. It would be equally 
fallacious to assert that it has been an unmixed blessing. 
Out of the doctrines of Freud has come inspiration for an 
intensification of the public’s interest in the mental aspects 
of sex gratification — an interest which innumerable quacks 
now promote for their personal gain. 

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THE RISE OF FREUDIANISM 

The human mind is, unfortunately, so constituted that 
but few persons ever learn careful judgment; most align 
themselves promptly on one side or another of every thought 
or conception thrown into the field of conversation or 
controversy, and are then ready to offer up their life’s 
blood, if need be, in defense of the views that they have 
adopted. The pendulum of thought is then never still but 
always toward one extreme or another, the pull upon it of 
the enthusiasts on either side being far greater than the 
pull at the central point, where the experience of the past 
would indicate it more properly belongs. The term “pendu- 
lum thinking” has been applied to this phenomenon. A 
good Freudian, reading this analogy, will immediately find 
in the pendulum one symbol and in the central point 
another; and I will immediately be convicted of resistances 
and other major phenomena in the Freudian category from 
which it is difficult even for so serious and careful a person 
as myself to escape. 

The Freudian doctrines perhaps originated with Breuer 
in 1880 and definitely came upon the psychologic scene 
in 1894, apparently after Sigmund Freud had spent a brief 
period of study with Charcot, noted French psychiatrist. 
Whether for reasons of internationalism or perhaps because 
of simple jealousy, the French scientist, Janet, who seems to 
have been simultaneously a pupil, has never been quite 
able to forgive Freud the development of this new school 
of thought. One cannot call it psychology, for the standard 
psychologists have in general repudiated most of it. The 
practice of psychoanalysis as psychotherapeutics is properly 
the practice of medicine but the invasion of the field by 
hordes of quacks has made its very name anathema to most 
reputable psychiatrists. The educators have found the sub- 
ject most thrilling in its application to the routine dullness 
of the educator’s ordinary life. Hence it is that the finest 
blossom of this tropical plant is its relationship to the care 
of the growing child and its use for delving into the mind 

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of the sexually precocious adolescent. In any event, Janet 
claims this fragrant offshoot with one hand while he repulses 
it with the other in the following reminiscence of the 
Freudian visit: 

At this time a foreign physician Dr, S. Freud came to 
Salpetriere and became much interested in these studies. 
He granted the truth of the facts and published some new 
observations of the same kind. In these publications he 
changed first of all the terms that I was using: what I had 
called psychological analysis he called psychoanalysis; what 
I had called psychological system ... he called a complex. 
He considered a repression what I considered a restriction 
of consciousness ; what I referred to as a psychological dis- 
sociation , or as a moral fumigation, he baptized with the 
name catharsis. But above all he transformed a clinical obser- 
vation and a therapeutic treatment with a definite and 
limited field of use, into an enormous system of medical 
philosophy — the philosophy of Pansexuality. 

Dr. Smith Ely Jelliffe asserts that Janet later repudi- 
ated these statements. Janet is not, however, the only critic 
of the Freudian school who insists that Freud derives largely 
from other schools of thought. The difficulty of tracing the 
derivation lies in the fact that the Freudian school has 
developed an entire nomenclature to facilitate converse 
among the elect, much as a group of recalcitrant young- 
sters adopts a sort of hog-Latin to keep its transactions 
away from the juvenile bourgeoisie. Some of the critics 
refer to the doctrine of purification of the emotions evolved 
by Aristotle. Others mention Mesmer and his healing by 
hypnosis. Many insist that the entire system is simply an 
elaborate ritual for conveying suggestion without the laying 
on of hands. Perhaps the associated technic is sufficient to 
make the laying on of hands an extremely elementary process 
by comparison. 


THE BASIS OF PSYCHOANALYSIS 

The basic conception of Freudianism is the comprehen- 
sion of the “unconscious.” This is the portion of the mind 

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which is perhaps not directly responsible for carrying on 
the functions of human existence that are simple processes 
in addition — and yet by the Freudian conception the uncon- 
scious enters into every human activity. Indeed, all of our 
ethics, morality, culture, and civilization are products of its 
work. It seems indeed to be the powerful minister behind 
the throne who insidiously guides the monarch — the con- 
scious mind — into any plan that it desires. The unconscious 
has been described as a “magic cave where, by psycho- 
analysis, one can discover anything one puts into it.” The 
most carefully reasoned presentation of the Freudian uncon- 
scious in brief form must be credited to Morton Prince, 
although Freudians insist that Prince has not passed the 
subconscious of Janet. He considers that it embraces only 
mental processes that have been repressed from or kept 
out of consciousness because intolerable by reason of their 
unmoral, unsocialistic, and other characteristics; that for the 
most part never have entered awareness and therefore have 
been unconsciously and automatically kept apart; that are 
essentially of infantile origin and nature, the splitting of the 
mind into conscious and unconscious regions having taken 
place in the earliest part of childhood, probably in the first 
year; that involve the crude primitive instincts; that are pre- 
dominantly sexual in character; and that, as they, necessarily 
like all processes, are dynamic, are sexual wishes. Morton 
Prince dismisses these views with the simple statement that 
they are not true, not confirmed by methods of research and, 
indeed, actually contradicted by scientific observations. Sachs, 
viewing the orgy of sexual associations that arises from any 
one’s unconscious when an adept Freudian disciple becomes 
active, blurts out that “what Nature in her wisdom assigned 
to the unconscious had better remain there.” Yet the Freu- 
dians would have it that this “Unconscious” is the domin- 
ating factor in our lives and that not only mental disturb- 
ances but phenomena such as pain, convulsive seizures, ner- 
vous coughs, spells, states of anxiety, images of compulsion, 
hallucinations, and illusions are simply the symbols by which 
this Unconscious reveals itself to the outer world. 

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Anyone will grant that the human being avoids disagree- 
able experiences and prefers not to think about them. It may 
be admitted that the eye constantly sees, the ear hears, the 
hands feel, and the nose smells without positive recording 
of the impressions concerned. No doubt, the infant before 
arriving at the age of memory or reason is automatically 
receiving certain impressions. Then, too, all of us inherit 
forms of body structure, perhaps particularly brain struc- 
ture, which may be concerned in our methods of thought 
and action. Certainly the will to survive, the desire to repro- 
duce, the wish to satiate hunger, are fundamental in man 
as in the lower animals. But the Freudians would have it 
that these things are the impelling motives and that they 
see them about in this Unconscious ever ready to burst 
forth against their owner’s will. To prevent their eruption, 
their owner represses them or holds them down consciously, 
and this conflict between conscious and unconscious is the 
basis of all sorts of nervous and physical disorders, which 
are relieved, as we shall hear later, by psychoanalysis. 

The German internist, Biimke, hesitates to accept such a 
complicated explanation of the situation. He recognizes that 
there is a crossing of several motives in the case of most 
human convictions and actions, and that the real reason 
for a certain act is not always that which appears most logical 
but often one based largely on emotions. “Numerous contra- 
dictions arise in the life of a person,” he says, “and it is these 
contradictions that we often discover in a disguised form 
in many neurotic individuals. Whoever is acquainted with 
the rationality of such an occurrence will, without the aid 
of psychoanalysis, have no difficulty in bringing out the 
truth and rid the patient from his troublesome complexes.” 

THE SEX FACTOR IN PSYCHOANALYSIS 

As has already been emphasized, the sexual factor looms 
largest in the Freudian doctrines. All Freudians are agreed 
on the place of the unconscious but they are not so uniform 
in their acceptance of the place of sex as the prime factor 
in the unconscious. Indeed, many resort to strange evasions 

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when the critics attempt to fix them definitely on this point. 
What was formerly understood by love — namely sexual 
love — has been gradually expanded into a new and much 
broader usage of that term. The Freudian “libido” embraces 
far more than could as notable a lover as Brigham Young. 
In the most recent enunciation of Freud himself “we call 
by that name the energy (regarded as a quantitative mag- 
nitude, though not at present actually measurable) of those 
instincts which have to do with all that may be comprised 
under the word ‘love/ The nucleus of what we mean by 
love naturally consists (and this is what is commonly called 
love — and what the poets sing of) in sexual love with sexual 
union as its aim. But we do not separate from this — what 
in any case has a share in the name love — on the one hand 
self-love, and on the other love for parents and children, 
friendship and love for humanity in general and also devo- 
tion to concrete objects and to abstract ideas. Our justifi- 
cation lies in the fact that psychoanalytic research has taught 
us that all these tendencies are an expression of the same 
instinctive activities; in relations between the sexes these 
instincts force their way toward sexual union, but in other 
circumstances they are diverted from this aim or are pre- 
vented from reaching it through always preserving enough 
of their original nature to keep their identity recognizable 
(as in such features as the longing for proximity, and self- 
sacrifice) . . . Psychoanalysis then gives these love instincts 
the name of sexual instincts, a posteriori , and by reason of 
their origin.” 

The technic of psychoanalysis both as a method of diag- 
nosis and of cure seems to be essentially simple, yet the 
great founder himself insists that one cannot become a 
good psychoanalyst without a visit to the fountainhead in 
Vienna, that one cannot be a psychoanalyst until one has 
been himself submitted completely to the complete process, 
and that the fountainhead technic is the only technic. There 
exist several tomes in which disciples have endeavored to 
describe the technic in detail. But just as chiropractic split 
from or derived from osteopathy, so also have a dozen or more 

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other schools of psychoanalysis derived from the original 
school, and new tricks of technic have originated with them. 
In a recent promulgation one direct apostle insists that the 
average time for an analysis is from six to eight months 
with five or six sessions each week. One ritual demands that 
the patient lie upon a couch in a dimly darkened office. 
There she — and the word falls naturally for it is usually a 
feminine patient — begins her long autobiography and there 
the psychoanalyst sits — we hope — listening and stimulating 
ever more and more juicy revelations. 

THE DREAM AND ITS INTERPRETATION 

If there is ever a period in which the unconscious is at 
its best, that time is when a person dreams. Certainly his con- 
scious cannot be dominating, because it is impossible when 
actually asleep to dream what one wishes. Those who dream 
while awake have no difficulty, however, in accomplishing 
in their fantasies the things they desire. The Freudians have 
it that the dream accomplishes what the unconscious 
desires — it is a wish-fulfillment. Obviously the activities of 
the personnel involved in the dream are modified not only 
by all of the person’s past experience, indeed even by his 
prenatal state, but also by all recent events and particularly 
by events of the day. The good psychoanalyst begins promptly 
to delve into the inner meanings of the dreams of his patients. 
At this point, frequently the dirty work begins. 

During the dreams the censor, that mythical controller 
of the complexes, is still active but not so wide-awake, as 
when the person concerned is about his daily affairs. How- 
ever, the censor continues to function sufficiently to cause 
the unconscious to adopt disguises for the persons and the 
ideas that are exploited in the dream. These symbols of 
things and persons have been organized to a certain extent, 
but their possibilities are limited undoubtedly only by the 
limits of imagination of the psychoanalyst who is interpret- 
ing the dream. For instance, sex activity may be symbolized 
either by flying or falling, by going upstairs or by going 
downstairs, by riding, by fighting, by anything. The organs 

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of sex are symbolized by hundreds, actually thousands of ob- 
jects, usually of the most ordinary varieties of things occur- 
ring in daily life. In a dream analyzed by Jung, the patient 
dreamed of a certain number. “By adding in an ingenious 
way the figures for the year, month, and day of birth of the 
patient, of the patient’s wife, his mistress, and his two chil- 
dren,” says Dunlap, “the total gave the number, which is 
therefore the symbol of the patient’s domestic triangle.” 
Again and again these dream analyses fall into a reductio ad 
absurdem , but it remained for S. A. Tannenbaum, in the 
Journal of Abnormal Psychology, to investigate one of the 
dream analyses made by Freud himself, and to convict the 
great master of an apparent deliberate faking of a dream 
to prove a point. 

It has been urged that psychoanalysis is a scientific method. 
Unfortunately, no two psychoanalysts seem to agree in the 
interpretation of a dream. In one instance reported in the 
scientific literature two analysts differed as to an interpre- 
tation. The matter was referred to Freud and to Jung, and 
two additional interpretations were secured. A scientific 
method yields the same result every time. Actually, this 
variation of result and this continuous correction of the 
experiment to get a result that will fit the picture throws 
the method completely out of the scientific field. “When in 
interpreting a given phenomenon, as for example, to take 
the stock phenomenon, a dream,” says Morton Prince, “we 
have to apply one or more of the various theoretical mechan- 
isms, such as conflict, repression, displacement, compromise, 
disguisement (to avoid the hypothetical censor) , inversion, 
transposition, dramatization, condensation, sublimation, fixa- 
tion, compensation, etc. — when we have to do more or less 
of all this in order to connect an antecedent experience 
logically with the dream or other phenomenon under inves- 
tigation, it is obvious — at least so it appears to me — that the 
method falls far short of having that exactness which scien- 
tific procedure requires, and becomes a source of a large num- 
ber of possible errors.” 

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SOME SCHOOLS OF PSYCHOANALYSIS 

In the dream the complexes find a stage for their dramati- 
zations. Using the scientific method, the complexes have 
been classified. Such conceptions as the CEdipus or “mother” 
complex (the turning of the sexual desire of the boy toward 
his mother) ; the Electra complex (desire of the daughter 
for her father) ; the various perversions of sex desire; narcis- 
sism; the inferiority and superiority complexes are the talk 
of the day among the intelligentsia, the artists, the Green- 
wich villagers, and the other insecta that thrive in a half- 
intoxicated condition in Batik-hung studios where the lights 
are low and the tobacco smoke thick enough to cut with a 
knife. On the relative importance of these complexes the 
psychoanalysts have waged bitter civil warfare. From Freud 
have derived the schools of Jung, of Adler, and of a half- 
dozen other well known disciples such as Stekel, Ferenczi, 
Ernest Jones, and Otto Rank abroad, and Jelliffe, Brill, 
White, Kempf, and others in this country. 

After Carl Jung of Zurich had studied psychoanalysis un- 
der Freud he evolved a different conception of the urge that 
drives mankind. Whereas the Freudian libido denoted sexual 
energy the Jung urge manifests other than sexual activities. 
Indeed, Jung conceives of progression which is a striving 
forward and regression which would make man go back to 
the irresponsibility of infantile and prenatal life. This re- 
gression, let it be understood, is essentially the Freudian 
CEdipus complex. Moreover, Jung is primarily responsible 
for the popularity of that delightful form of after-dinner 
amusement known as the word association test, which, Dr. 
Jelliffe informs me, originated with Wundt and Munster- 
berg. In this method of determining the complexes, the 
patient receives a list of words and is instructed to respond 
to each with the first word that comes into his mind. The 
time necessary for each response and the unusual responses 
indicate that the person is concealing something because of 
a conflict. Among some of the other indicators of the pres- 
ence of a complex are repetition of the stimulus word, re- 

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sponse to a word previously given, naming some object in 
sight, rhyming to the word given, no response, or failure 
to reproduce the same response on repeating the experi- 
ment. Jung is also the formulator of the classification of 
mankind into “introverts” and “extroverts,” conceptions 
which he first introduced in his Psychology of the Uncon- 
scious and which he has recently expanded into the scope 
of a new volume. The introvert withdraws himself from 
reality and lives in the realm of thought — a poet, a painter, 
a professor. The extrovert is gregarious and a man of action 
— probably a traveling man. Finally Jung must be credited 
with having taken the new school of thought into high so- 
ciety. His disciples, particularly in Chicago, have given great 
concern to the public prints; he has lectured with great 
pecuniary emoluments; his nomenclature runs from the 
tongues of the four hundred more glibly than “two no 
trump.” 

THE ADLERIAN SCHOOL 

Alfred Adler, major prophet of another offshoot of the 
great Viennese school, puts the main emphasis on the ego 
instincts instead of on the sex instincts. The dominating im- 
pulse in life is for power and the urge toward security. The 
desire for superiority is a compensation for a feeling of in- 
feriority that may be based on an actual or a supposed 
defect of the body of the person concerned. Neurotic symp- 
toms represent to him a protest against a constitutional in- 
feriority or an inferior position in life. For example, hys- 
terical outbreaks in women are frequently a protest against 
the supposed inferior position of women in general. As out- 
lined by Hunter, the Adlerian conception relates degener- 
acy, genius, and neurosis in the following manner: The 
degenerate succumbs to his inferiority, for his compensation 
is unsuccessful. The genius completely compensates for his 
inferiority by remolding himself or reality to suit his pur- 
pose. The neurotic compensates for his inferiority by a fan- 
tastic creation. He denies reality and compensates in day- 
dreams or in behavior that does not adjust him properly to 

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his environment. Such power as he achieves is secured 
through sickness by which he compels others to his wants. 

The great work of Adler that has reached general accept- 
ance has been his cooperation with pedagogic methods in 
Vienna. He conceives of a large majority of children as dis- 
couraged, which is of course merely another way of saying 
that they suffer with the inferiority complex. The discour- 
aged child has this discouragement for one of three reasons: 
an organic defect, such as deafness, a club foot, a disturbed 
digestion, or some similar weakness; because it is spoiled 
due to parents having yielded to all of its minor demands, 
so that it has learned to lean constantly on others for its 
security; or because it is a hated child and conceives of all 
of the world as its enemies. Assuming that every child seeks 
some goal in life, for all of us constantly strive upwards, 
the discouraged child meeting an obstacle makes its escape 
by lying, stealing, or some other abnormal conduct. This 
psychology makes it a simple matter to excuse criminal ac- 
tions of all kinds, since obviously responsibility for such 
actions must constantly be fixed on circumstance. The peda- 
gogic method involves a retracing of the history of the child 
to the point at which its progress was blocked. It is then 
shown the reasons for its attempt to escape and it is pointed 
out that the heroic action in striving for the goal is taking 
the right path through the obstacle or over it, and not by 
evasion. This conception of Adler’s is generally accepted as a 
major contribution to pedagogy, since it has done much to 
correct evil trends in childhood. 

When this conception is applied to neuroses in women or 
to the criminal actions of adults, it begins to assume the 
possibilities of a dangerous cult, since it teaches the doctrine 
that the individual is never responsible for his actions. In its 
pursuit of the cause of the neurosis, it must perforce lean 
heavily upon sex causes which titillate the imagination and 
attract the neurotic. It is significant that Heinrich F. Wolf, 
one of the chief Adlerian disciples, has just issued a volume 
on The Strategy of Masculine Seduction, in which the tech- 
nic of the modern Casanova is thoroughly elucidated. To 

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this volume Adler himself contributes an introduction with 
the sophistic argument that the value of such an analysis 
will be to make it possible for women to resist such anti- 
social conduct. The work will also have the advantage, he 
suggests, of removing obstructions to love interests, and 
thereby prevent neurosis and antisocial conduct. Adler also 
remarks naively that whenever he has lectured on human 
psychology and has permitted the audience to ask questions, 
70 per cent of the questions were concerned with the technic 
and problems of love. 

The whole conception of defense mechanisms, the build- 
ing up of psychic compensations, the refuge in fantasy or 
heroic dreams of those who are inferior, the notion that one 
whose vision is defective compensates for the power by an 
acquired delicacy of touch or hearing, was fully expressed 
by the Irish bull, that it was a surprising thing that when- 
ever a man had one leg that was shorter, the other was al- 
ways longer. 

Stekel, one of the most popular writers for the public on 
psychoanalysis, unquestionably derives all of his popularity 
from his facility as an author in this field. Possessed of a 
magnificent imagination, he is never at a loss for a suitable 
case to prove his points. Indeed, many Freudians have urged 
that he is not averse to using his creative art in developing 
suitable case material for such purposes. 

Everyone has heard of these major prophets of psycho- 
analysis. Few know about the vast number of disciples with 
slight modifications or individual idiosyncrasies to whom 
suitable space might be allotted. In our own country, Kempf 
has tried to get a physiologic basis for most of the neuroses 
and the mental disturbances, with a view to securing greater 
medical acceptance. His psychoanalytic practice is con- 
fusedly intermingled with much stress on the glands of in- 
ternal secretion and on the autonomic nervous system. 

PSYCHOANALYSIS OF EVERYDAY LIFE 

Among the most fascinating applications of psychoanalysis 
has been the attempt to apply this method to a study of the 

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minor mental incidents of daily life. The Freudians would 
have it that the traveling man who tells an obscene story in 
the smoking compartment of a Pullman car is merely re- 
sorting to a form of exhibitionism that takes the place of an 
actual display of his sexual proclivities. The person who 
makes a slip of the tongue or a slip of the pen does so be- 
cause he is anxious to conceal his real mental attitude in the 
matter concerned. Forgetting, for instance, it is alleged, may 
sometimes be due to repression of something which one is 
anxious to forget, and probably, in the majority of instances, 
a sexual wish. On the other hand, it has been urged by 
psychologists who have given much attention to the matter 
that persons frequently fail to remember simply because of 
a natural condition of disinterest, and perhaps still more 
often because their minds are fixed on matters which inter- 
est them a great deal more. Indeed, Morton Prince asserts 
that the whole problem of remembering and forgetting is 
subordinate to the fundamental problem of why we remem- 
ber at all. Such daily incidents of life as repeated washing 
of the hands, the Freudians assert, are due to some occur- 
rence, perhaps in infantile life, in which the hands were 
concerned in a sexual catastrophe. Actually a good Freudian, 
if there is such an animal in the opposite sense of the word, 
seems to be able to find some obscene cause for practically 
any action on which a person may fix his attention, or about 
which he prefers not to speak. On the other hand, the major- 
ity of more careful thinkers are inclined to believe that 
sometimes we forget because we simply “do not give a 
damn.” 

I have heard Adler say, I have read in the writings of 
Freud, and of others in this particular field, that every action 
of human kind, individual or social, may be explained by 
the psychoanalytic technic. The absolute apotheosis of the 
cult of psychoanalysis is perhaps best expressed by Trigant 
Burow of Johns Hopkins University in his recent screed on 
this topic. He is certain that psychoanalysis will explain 
both religious hysteria and war, and he continues: 

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Our frenzied greeds , our national competition and usurpa- 
tions rest upon definitely compulsive reactions within the 
national consciousness . Our market inflations and our finan- 
cial depressions are but the fluctuating mental states that 
represent the manic and depressive phases of an unstable 
social cyclothymia. 

The superficial and naive explanations popularly assigned 
as the real occasion for these manifestations — such, for ex- 
ample, as the alleged necessities of territorial expansion , 
international commercial competition, the urgency of tariff 
readjustment, race prejudice, nationalism, our economic 
franchise, the rights of the minority, etc. — all these manifest 
symptoms are but the unconscious rationalizations well cal- 
culated to repress from the social consciousness the real 
underlying occasions of our national neuroses . What is called 
capitalism, Nordic superiority, bolshevism, fascism, class con- 
sciousness, one hundred per cent patriotism, industrial 
democracy, our fluctuating ratios of monetary exchange — all 
these and a thousand more are but mental states which, 
instead of being greeted by us as substitutive manifestations 
calling for definite analysis and adjustment, are universally 
accepted as bona fide expressions, and their latent meaning 
remains completely unchallenged in its psychosocial impli- 
cations. 


PSYCHOANALYSIS AND LITERATURE 

The criticisms that have been leveled against the develop- 
ment of psychoanalysis as a department of medicine or as a 
healing cult have varied from the simple assertion of Joseph 
Collins that the medical profession by and large, the world 
over, repudiates Freud, his theory of neuroses, and his sys- 
tem of therapy to the terrific indictment of Frederick Peter- 
son that psychoanalysis is a species of voodoo religion charac- 
terized by obscene rites and human sacrifices. When the 
Freudian conception was first launched upon the intelli- 
gentsia it became the plaything of artists, litterateurs, and 
critics. It succeeded in dominating the writing of May Sin- 
clair and in devastating such merit as existed in the work 
of D. H. Lawrence and J. D. Beresford. In this country a 
host of novelists, including perhaps Evelyn Scott, Ben Hecht, 

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and the early Sherwood Anderson, were enabled to make in- 
tricate introspective analyses of their own sexual misgivings. 
Even the literary intelligentsia, however, are beginning to 
line up with the psychologists and the physicians in their 
hesitancy to accept absolute Freudian domination. This re- 
pudiation seems to have resulted in the establishment of the 
practice of psychoanalysis by amateurish performers primar- 
ily perhaps for their personal excitement, but secondarily 
for commercial gain. The invasion of the field by such 
pseudoscientific writers as Andr£ Tridon, Harvey O’Hig- 
gins, and William Walsh is evidence of the opportunity af- 
forded for exploiting such literary tripe. Unfortunately, 
some physicians have also lent themselves to similar exploi- 
tation. 


PSYCHOANALYSIS AND MEDICINE 

The practice of psychoanalysis for the healing of disease 
is the point at which it invades the medical field primarily. 
Its use in the treatment of disease has been a part of medi- 
cal practice since the beginning of time. The confessional of 
the Catholic Church, relieving thousands of disturbed 
minds, as well as every method of faith healing that has ever 
existed, including Christian Science, Coueism, autosugges- 
tion, amulets, charms, incantations, chiropractic, and the 
laying on of hands in general, can report hundreds of cures 
of persons who are not actually sick. It is, however, an en- 
tirely different process to apply such methods simply and 
directly for healing of neuroses with a full knowledge of 
the reason for the application and with a full knowledge of 
any organic defects that may exist in the person concerned, 
and to use all of the paraphernalia of the charlatan to attract 
ladies of leisure and unfortunate victims of sexual aberra- 
tions into a method of treatment requiring months of time 
and tremendous financial outlays. 

Worst of all, the majority of good psychiatrists are con- 
vinced that the orthodox method of psychoanalysis as prac- 
ticed by the out-and-outers in this field is distinctly wrong 
in principle and meretricious in practice; that it degrades 

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the personality; produces harmful results and is, in general, 
indefensible. “One need not be a physician,” says a compe- 
tent authority, “to realize that an infant is suffering from 
constipation, nor does it require considerable experience in 
life to know that nervous women during a reception will 
occasionally put their fingers in their pocketbooks. The in- 
fant does not do this because it derives pleasurable satisfac- 
tion, nor does the nervous lady signify a sexual relationship 
by her act.” 

Men of long experience in the psychiatric field are able 
to produce numerous instances in which the psychoanalytic 
technic has been the prime occasion for a severe disturbance 
of mentality by turning a sexual interest into a sexual aber- 
ration. The careful physician is perhaps even more likely to 
be wary of a part of the Freudian technic, because appar- 
ently the only way the patient has of ridding himself of 
some of his most difficult complexes is to transfer them to 
the doctor. 

The invasion of the field by psychoanalytic amateurs has 
finally resulted in setting up defensive reactions among the 
psychoanalytic medical practitioners. In Vienna the physi- 
cians’ group demanded that one of the nonmedical psycho- 
analysts discontinue his practice, although he was certified 
by the great Freud himself, and insisted that psychoanalysts 
who are not physicians have not the right to treat patients 
for disease. A federal ministry of public administration, as 
the highest authority, has been called on to consider an 
opinion delivered by the leading psychiatrist of Vienna to 
the effect that only physicians should treat patients suffer- 
ing from mental disturbances. In their defense, the lay psy- 
choanalysts set up the fact that in America psychoanalysis is 
not regarded as a branch of medicine, but is considered to 
be primarily in the field of pedagogics and spiritual guid- 
ance. 

Notwithstanding this defense, the New York Psychoanal- 
ytic Society was compelled recently to adopt resolutions urg- 
ing that the practice of psychoanalysis in the treating of 
mental disease be restricted to physicians and that even the 

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psychoanalytic instruction of specialists engaged in anthro- 
pology, theology, law, pedagogy, and social service be limited 
to the use of this training for the interpretation of prob- 
lems in the special fields concerned. Furthermore, these 
medical psychoanalysts demand that the instruction be lim- 
ited to those having at least the Bachelor of Arts degree, 
and above all, unequivocal evidence of good moral charac- 
ter. 

The Freudian school will not recognize the status of any- 
one in psychoanalysis unless he has himself been through 
the procedure with Freud or his immediate lieutenant. The 
great apostle is himself the founder of a school of which he 
is the despotic head. It is asserted, as it has been asserted 
by many charlatans in other fields, that this is to protect 
the method against quackery. On the other hand, a scientific 
method is able to stand any type of study or investigation. 
The psychoanalysts insist, as do all cultists, on an “all or 
nothing” policy. When criticized, they seek escape by eva- 
sion, yet they urge that in every normal person sexual per- 
version is latent, and they attempt to classify as erotogenic 
every portion of the body that may in some manner be in- 
volved in sexual pleasure. The use of symbolism has been 
exaggerated to a point beyond reason. 

The great contribution of Sigmund Freud, as admitted 
by all of the critics, has been to attract greater attention to 
the processes of the human mind, to stimulate the acceptance 
of the mind as such in its relation to disturbances of per- 
sonality; in other words, to recognize that the study of ob- 
jective changes in the human body is not sufficient to ac- 
count for mental aberrations. The psychology of everyday 
life, the views regarding the dualism of the human mind, 
and its fundamental modifications have been a tremendous 
stimulus to psychology and to psychiatry. They have modi- 
fied pedagogics and have created the new profession of 
behaviorist. 

The position of Freud in the history of psychology is 
secure, but it is not the position that has been assigned to 
him either by his friends or his enemies. Psychoanalysis 

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cannot be said today to be in any sense of the word an 
established science — the time may come when it will be 
recognized as a significant portion of the science of the 
human mind. 

THE PRESENT PSYCHOANALYTIC SCENE 

Out of the interest in psychology and psychoanalysis of 
the last twenty-five years has come a new species of peddlers 
of psychologic treatment, known as practical psychologists 
or character analysts. Their doctrines are platitudes which 
strike the intellect of Homo Americanus with the force of 
direct communications from high Olympus. Their appeal is 
to the fundamental desires and weaknesses of this same 
Boobus Americanus , his love for financial success, social 
prominence, and his desire for relief from his vague and 
fancied ills. In one conference and for a few pitiful dollars, 
these psychologic charlatans, completely uninformed regard- 
ing true scientific psychology or psychotherapy, attempt to 
advise men and women concerning their mental disturb- 
ances. Sometimes individual conferences follow public 
seances held in large halls. A typical example is reminiscent 
of the days of Mesmer. 

The large auditorium is filled with beautifully gowned 
women and a few sopranolike men. There is a subdued hum 
of chatter and light laughter. Silently the magnificent ma- 
roon velour curtains are parted as though by some invisible 
genii; the lights become dim. Then there walks — almost 
glides — on the stage a man faultlessly attired, his lustrously 
brilliantined hair brushed back smoothly from a pallid coun- 
tenance. The audience is hushed. The professor begins to 
speak in sympathetic tones, pouring forth well-rounded but 
meaningless phrases about the perfection of ideality, happi- 
ness through the sacrifice of the eccentric Ego, the attain- 
ment to Nirvana through immolation on the pyre of ideal 
scientific introspection. He promises youth and health to 
those who will believe and study. 

And the audience — women, occupiers of one-room kit- 
chenettes, suffering with the ennui of idleness, their faces 

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elaborated with artifices in attempt to simulate the long lost 
buoyancy of youth — sighs happily as it dreams of the mirage 
he brings up before it. Quiet ushers pass along the aisles and 
with sibilant whispers distribute cards on which arrange- 
ments may be made for personal consultations with the pro- 
fessor at $10 per visit. Thus works the newer quackery — 
health and happiness and a little erotic stimulation through 
commercialized psychology. 

A FEW CHARLATANS 

In some of the cheaper tracts sold to the public by our 
commercialized press one reads the advertisements of some 
of the psychics who are capitalizing this new state of public 
interest. There is, for example, C. Franklin Leavitt, born in 
1 873, graduate of a homeopathic institution in 1896, and 
organizer of a medical psychologic society. At one time he 
developed what he called the Magnum Bonum Company 
which should have been interpreted as the best thing he had 
yet thought of for his own profit. This concern published a 
magazine called Thought , took full page space in Mr. Ber- 
narr Macfadden’s medium of education, and promised self- 
mastery through understanding. Of course, he also prom- 
ised rejuvenation and preached optimism. At first he of- 
fered just a $100 course; this, however, may be had, if the 
prospect waits long enough for the full series of follow-up 
letters, for $3.50. 

Not long since, there appeared in announcements on the 
billboards of Chicago and in such newspapers as would 
accept the advertisements, statements concerning Lahissa, 
the New Teacher. It seemed that the professor, who affected 
the appearance of a Hindu yogi, was to lecture in the hall 
of the Morrison Hotel and that he would reveal the un- 
known, unscrew the inscrutable, and offer lessons leading to 
success. For a consideration, the professor also promised 
private lessons on how to concentrate. The lectures and the 
demonstrations were all subtly sexual. It occurred to Mr. 
Richard Finnegan, editor of the Chicago Daily Times , to 
send one of his best sob sisters for personal consultations 

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not only with Lahissa but also with a half-dozen other asso- 
ciated psychoanalytic charlatans. The young lady made her 
reports daily in the Times ; in a week five of the experts 
left town, one of them so hurriedly that he left his newly 
purchased Packard as a bonus for the police. 

The most remarkable of all of the professors is one Alfred 
Ernest George Hall, M. D., Ps. D., M. Sc. D., F. Ps. A. When 
the American Medical Association began to look into Hall's 
career, it was found that actually he had never graduated 
from any college. He was nevertheless, if one believed his 
statements, Dean of the American Academy of Psychologi- 
cal Research, Vice President of the International Society of 
Psychological Research, and President of the International 
Society of Mental Light. In a typical performance Hall also 
duplicated and indeed improved on everything that James 
Graham, Mesmer and even Mrs. Eddy had to offer. 

In the center of the stage from which he spoke stood a 
glorified device for indirect lighting covered with flowers. 
On each side of the stage were candelabra with three flicker- 
ing candles simulating the staff of Neptune. The red and 
blue glow of the footlights gave to the lecturer and his staff 
a mystical appearance. 

In various parts of this country and Canada, Hall pro- 
pounds utterly filthy and unscientific lectures on sexual sub- 
jects, describing in the utmost detail, even to the point of 
obscenity, every variation of the sexual act and illustrating 
his salacious utterances with drawings of male and female 
organs in extraordinary juxtaposition. In the small towns 
his lectures were given to mixed audiences, some of them 
adolescent boys and girls. It was not surprising that Hall 
should have been seized by the police in several communities 
and that he is today constantly dodging legal actions still 
held against him. It is surprising that he is able to go on and 
on, as he has done now for half a decade, using all of the 
devices of the quack to exploit the unwary. 

Between the scientific practitioners of psychoanalysis — 
and there are many such — and the outright charlatans, 
whose numbers are also considerable, there is a borderland 

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of first, semi-educated men who offer a scientific psycho- 
analytic service that they are not fitted to provide; and sec- 
ond, a number of psychoanalytic experts well qualified by 
study to carry on the work but noted among the profession 
for the extraordinarily excessive fees that they demand and 
secure from the patients who early develop fixations on their 
psychoanalytic physicians. As can be seen, the field is one 
in which the old rule of caveat emptor (let the buyer be- 
ware) must be constantly applied with all of the skepticism 
that the human animal can summon to the occasion. It is 
sad indeed that those who must make the choice are in many 
instances poor, harassed, driven specimens of the genus homo 
whose intellects, through sorrow and suffering or through 
physical disease, make them quite incapable of summoning 
to their defense anything resembling a judicial tempera- 
ment or anything beyond a hopeful credulity. 


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THE CHOICE OF A PHYSICIAN 


"Physicians mend or end us; but though in health we sneer, when sick we 
call them to attend us, without the least propensity to jeer." — Byron. 


T he physician, if he is the graduate of a reputable medi- 
cal school, has perhaps been told again and again, by 
preceptors and teachers, that his is a profession of service. 
No doubt, the example of sacrifices observed in clinic, dis- 
pensary, and out-patient departments have impressed this 
conception upon him even more. With his diploma, he re- 
ceives an address on high aims and service and a copy of the 
Principles of Medical Ethics of the American Medical Asso- 
ciation. Possibly he lays aside the little book to read after 
the celebrations and examinations associated with this period 
in his career have ended. Then he embarks on his interne- 
ship and, following that, enters medical practice. But he is 
hardly likely to consult the booklet of ethics again unless 
invited to speak on the subject before some organization, 
or until some occasion arises in which he believes his rights 
may have been transgressed. Then he sends for a new copy, 
only to find in all probability that the things he thought 
were there are not really there at all. 

The average man believes that medical ethics were devel- 
oped primarily for the physician, and with but little regard 
for the interest of the patient. He believes that the physician 
is compelled either by this system or by some legal require- 
ment to come to every patient every time he is called. 

The physician believes frequently that medical ethics de- 
mand that other physicians treat him at any time and to any 

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amount without exacting a fee, and not infrequently that 
physicians give gratuitous service also to all members of his 
immediate family and the families of his more distant 
relatives. 

He is certain that the principles prevent another physi- 
cian from “stealing” his patients, and he is not infrequently 
of the opinion that the principles of ethics were formu- 
lated primarily for the protection of the rights of the in- 
dividual physician rather than for the rights of the group. 

In other words, the physician is first and foremost a hu- 
man being with all of the failings of human beings in other 
businesses and in other professions. He is likely, if he is 
that kind of man, to think first of “number one.” He may, if 
he has the instincts of a miser, put receipts above service. 
He may, if he is naturally quarrelsome and antagonistic, 
be constantly at outs with his colleagues and his patients. 
Yet, if he has obtained a reputation for master ability in 
diagnosis, in surgical technic, or in medical treatment, he 
may continue to have a tremendous practice and to maintain 
this practice against constant opposition. 

In medicine, as in all other professions and trades, results 
count. Fortunately, the men who are great in medicine are 
also likely to be great in heart, great in mind and great in 
spirit; but there are exceptions, and physicians know of 
them probably oftener and better than do the public. After 
all, the greatest prize that a physician can secure is the 
esteem of his fellow craftsmen, not the easily procurable 
flattery of the credulous public. 

The public seems to believe there is no way of telling a 
good physician, an ethical one, or a scientific one from an 
unethical or an ignorant one. In many instances, public 
judgment is based on the kind of car he drives, the church 
he attends, the social position of his wife, his whiskers, or 
the protuberance of his abdomen. Frequently, a 48-inch 
waist measure is taken as the equivalent of a 48-caliber 
brain. A man may be a good Elk, a first-rate Shriner, an ex- 
cellent sachem of the Red Men, own his own home, and be 
considered a remarkable doctor, and still not be able to tell 

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whether a sinking pain in the pit of the abdomen is due to 
an inflamed gall bladder or a gastric ulcer. 

It is no longer possible to begin the study of medicine 
with a high-school education or less, and, indeed, to study 
even some of the technical procedures associated with medi- 
cine with such a minimum amount of education. Every repu- 
table medical college now requires at least two or more years 
of work in an approved college of arts and sciences in addi- 
tion to four years of high school education before a man 
can take up the basic medical subjects, such as anatomy, 
physiology, pharmacology, or bacteriology. 

With the increase in the medical curriculum, it now costs 
at least $800 to $1,000 a year to educate a physician for a 
period of eight years. Since the student loses such money as 
he might have made during this period, the cost of his edu- 
cation approximates $20,000. If, at the age of 18, he were 
to put $20,000 in the bank, he would have at the age of 50 
almost enough income to live comfortably thereafter without 
hard work. 

Today there are so many different types of healers offer- 
ing their services to the public that it is well to have a list of 
necessary qualifications in choosing a physician. Competence 
is not the only necessary criterion. A patient might be 
served with a doctor relatively less competent whom he could 
trust implicitly than with one highly competent known as 
an exploiter or even as a crook. In choosing a physician it 
is well to find out first whether or not he is a graduate of a 
reputable medical school, which requires at least four years 
of thorough training; next, whether or not he served his 
interneship in a reliable hospital; third, does he belong to 
his county medical society or to the American Medical Asso- 
ciation; fourth, if he holds himself as a specialist does he 
possess the certificate of one of the national examining 
boards in the medical specialties. If he does not possess 
this certificate, is he recommended by the general practi- 
tioners of the community as a competent specialist? As a 
rule it is best not to select a specialist until one has seen a 

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general practitioner, who, following a good examination, can 
tell whether a specialist is needed. 

The doctor who advertises his methods in the newspapers 
or who passes out handbills, the doctor who has a big adver- 
tising signboard, or a big electric sign in front of his office, 
the man who guarantees a cure or who promises that he can 
cure any serious disease in one or two treatments, the man 
without a fixed residence who moves from city to city, and 
the one who claims special knowledge that no other physi- 
cian has, is likely to be a charlatan and is not to be trusted. 

The principles of ethics now official in the American 
Medical Association are a gradual evolution of a series 
worked over and developed through many years. It is signifi- 
cant that the work emphasizes, first of all, the duties of the 
physician to his patient. These duties include service as an 
ideal, patience, and delicacy as highly desirable qualifica- 
tions, and full assumption of responsibility once a case has 
been undertaken. The principles of ethics emphasize that a 
physician is free to choose whom he will serve, but point 
out that he should respond to any request for assistance in 
emergencies or whenever temperate public opinion expects 
the service. Many a great merchant made his success on the 
same factors. 

The second chapter is concerned with the duties of physi- 
cians to each other. The physician is told that he must be 
an honorable man and a gentleman, conform to a high stand- 
ard of morals, and uphold the dignity of his profession. 

Then comes the question of advertising. The solicitation 
of patients is unprofessional. The section dealing with this 
question is explicit, covering every possibility and leaving 
little doubt as to interpretation. But when all is said, the 
conclusion is actually that a man ought to conform to the 
customs of the community in which he lives. If it has been 
the custom to publish a business card in the country news- 
paper, the physician may do so; on the other hand, if this 
is not the custom, he may not do so. 

The principles of ethics protect the individual physician 
against the commercial group by stating that no group of 

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physicians, organized as a corporation, may do any type of 
advertising that is not permitted to the individual. The dif- 
ference in point of view here emphasized between medical 
ethics and those of business is clearly apparent. 

Medicine has for years depended for its success on the 
personal relationship between physician and patient. The 
great leaders know that the maintenance of this personal 
relationship is essential. Hence, every phase of the principles 
of ethics is planned to protect the rights of individual physi- 
cians with the commercial ideal primarily n mind. 

It has been said that John Wanamaker and Marshall 
Field owed their success to the idea that the customer is 
always right. In other words, the purchaser must be pleased, 
and he must be protected not only from the deceits of sales- 
manship but against his own folly. This, after all, is the type 
of personal relationship which must exist between the physi- 
cian and his patient. A pleased patient, as the principles of 
ethics repeatedly state, is the best type of medical advertise- 
ment. Just as the old law of caveat emptor no longer pre- 
vails in modern business, so also do the principles of medi- 
cal ethics proclaim, “It is unprofessional to promise radical 
cures; to boast of cures and secret methods of treatment or 
remedies; to exhibit certificates of skill or of success in the 
treatment of disease; or to employ any methods to gain the 
attention of the public for the purpose of obtaining 
patients.” 

The ethical physician will not prescribe or dispense secret 
medicines or other secret remedial agents. The analogy of 
this part of the medical code to the best type of modern 
business is perhaps the statement in the advertising of cloth- 
ing of the percentage of wool or cotton which make its con- 
tent. It is similar to the clear statement on fabricated silks 
that they are not actually silks. 

The principles of ethics were set forth not as a threat but 
as an inspiration. Just as there are merchants who by their 
nature rejoice in the shrewd deception of the ignorant cus- 
tomer, just as there are egoists in the control of manufac- 
turing industries who do not hesitate to place their personal 

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wishes above the good of all, so also there are in medicine 
physicians who feel that their judgment in the matter of 
prescribing remedies is better than that of the Council on 
Pharmacy and Chemistry, appointed by the American Medi- 
cal Association to establish what is sound and reliable in 
new remedies. 

The fault is not in the principles of ethics; it is in the 
character of the men who have failed to be inspired by the 
ideals and the high principles of their leaders. One might 
indeed quote Shakspere when Cassius is made to say, “The 
fault, dear Brutus, is not in our stars but in ourselves.” 

A patient lay seriously ill, his physician gave a sad prog- 
nosis and, after giving somewhat explicit directions as to his 
conduct, asked, “Now is there anything else that I can get 
for you?” “Yes,” said the patient weakly, “another doctor.” 

From time to time, the official representatives of Ameri-. 
can medicine have debated the question of consultation, 
bearing in mind that the interest of the patient is para- 
mount. 

Section one of this portion of the principles does not 
equivocate. “In serious illness, especially in doubtful or dif- 
ficult conditions, the physician should request consulta- 
tions.” And it continues, “In every consultation, the benefit 
to be derived by the patient is of first importance. Time and 
again physicians argue the question as to consultation with 
irregular practitioners, or those devoted to the tenets of some 
sectarian practice or cultist system.” The principles of ethics 
are not specific on this point, but there is a section devoted 
to the honor of the profession, which says: “A physician 
should not base his practice on an exclusive dogma or sec- 
tarian system, for ‘sects’ are implacable despots; to accept 
their thralldom is to take away all liberty from one’s action 
and thought.” 

There are many physicians who refuse to recognize cultist 
practice, even to the extent of giving aid to a patient while 
the patient is still under the care or control of such a practi- 
tioner. 

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There are others who do not hesitate to come in and give 
advice to patients who may be under such care. 

Above all, the physician must consider the good of the 
patient. 

There are physicians who are careful to inquire of the 
patient as to whether or not he has seen a previous con- 
sultant and as to the opinions of the ones first consulted; 
there are others who are not too meticulous in determining 
this point. Indeed, a sagacious physician will know 
promptly from the information possessed by the patient 
whether or not he has been informed elsewhere concerning 
his condition. One is almost prompted to suggest that in 
these instances the wise physician will bear in mind the 
motto “caveat vendor ” just as the merchant must apply the 
same motto to the type of customer who shops too insistently 
and whose bills are likely to remain unpaid. 

The principles of ethics recognize the fact that the medi- 
cal diagnosis is usually paid for insufficiently in comparison 
with the reward of surgical technic. “The patient should be 
made to realize/’ say the principles of ethics, “that a proper 
fee should be paid the family physician for the service he 
renders in determining the surgical or medical treatment 
suited to the condition, and in advising concerning those 
best qualified to render any special service that may be re- 
quired by the patient.” 

The third phase of the principles of ethics is again a 
recognition of the duty of the physician to the public. He is 
asked to remember that he is a citizen and to aid in enforc- 
ing laws and in giving advice concerning public health. 
During an epidemic, he must continue his labors for the 
alleviation of the suffering, without regard to the risk of 
his own health or life or to financial return. He is asked to 
warn the public against the devices practiced and the false 
pretensions made by charlatans, and he is told finally that 
these principles do not cover all of the obligations which 
he may have, but are wholly a guide which will supplement 
the ordinary conduct of a gentleman and the practice of 
the Golden Rule. The last sentence reads, “Finally, these 

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principles are primarily for the good of the public, and their 
enforcement should be conducted in such a manner as shall 
deserve and receive the endorsement of the community/’ 
Fellowship in the American Medical Association is con- 
tingent on the possession of this membership. 

The Association maintains a Judicial Council which care- 
fully considers complaints brought against any of the fellows 
or members for infractions of any of the principles of ethics. 

And the number of complaints brought and the number 
of physicians expelled from fellowship or membership each 
year is surprisingly small! 


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INDEX 


Abolitionist , The , 186 

American Cosmeticians’ So- 

Abraham, Adolphe, 269 

ciety, 216 

Abrams, Albert, 10, 16, 17, 

American Electronic Re- 

29, 87, 110, 132, 140-153, 

search Association, 146 

159, 200, 201, 295 

American Electrotherapeutic 

Adler, Alfred, 352-356 

Association, 295 

aero therapy, 128, 129 

American Heart Association, 

Aesculapius, 4 

336 

Alabama health law, quoted, 

American Institute of Bak- 

*95 

ing. 359 

Albizu, L. W., 167 

American Institute of Ra- 

alcoholic beverages, 283-287 

tional Therapeutics, 146, 

alcoholism, 287, 288 

147 

Alereos system, 129 

American Legion Monthly, 

Allbutt, Sir Clifford, 263 

3*5 

Allied Medical Associations, 

American Medical Associa- 

132 

tion, 25, 36, 37, 83, 88, 121, 

Alvarez, W. C., 264 

123, 148, 153, 164, 204, 

American Academy of Medi- 

261, 272-278, 284, 285, 333, 

cine and Surgery, 123, 124 

334. 3 6 3> 3 6 5> 3 6 7> 370. 372 

American Association for the 

American Medical Liberty 

Study of Spondylo therapy, 

League, 132 

141, 146 

American School of Osteop- 

American Cancer Research 

athy, 81 

Society, 130 

American Society for the 

American Child Health As- 

Control of Cancer, 336 

sociation, 337 

Anderson, Sherwood, 358 

American College of Saglift- 

animal magnetism, 7, 8, 

ology, 125 

3° 

American Commonwealth, 

antivivisectionism, 180, 182, 

The, quoted, 9 

183, 185-190 

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Archives of the Homeopathic 
Method of Curing Disease , 
25 

Aristotle, 21, 346 
Arkansas State Board of Ec- 
lectic Examiners, 40, 41 
Arnold, Benedict, 51, 263 
As You Like It, quoted, 210 
Associated Press, 312 
Association for Medico-Phys- 
ical Research, 297, 298 
astral healing, 129, 130 
Atlas, Charles, 168, 169, 171 
Auenbrugger, 142 
Augustus, Roman emperor, 
254 

authors, medical errors of 
noted, 315, 316 
Autohemic Practitioners, 130 
Autohemic Therapy, 130 
auto logy, 130, 131 
autosuggestion, 12, 66-70 
autotherapy, 131, 132 

Banting, 358 
barbers, 210 
Barker, J. E., 263 
Barnum, Phineas T., 2 
Barrington, E., quoted, 316 
Barton, Bruce, 327, 328; 

quoted, 327 
Bates, W. H., 159 
Baunscheidtism, 30 
Beach, Wooster, 33, 34, 39 
beauty preparations, 226, 227 
beauty shop legislation, 213- 
217 

beauty shops, 212-217 


beauty specialists, 210-227 
Beecher, Henry Ward, 3 
Belfield, William T., 231 
Bennett, Arnold, 51, 263, 264 
Beresford, J. D., 357 
Berlin, Irving, 334 
Bernheim, 70 
beverages, 279-288 
Biggers, Earl Derr, quoted, 

3H 

Billings, Frank, quoted, 205 
biodynamochromatic diagno- 
sis, 124, 125, 132, 133 
biologic assay, 181-183 
biological blood-washing, 133 
birth control, 242-251 
Birth Control Review, 244 
Blair, Vilray P., 217 
Book of Martyrs, Fox’s, 44 
Booth, E. R., quoted, 90, 91 
Bowen, N. H., 158 
Bowers, Edwin F., 133 
Boyd, E. W., 149-151 
bread, 255, 256, 259-266 
Breitbart, 169-172, 178 
Breuer, 345 
Brill, A. A., 352 
Brisbane, Arthur, 317-326, 
339; quoted, 317-325 
British Medical Journal, 149 
Brown-Sequard, Charles- 
Edouard, 229, 230, 239 
Browning, Robert, 6 
Brunonianism, 19, 30 
Bryan, William Jennings, 
280 

Bryce, Viscount, quoted, 9 
Bull, Titus, 75 


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Biimke, 348 
Burbank, Luther, 131 
Burkman, Lucius, 47, 48 
Burrow, Trigant, 326; 
quoted, 327 

Burt Vacuum Tube, 235 
Busby Chiropractic Special- 
ists, 108, 109 
Byron, quoted, 252 

California State Medical So- 
ciety, 140 

Calvert, Thomas, 75 
Canstatt, 31 
carbonated waters, 282 
Carver Chiropractic College, 
104-106 
Casanova, 129 

Case of Mr. Crump , quoted, 
316 

Casper, William LeRoy, 65, 
66 

Celsus, A. Cornelius, 3, 6, 
290; quoted, 19, 28 
Central Medical College of 
New York, 36 

Chamberlain, H. St., quoted, 
242 

Charcot, Jean-Martin, 8, 
345 

chiropractic, 29, 73, 86, 98- 
116, 129, 146 
chirothesianism, 133, 134 
chocolate drinks, 281 
Christ psychology, 64 
Christian Philosophical 
stitute, 65, 66 


Christian Science, 5, 16, 17, 
29. 44.49. 5 1 - 52, 54-64. 67, 
72-74, 129 

Christian Science Parent 
Church, 66 
Christos cult, 134 
chromopathy, 134 
Church of the Truth, 64 
Church of the Universal De- 
sign, 63, 66 
Clark, P. L., 137 
Clemenceau, Georges, 
quoted, 65 

Clemens, S. L., see Twain, 
Mark 

clothing propaganda, 330, 
33 1 

Coca Cola, 280 
coffee, 280, 281 
Collard, Arthur de, 136, 137 
College of Medicine, Bo- 
tanic, 36 

Collins, F. W., 123, 124 
Collins, Joseph, 357 
Collip, 358 

Colorado health law, quoted, 
194, 195 

Committee on the Costs of 
Medical Care, 93 
Common Law, The, quoted, 
191 

Companionate Marriage, 
The, quoted, 316 
Comstock, Anthony, 157 
Connecticut licensing law, 
quoted, 200 

Connecticut Medical Society, 
10, 14-16; quoted, 15 


In- 
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Connecticut State Board of 
Eclectic Examiners, 40, 41 
Coolidge, Calvin, 164, 205 
Cooper Medical College, 140 
Cou£, Emile, 12, 44, 66-70 
Cowan, Dr., 146, 147 
Crafts, Hiram, 52 
Cramp, Arthur J., 153 
Creel, George, 310 
Cullen, William, 20 

Daily Times, Chicago, 362 
Dakin, Edwin Franden, 63 
Dame, Susie Magoun, 53, 55 
Dearborn Independent, 149 
Debs, Eugene V., 119-121, 
126 

Defensive Diet League, 298 
De Kruif, Paul, 119 
Dempsey, Jack, 12 
diathermy, 305 
Dickens, Charles, 51 
Dittemore, John V., 66 
Divine Science, 63, 64, 70 
Dixon, W. E., 286, 287; 

quoted, 287 
Don Juan, quoted, 252 
Don Quixote, quoted, 266 
Dowie, Alexander, 44, 70, 7 1 
Dresser, Julius A., 57 
Duhigg, Thomas F., 103 
Duncan, Charles H., 132 
Dunlap, quoted, 351 
dyskinesia, 333 

Eagle, Brooklyn, 178 
Eclectic Medical College, 
Cincinnati, 42 


Eclectic Medical College of 
New York City, 36 
Eclectic Medical Institute, 35 
Eclectic Medical Institute of 
New York, 36 
eclecticism, 30-32, 34-43 
Eddy, Asa Gilbert, 58, 59 
Eddy, Foster, 60 
Eddy, Mary Baker, 44-47, 49- 
63, 71, 344; quoted, 52, 55, 
5 6 - 57- 58, 117 
Einstein, Albert, 84 
electric light diagnosis and 
therapy, 134 
electro-homeopathy, 134 
electro-naprapathy, 1 34 
electrotherapeutics, 134, 298- 
301, 304-308 
Ellsworth, Oliver, 12 
Elmer Gantry, 6 
Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 3; 
quoted, 156 

Emmanuel Movement, 64, 7 1 
Epidaurus, 4 

fallacies, vulgar, 311, 312 
fasting, 253 

Federal Trade Commission, 
14 

Ferber, Edna, quoted, 314 
Ferenczi, Sandor, 352 
Field, Marshall, 369 
Fields, John Parsons, 123 
Fillmore, Charles, 74 
Fillmore, Myrtle, 74 
Finnegan, Richard, 362 
First Church of Christ Scien- 
tist, Boston, 6 1 


376 


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INDEX 


First National University of 
Naturopathy, 123 
Fleischmann’s yeast, 13, 14 
Fletcher, Horace, 254 
Fletcherization, 3, 254 
Florida Board of Health, 
quoted, 191 

Flower Hospital, New York, 
27 

food fads, 252-278 
foods, value of specific, 273- 
278 

Ford, Henry, 51, 149, 263, 
264, 334. 339 

France, Anatole, quoted, 1 
Frank, Glenn, quoted, 30 
Franklin, Benjamin, 9, 10, 48 
Freud, Sigmund, 44, 344-352, 
355-36o 

Frye, Calvin A., 60 
Fuller, H. C., quoted, 38, 39 

Gable, Clark, 168 
Galen, 3, 30, 272, 290 
Garrison, Fielding H., 31 
George V., 319 
geotherapy, 135 
Ghadali, Dinshah, 201 
Gibbons, Floyd, 310 
Gil Bias, 20 
Gillies, 217, 218 
ginger ale, 282 
Glandex Company, 238 
Glandine Laboratories, 238 
Glover, George Washington, 
46 

Glover, Washington, 45, 46 
Goethe, quoted, 140 


Goldberg, Rube, 118, 142 
Gorgas, William Crawford, 
16 

Graham, John, 5, 6, 48 
Growth of the Soil, 255 

Haberlandt, L., 250 
Hadwen, Doctor, 187 
Hahnemann, Samuel Fried- 
rich Christian, 20-24, 26-28 
Hahnemann Medical College 
and Hospital, Philadel- 
phia, 27 

hair treatment, 223-225 
halitosis, 333 

Hall, Alfred Ernest George, 

363 

Haller, Albrecht von, 23 
Hamsun, Knut, 255 
Hansen, Harry, 107 
Harding, Warren G., 318, 
319 

Harvey, William, 30 
Haygarth, John, 18 
health legislation, 191-209 
Hearst, William Randolph, 
302 

Hecht, Ben, 357 
Henniker, Lord, 17 
Henry, Patrick, quoted, 180 
Herodotus, 255 
Hetherington, 162, 163 
Hickson, 70 

Hippocrates, 3, 4, 30, 128, 
272, 290 

History of Medicine (F. H. 

Garrison) , 3 1 
Hoffmann, 19 


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INDEX 


Holmes, Justice O. W., 
quoted, 191, 203, 209 
homeopathy, 21-29, 30, 42 
Home of Truth, 64 
Hooper Foundation for Med- 
ical Research, 264 
Hoosier Chiropractors’ Asso- 
ciation, 112 

Horder, Sir Thomas, 150, 

Houdini, Harry, 74 
Howe, Julia Ward, 3 
Hubbard, Elbert, 131 
Hufeland, Wilhelm Fried- 
rich, 31 

Hughes, Rupert, quoted, 

3 1 5> 3 l6 
Hunter, 353 

hydropathy, 30 
Hygeia, 5 

Illinois College of Somap- 
athy, 137 

In the Evening of My 
Thought , quoted, 65 
In Tune with the Infinite , 73 
Ingersoll, Robert G., 6 
International New Thought 
Alliance, 64 

International Research Lab- 
oratories, 238 
iridiognosis, 125, 135 
Irving, Washington, 5 1 

James, William, 3; quoted, 
254 

Janet, P., 345 347 
Jastrow, Joseph, 2, 55 


Jelliffe, Smith Ely, 346, 352 
Jenner, Edward, 30 
Jewish Science, 63, 71, 72 
Jewish Science and Health , 
etc., 63, 71 
Johnson, Alva, 13 
Jones, Ernest, 352 
Jones-Cooper bill, 206 
Journal of Abnormal Psy- 
chology, 351 

Journal of the American 
Medical Association, 14, 
26, 40, 83, 141, 204, 261- 
263, 309, 335 
Jung, Carl, 351-353 

Kansas City College of Medi- 
cine and Surgery, 36, 40, 
4i 

Kansas City School of Physi- 
cians and Surgeons, 79 
Kellogg, John H., 254 
Kelly, G. Lombard, 249 
Kempf, 352 

Kennedy, Richard, 52-58 
Kingdom of Human Hearts, 
66 

kinistherapy, 157 
Kneipp cure, 125, 127, 135 

Ladies’ Home Journal, 81, 
115, 161 

Lahissa, the New Teacher, 
362, 363 

Lane, Arbuthnot, 263 
Laveran, 20 
Lawrence, D. H., 357 
Le Sage, Ren£, 20 


378 


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INDEX 


Leach, Paul, quoted, 69, 70 
Leavitt, C. Franklin, 362 
Lee, Roger I., 284; quoted, 
284, 285 

Leeuwenhoek, 30 
Leonic healers, 72 
Lewis, Sinclair, 6, 119 
Lewis Laboratories, 236, 237 
Lewisohn, Ludwig, quoted, 

3 l6 

Lichtenstein, Rabbi Morris, 
63, 71, 72 
Liebault, 70 
Liederman, Earl, 172 
Limpio comerology, 135, 136 
Lindlahr, Henry, 118, 119 
Lindlahr Sanatorium, 118- 
121 

Lindsey, Ben B., quoted, 316 
Listerine, 333 
Locke, John, 255 
Longworth, Alice Roosevelt, 
12 

Lorenz, Adolph, 232 
Lucky Strikes, 14 
Lust, Benedict, 119, 121, 122, 
125, 127, 133, 136 
Lynch, Richard, 74 

MacFadden, Bernarr, 119, 
120, 131, 133, 156-163, 166, 
302 

MacMahon, Charles, 173, 
174, 177, 178 
Maddox, 1, 2 

malapropisms, medical, 309- 

3 11 

malaria, 20, 21 



malted beverages, 281 
Man and Medicine, quoted, 

344 

Mandel, Leon, 131 
Mann, Horace, quoted, 309 
Manning, William T., 338 
Mapp, Mrs., 6 
Marshall, John, 12 
Martial, quoted, 327 
Mason, William “Billy/’ 12 
McCollum, 257; quoted, 264 
McComb, Samuel, 71 
McFadden, Michael, 174, 

175 

McFee, William, 302 
McIntyre, O. O., quoted, 315 
McKim, W. Duncan, quoted, 
76 

McLean, James A. M., 
quoted, 136 

McPherson, Aimee Semple, 6 
medical advertising, 327-343 
medical propaganda, 327-343 
Medical School of Fredonia, 

36 

Medicine Man, The, 1,2 
Mencken, H. L., 180, 188 
Menjou, Adolph, 46 
Mental Healers, 53, 54, 344; 
quoted, 54, 57 

Mesmer, Franz Anton, 7, 8, 
19, 44, 48, 344, 346, 361 
mesmerism, 7, 8, 30 
metallic tractors, 9-12, 14-18 
Metropolitan Life Insurance 
Company, 333 
Meyer’s Blood Purifier, 37 
Meyer-Steinheg, Professor, 24 

379 


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INDEX 


Millikan, Robert Andrews, 
145 

Milton, John, quoted, 2 1 
Moli£re, 20 
Moll, 8 

Moras, E. R., 130, 131 
Morgan, Agnes Fay, 267 
Mother Earth, 255 
Mrs. Eddy, the Biography of 
a Virginal Mind, 63 
Miinsterberg, Hugo, 352 
Murray, C. H., 137, 138 
Murray, John, 70 
Mussolini, Benito, 323 


Napoleon I, 323 
Nash, Harriet I., 227 
Nash, Ogden, quoted, 228 
Nathan, George Jean, 180 
National Antivivisection So- 
ciety, 188 

National Association of Pan- 
pathic Physicians, 118, 
130 

National Brain Power, 166 
National Eclectic Medical 
Association, 36 
National Education Associ- 
ation, 270 

National Hairdressers’ Asso- 
ciation, 216 

National Health Council, 

336 

National Medical University, 
118, 130 

National New Thought So- 
ciety, 72 


National Tuberculosis Asso- 
ciation, 336 
naturology, 136 
naturopathy, 73, 118-128, 136 
Naturopathy School and 
Health Home, 122, 123 
neurocalometer, 111-113, 153 
New and Nonofficial Reme- 
dies, 261 

New Guide to Health, 35 
New Mexico, beauty legisla- 
tion in, 216, 217 
New Thought, 16, 63, 64, 65, 
72-74 

New York County Medical 
Society, 34 

New York Homeopathic 
Medical College, 27, 132 
New York Medical Academy, 
34 

New York Psychoanalytic So- 
ciety, 359 

New York Reformed Medi- 
cal College, 36 
Newell, 70 

News, Modesto, Calif., 
quoted, 313 

Newspaper and the His- 
torian, The, quoted, 336, 

337 

Norris, Frank, 255 
Nuxated Iron, 12 


odic force, 30 
O’ Higgins, Harvey, 358 
Olsen, Caroline M., 135, 136 
Olsen, Emil, 135 


380 


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INDEX 


Organon der Rationellen 
Heilkunde , 21; quoted, 22, 
23 

oscilloclast, 111, 142-151 
Osier, Sir William, 37 
Oslund, R. M., 231, 248 
osteopathy, 76-83, 85-97, 9^> 
99 

Our Dumb Animals , 186 
Oursler, Fulton, 156 
Outlook , 13, 156 

Palmer, B. J., 98, 99, 102, 
103, 107, 108, 110-113, 115, 
116, 153; quoted, 98, 99, 
102, 103, 108, no, 111 
Palmer, D. D., 98, 99, 102, 
103 

Palmer, Mabel, 107, 113 
Palmer School of Chiroprac- 
tic, 103, 107, 111, 115* 
Paracelsus, 6, 7, 21, 30 
Parke-Davis and Company, 
i3» 

Parsons, Luella, 332 
Pasteur, Louis, 16, 19, 181, 
312 

pathiatry, 136 
Paton, Stewart, 76 
Patterson, Daniel, 46, 49, 51 
Paul, St., 33 

Pearl, Raymond, 287, 288 
Pearson’s Magazine, 149 
Penguin Island, quoted, 1 
Pennsylvania Board of Medi- 
cal Education and Licen- 
sure, 103 

Perfection Developer, 235 


Perkins, Benjamin Douglas, 
15- 18 

Perkins, Elisha, 9-12, 14-17* 
44, 48 

Peterson, Frederick, 357 
phrenology, 3, 30 
Physical Clinical Medicine, 
144 

Physical Culture, 119, 131, 
i33. i57 l61 

physical therapy, 291-308 
Pinkham, Lydia, 53 
Pistols for Two, 181 
plastic surgery, 217-223 
Poole, P. Hollow, 125 
poropathy, 136, 137 
Powell, C. Lyman, 63 
Poyen, Charles, 47 
Practical Christianity, 64 
practo-therapy, 137 
Prince, Morton, 347, 351, 

356 

Principles of Medical Ethics , 
365; quoted, 341, 371, 372 
psychoanalysis, 344-364 
Psychology of Conviction, 55 
Psychology of the Uncon- 
scious, 353 

Pusey, William Allen, 242 
Pyle, C. C., 162 

Quackenbos, John R., 75 
Quacks of Old. London, 6 
quartz-therapy, 137 
Quick, Herbert, 255 
Quimby, Phineas Parkhurst, 
44. 47-51 
381 


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INDEX 


Rademacherism, 30 
radiendocrinology, 240, 241 
Randolph Eclectic Medical 
Institute, 36 
Rank, Otto, 352 
Rawson, F. S., 74 
reducing bread, 261, 262 
Reed, Louis S., 62, 63, 72, 95, 
113, 115, 127 
Reed, Walter, 16 
Reformed Medical College 
of New York, 34 
rejuvenation, 228-241 
Reymont, 255 
rheumatism, 338-341 
Rice, Thomas, 178, 179 
Robertson, Orrin, 138, 139 
Rogers, L. D., 118, 130 
Rokitansky, 31 
root beers, 282 
Rubin, Herman H., 240 
Rubinstein, Helena, 340 
Rush, Benjamin, 24, 32 
Rush’s Thunderbolt, 24, 32 
Ruskin, John, quoted, 210 

St. Louis College of Physi 
cians and Surgeons, 41 
Salmon, quoted, 336, 337 
Samson Agonistes , quoted, 21 
San Francisco Medico-Chiru 
gical Society, 140 
Sanatogen, 12, 13 
sanatology, 137 
Sandburg, Carl, 120 
Sandow, 163 

Sanger, Margaret, 244, 246 
Saturday Evening Post, 314 


Saturday Night, 158, 160 
Science and Health, etc., 51, 

58, 59 

Science and Life, quoted, 191 
Scientific American, 149 
Scientific Christianity, 74 
Schlatter, 70 
Schnitzler, Arthur, 6 
Scott, Evelyn, 357 
Scribonius Largus, 291 
Seneca, Lucius Annaeus, 254 
Shakespeare, quoted, 210 
Sheehan, J. Eastman, 217 
Sheppard-Towner act, 204, 
206 

Siemens, H. W., quoted, 288 
Sigerist, Henry E., quoted, 

344 

Simmons, George H., 82 
Sinclair, May, 357 
Sinclair, Upton, 3, 16, 126, 
148, 159 
Skoda, 31 

slenderization, 331, 332 
Smith, W. Whatley, 149-151 
soda waters, 282, 283 
Soddy, Frederick, quoted, 

191 

Sokoloff, Boris, 325 
l somapathy, 137, 138 
- spectrochromism, 125, 138, 

201 

Spinal Therapeutics, 141 
spiritualism, 74, 75 
Spofford, Daniel Harrison, 
57> 58 

spondylo therapy, 132, 141, 

144 


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INDEX 


Spondylo therapy, 141 
Stahl, 19 

Standard Remedies , quoted, 
38 

Star, St. Louis, 41 
Steinach, 230-233 
Steiner, Walter R., 11, 16 
Stekel, Ernst, 352 
Still, Andrew, 35, 76-82, 85- 
87, 90-92, 96, 97, 98, 99, 
111; quoted, 76, 77, 78, 79, 
80, 81, 91, 92, 97 
Still, Edward, 96 
Still, James M., 96, 97 
Stopes, Marie, 246 
Strategy of Masculine Seduc- 
tion, The, 354, 355 
Strongfort, Lionel, 175-177, 
178 

Sudhoff, Karl, 6, 24 
Sullivan, J. H., quoted, 90 
Sullivan, John L., 269 
Sun, Baltimore, quoted, 3 1 1 
Swift, Jonathan, quoted, 166 

Tate, Henry, 25 
Tannenbaum, S. A., 351 
theosophy, 75 
Thomson, C. J. S., 6 
Thomson, Samuel, 34, 35 
Thomsonism, 34, 35, 39 
Thomson’s Materia Medica, 
etc., 35 
Thought, 362 

Thunder and Dawn, quoted, 
BO 

Tidd, Jacob, 32-34 
Tilden, J. H., 131 


Tilton, Abigail, 46, 52 
Time, 160 

Times, Kansas City, quoted, 
310, 311 

Titus, H. W., 177 
Tribune , Chicago, 310 
Tridon, Andr£, 358 
Trine, Ralph, 73 
tropo-therapy, 138 
Tucker, Sophie, 61 
Twain, Mark, quoted, 98 

United States Public Health 
Service, 193 
Unity, 64, 74 

Universal Sanipractic Col- 
lege, 126 
Useful Drugs, 285 

vegetarianism, 268-270 
Venus, 5 
Vesalius, 30 

veterans, legislation re care 
of, 207-209 

Veterans’ Bureau, 207, 208 
vibrations, 293 
Viesselius, George Andrew, 
32 , 33 

violet rays, 292, 293 
Virginia State Registrar, 
quoted, 197-200 
Vital-O-Gland Company, 237 
vitamins, 257-259, 271, 272, 
325 

Vita-O-Pathy, 138, 139 
Voliva, Glenn Wilbur, 70, 7 1 
Voronoff, Serge, 233 


383 

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INDEX 


Walker, Tames 317, SSQ 
Walsh, William, 358 
Walton Chemical Company, 
238 

Wanamaker, John A., 369 
Ward, Fanny, 61 
Warfare of Science With 
Theology in Christendom , 
quoted, 44 

Washington, George, 12, 315, 
3 i6 

Washington Board of 
Health, quoted, 192, 193 
water, 279 
Webster, Mrs., 52 
West, Rebecca, quoted, 314, 
315 

Western College of Drugless 
Therapeutics, 133, 134 
Westfield Testing and Re- 
search Laboratories, 261 
White, Andrew D., quoted, 
44 

White, George Starr, 132-134 
White, Stewart Edward, 
quoted, 315 

whole wheat bread, 262-265 


Wiggam, Albert Edwin, 317 
Wilbur, Sybil, 63 
Williams, 163 

Wilshire, Gaylord, 153, 154 
Wilson, Woodrow, 310, 334 
Wolf, Heinrich F., 354, 355 
Woodfin, William H., 125, 
126 

Worcester, Elwood, 7 1 
Worthington Medical Col- 
lege, 35 

Wunderlich, 31 
Wundt, W., 352 

yellow fever, 16, 17 
Young, Brigham, 349 

Zander, Gustav, 164 
Zeissl, M., 232 
Ziegfeld, Florenz, 332 
Zola, Emile, 255 
zodiac therapy, 139 
zonotherapy, 125, 132, 139, 
201 

Zweig, Stefan, 53, 54; quoted, 

54. 57. 344 


384 



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